Chapter 112. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science

Subchapter A. Elementary

 

Statutory Authority: The provisions of this Subchapter A issued under the Texas Education Code, §28.002, unless otherwise noted.

§112.1. Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science, Elementary.

The provisions of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning September 1, 1998, and at that time shall supersede §75.28(a)-(f) of this title (relating to Science).

 

Source: The provisions of this §112.1 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.2. Science, Kindergarten.

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Kindergarten, science introduces the use of simple classroom and field investigations to help students develop the skills of asking questions, gathering information, communicating findings, and making informed decisions. Using their own senses and common tools such as a hand lens, students make observations and collect information. Students also use computers and information technology tools to support their investigations.

(2) As students learn science skills, they identify components of the natural world including rocks, soil, and water. Students observe the seasons and growth as examples of change. In addition, Kindergarten science includes the identification of organisms and objects and their parts. Students learn how to group living organisms and nonliving objects and explore the basic needs of living organisms.

(3) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(4) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(5) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(K.1) Scientific processes. The student participates in classroom and field investigations following home and school safety procedures. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during classroom and field investigations; and

(B) learn how to use and conserve resources and materials.

(K.2) Scientific processes. The student develops abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry in the field and the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A) ask questions about organisms, objects, and events;

(B) plan and conduct simple descriptive investigations;

(C) gather information using simple equipment and tools to extend the senses;

(D) construct reasonable explanations using information; and

(E) communicate findings about simple investigations.

(K.3) Scientific processes. The student knows that information and critical thinking are used in making decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) make decisions using information;

(B) discuss and justify the merits of decisions; and

(C) explain a problem in his/her own words and propose a solution.

(K.4) Scientific processes. The student uses age-appropriate tools and models to verify that organisms and objects and parts of organisms and objects can be observed, described, and measured. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and use senses as tools of observation; and

(B) make observations using tools including hand lenses, balances, cups, bowls, and computers.

(K.5) Science concepts. The student knows that organisms, objects, and events have properties and patterns. The student is expected to:

(A) describe properties of objects and characteristics of organisms;

(B) observe and identify patterns including seasons, growth, and day and night and predict what happens next; and

(C) recognize and copy patterns seen in charts and graphs.

(K.6) Science concepts. The student knows that systems have parts and are composed of organisms and objects. The student is expected to:

(A) sort organisms and objects into groups according to their parts and describe how the groups are formed;

(B) record observations about parts of plants including leaves, roots, stems, and flowers;

(C) record observations about parts of animals including wings, feet, heads, and tails;

(D) identify parts that, when separated from the whole, may result in the part or the whole not working, such as cars without wheels and plants without roots; and

(E) manipulate parts of objects such as toys, vehicles, or construction sets that, when put together, can do things they cannot do by themselves.

(K.7) Science concepts. The student knows that many types of change occur. The student is expected to:

(A) observe, describe, and record changes in size, mass, color, position, quantity, time, temperature, sound, and movement;

(B) identify that heat causes change, such as ice melting or the Sun warming the air and compare objects according to temperature;

(C) observe and record weather changes from day to day and over seasons; and

(D) observe and record stages in the life cycle of organisms in their natural environment.

(K.8) Science concepts. The student knows the difference between living organisms and nonliving objects. The student is expected to:

(A) identify a particular organism or object as living or nonliving; and

(B) group organisms and objects as living or nonliving.

(K.9) Science concepts. The student knows that living organisms have basic needs. The student is expected to:

(A) identify basic needs of living organisms;

(B) give examples of how living organisms depend on each other; and

(C) identify ways that the Earth can provide resources for life.

(K.10) Science concepts. The student knows that the natural world includes rocks, soil, and water. The student is expected to:

(A) observe and describe properties of rocks, soil, and water; and

(B) give examples of ways that rocks, soil, and water are useful.

 

Source: The provisions of this §112.2 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.3. Science, Grade 1.

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 1, the study of science includes simple classroom and field investigations to help students develop the skills of asking questions, gathering information, making measurements using non-standard units, with tools such as a thermometer to extend their senses, constructing explanations, and drawing conclusions. Students also use computers and information technology tools to support their investigations.

(2) As students learn science skills, they identify components of the natural world including rocks, soil, and natural resources. Students observe that heat from the Sun or friction, is an example of something that causes change. In addition, students identify basic needs of living things, explore ways that living things depend on each other, and separate living organisms and nonliving things into groups. Students identify parts that can be put together with other parts to do new things.

(3) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(4) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(5) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1.1) Scientific processes. The student conducts classroom and field investigations following home and school safety procedures. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during classroom and field investigations; and

(B) learn how to use and conserve resources and materials.

(1.2) Scientific processes. The student develops abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry in the field and the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A) ask questions about organisms, objects, and events;

(B) plan and conduct simple descriptive investigations;

(C) gather information using simple equipment and tools to extend the senses;

(D) construct reasonable explanations and draw conclusions; and

(E) communicate explanations about investigations.

(1.3) Scientific processes. The student knows that information and critical thinking are used in making decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) make decisions using information;

(B) discuss and justify the merits of decisions; and

(C) explain a problem in his/her own words and identify a task and solution related to the problem.

(1.4) Scientific processes. The student uses age-appropriate tools and models to verify that organisms and objects and parts of organisms and objects can be observed, described, and measured. The student is expected to:

(A) collect information using tools including hand lenses, clocks, computers, thermometers, and balances;

(B) record and compare collected information; and

(C) measure organisms and objects and parts of organisms and objects, using non-standard units such as paper clips, hands, and pencils.

(1.5) Science concepts. The student knows that organisms, objects, and events have properties and patterns. The student is expected to:

(A) sort objects and events based on properties and patterns; and

(B) identify, predict, and create patterns including those seen in charts, graphs, and numbers.

(1.6) Science concepts. The student knows that systems have parts and are composed of organisms and objects. The student is expected to:

(A) sort organisms and objects according to their parts and characteristics;

(B) observe and describe the parts of plants and animals;

(C) manipulate objects such as toys, vehicles, or construction sets so that the parts are separated from the whole which may result in the part or the whole not working; and

(D) identify parts that, when put together, can do things they cannot do by themselves, such as a working camera with film, a car moving with a motor, and an airplane flying with fuel.

(1.7) Science concepts. The student knows that many types of change occur. The student is expected to:

(A) observe, measure, and record changes in size, mass, color, position, quantity, sound, and movement;

(B) identify and test ways that heat may cause change such as when ice melts;

(C) observe and record changes in weather from day to day and over seasons; and

(D) observe and record changes in the life cycle of organisms.

(1.8) Science concepts. The student distinguishes between living organisms and nonliving objects. The student is expected to:

(A) group living organisms and nonliving objects; and

(B) compare living organisms and nonliving objects.

(1.9) Science concepts. The student knows that living organisms have basic needs. The student is expected to:

(A) identify characteristics of living organisms that allow their basic needs to be met; and

(B) compare and give examples of the ways living organisms depend on each other for their basic needs.

(1.10) Science concepts. The student knows that the natural world includes rocks, soil, and water. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and describe a variety of natural sources of water including streams, lakes, and oceans;

(B) observe and describe differences in rocks and soil samples; and

(C) identify how rocks, soil, and water are used and how they can be recycled.

 

Source: The provisions of this §112.3 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.4. Science, Grade 2.

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 2, the study of science includes planning and conducting simple classroom and field investigations to help students develop the skills of making measurements using standard and non-standard units, using common tools such as rulers and clocks to collect information, classifying and sequencing objects and events, and identifying patterns. Students also use computers and information technology tools to support their investigations.

(2) As students learn science skills, they identify components and processes of the natural world including the water cycle and the use of resources. They observe melting and evaporation, weathering, and the pushing and pulling of objects as examples of change. In addition, students distinguish between characteristics of living organisms and nonliving objects, compare lifelong needs of plants and animals, understand how living organisms depend on their environments, and identify functions of parts of plants and animals.

(3) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(4) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(5) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(2.1) Scientific processes. The student conducts classroom and field investigations following home and school safety procedures. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during classroom and field investigations; and

(B) learn how to use and conserve resources and dispose of materials.

(2.2) Scientific processes. The student develops abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry in the field and the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A) ask questions about organisms, objects, and events;

(B) plan and conduct simple descriptive investigations;

(C) compare results of investigations with what students and scientists know about the world;

(D) gather information using simple equipment and tools to extend the senses;

(E) construct reasonable explanations and draw conclusions using information and prior knowledge; and

(F) communicate explanations about investigations.

(2.3) Scientific processes. The student knows that information and critical thinking are used in making decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) make decisions using information;

(B) discuss and justify the merits of decisions; and

(C) explain a problem in his/her own words and identify a task and solution related to the problem.

(2.4) Scientific processes. The student uses age-appropriate tools and models to verify that organisms and objects and parts of organisms and objects can be observed, described, and measured. The student is expected to:

(A) collect information using tools including rulers, meter sticks, measuring cups, clocks, hand lenses, computers, thermometers, and balances; and

(B) measure and compare organisms and objects and parts of organisms and objects, using standard and non-standard units.

(2.5) Science concepts. The student knows that organisms, objects, and events have properties and patterns. The student is expected to:

(A) classify and sequence organisms, objects, and events based on properties and patterns; and

(B) identify, predict, replicate, and create patterns including those seen in charts, graphs, and numbers.

(2.6) Science concepts. The student knows that systems have parts and are composed of organisms and objects. The student is expected to:

(A) manipulate, predict, and identify parts that, when separated from the whole, may result in the part or the whole not working, such as flashlights without batteries and plants without leaves;

(B) manipulate, predict, and identify parts that, when put together, can do things they cannot do by themselves, such as a guitar and guitar strings;

(C) observe and record the functions of plant parts; and

(D) observe and record the functions of animal parts.

(2.7) Science concepts. The student knows that many types of change occur. The student is expected to:

(A) observe, measure, record, analyze, predict, and illustrate changes in size, mass, temperature, color, position, quantity, sound, and movement;

(B) identify, predict, and test uses of heat to cause change such as melting and evaporation;

(C) demonstrate a change in the motion of an object by giving the object a push or a pull; and

(D) observe, measure, and record changes in weather, the night sky, and seasons.

(2.8) Science concepts. The student distinguishes between living organisms and nonliving objects. The student is expected to:

(A) identify characteristics of living organisms; and

(B) identify characteristics of nonliving objects.

(2.9) Science concepts. The student knows that living organisms have basic needs. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the external characteristics of different kinds of plants and animals that allow their needs to be met; and

(B) compare and give examples of the ways living organisms depend on each other and on their environments.

(2.10) Science concepts. The student knows that the natural world includes rocks, soil, water, and gases of the atmosphere. The student is expected to:

(A) describe and illustrate the water cycle; and

(B) identify uses of natural resources.

 

Source: The provisions of this §112.4 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.5. Science, Grade 3.

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 3, the study of science includes planning and implementing simple classroom and field investigations to develop the skills of collecting information using tools such as a microscope, making inferences, communicating conclusions, and making informed decisions. Students also use computers and information technology tools to support scientific investigations.

(2) As students learn science skills, they identify the importance of components of the natural world including rocks, soils, water, and atmospheric gases. They observe the direction and position of objects as they are pushed and pulled, and movement of the Earth's surface as examples of change caused by a force. Students investigate magnetism and gravity. In addition, students explore organisms' needs, habitats, and competition with other organisms within their ecosystem.

(3) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(4) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(5) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(3.1) Scientific processes. The student conducts field and laboratory investigations following home and school safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(3.2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific inquiry methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement descriptive investigations including asking well-defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting and using equipment and technology;

(B) collect information by observing and measuring;

(C) analyze and interpret information to construct reasonable explanations from direct and indirect evidence;

(D) communicate valid conclusions; and

(E) construct simple graphs, tables, maps, and charts to organize, examine and evaluate information.

(3.3) Scientific processes. The student knows that information, critical thinking, and scientific problem solving are used in making decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) draw inferences based on information related to promotional materials for products and services;

(C) represent the natural world using models and identify their limitations;

(D) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment; and

(E) connect Grade 3 science concepts with the history of science and contributions of scientists.

(3.4) Scientific processes. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

(A) collect and analyze information using tools including calculators, microscopes, cameras, safety goggles, sound recorders, clocks, computers, thermometers, hand lenses, meter sticks, rulers, balances, magnets, and compasses; and

(B) demonstrate that repeated investigations may increase the reliability of results.

(3.5) Science concepts. The student knows that systems exist in the world. The student is expected to:

(A) observe and identify simple systems such as a sprouted seed and a wooden toy car; and

(B) observe a simple system and describe the role of various parts such as a
yo-yo and string.

(3.6) Science concepts. The student knows that forces cause change. The student is expected to:

(A) measure and record changes in the position and direction of the motion of an object to which a force such as a push or pull has been applied; and

(B) identify that the surface of the Earth can be changed by forces such as earthquakes and glaciers.

(3.7) Science concepts. The student knows that matter has physical properties. The student is expected to:

(A) gather information including temperature, magnetism, hardness, and mass using appropriate tools to identify physical properties of matter; and

(B) identify matter as liquids, solids, and gases.

(3.8) Science concepts. The student knows that living organisms need food, water, light, air, a way to dispose of waste, and an environment in which to live. The student is expected to:

(A) observe and describe the habitats of organisms within an ecosystem;

(B) observe and identify organisms with similar needs that compete with one another for resources such as oxygen, water, food, or space;

(C) describe environmental changes in which some organisms would thrive, become ill, or perish; and

(D) describe how living organisms modify their physical environment to meet their needs such as beavers building a dam or humans building a home.

(3.9) Science concepts. The student knows that species have different adaptations that help them survive and reproduce in their environment. The student is expected to:

(A) observe and identify characteristics among species that allow each to survive and reproduce; and

(B) analyze how adaptive characteristics help individuals within a species to survive and reproduce.

(3.10) Science concepts. The student knows that many likenesses between offspring and parents are inherited from the parents. The student is expected to:

(A) identify some inherited traits of plants; and

(B) identify some inherited traits of animals.

(3.11) Science concepts. The student knows that the natural world includes earth materials and objects in the sky. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and describe the importance of earth materials including rocks, soil, water, and gases of the atmosphere in the local area and classify them as renewable, nonrenewable, or inexhaustible resources;

(B) identify and record properties of soils such as color and texture, capacity to retain water, and ability to support the growth of plants;

(C) identify the planets in our solar system and their position in relation to the Sun; and

(D) describe the characteristics of the Sun.

 

Source: The provisions of this §112.5 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.6. Science, Grade 4.

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 4, the study of science includes planning and implementing field and laboratory investigations using scientific methods, analyzing information, making informed decisions, and using tools such as compasses to collect information. Students also use computers and information technology tools to support scientific investigations.

(2) As students learn science skills, they identify components and processes of the natural world including properties of soil, effects of the oceans on land, and the role of the Sun as our major source of energy. In addition, students identify the physical properties of matter and observe the addition or reduction of heat as an example of what can cause changes in states of matter.

(3) Students learn the roles of living and nonliving components of simple systems and investigate differences between learned characteristics and inherited traits. They learn that adaptations of organisms that lived in the past may have increased some species' ability to survive.

(4) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(5) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(6) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(4.1) Scientific processes. The student conducts field and laboratory investigations following home and school safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(4.2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific inquiry methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement descriptive investigations including asking well-defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting and using equipment and technology;

(B) collect information by observing and measuring;

(C) analyze and interpret information to construct reasonable explanations from direct and indirect evidence;

(D) communicate valid conclusions; and

(E) construct simple graphs, tables, maps, and charts to organize, examine, and evaluate information.

(4.3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) draw inferences based on information related to promotional materials for products and services;

(C) represent the natural world using models and identify their limitations;

(D) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment; and

(E) connect Grade 4 science concepts with the history of science and contributions of scientists.

(4.4) Scientific processes. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

(A) collect and analyze information using tools including calculators, safety goggles, microscopes, cameras, sound recorders, computers, hand lenses, rulers, thermometers, meter sticks, timing devices, balances, and compasses; and

(B) demonstrate that repeated investigations may increase the reliability of results.

(4.5) Science concepts. The student knows that complex systems may not work if some parts are removed. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and describe the roles of some organisms in living systems such as plants in a schoolyard, and parts in nonliving systems such as a light bulb in a circuit; and

(B) predict and draw conclusions about what happens when part of a system is removed.

(4.6) Science concepts. The student knows that change can create recognizable patterns. The student is expected to:

(A) identify patterns of change such as in weather, metamorphosis, and objects in the sky;

(B) illustrate that certain characteristics of an object can remain constant even when the object is rotated like a spinning top, translated like a skater moving in a straight line, or reflected on a smooth surface; and

(C) use reflections to verify that a natural object has symmetry.

(4.7) Science concepts. The student knows that matter has physical properties. The student is expected to:

(A) observe and record changes in the states of matter caused by the addition or reduction of heat; and

(B) conduct tests, compare data, and draw conclusions about physical properties of matter including states of matter, conduction, density, and buoyancy.

(4.8) Science concepts. The student knows that adaptations may increase the survival of members of a species. The student is expected to:

(A) identify characteristics that allow members within a species to survive and reproduce;

(B) compare adaptive characteristics of various species; and

(C) identify the kinds of species that lived in the past and compare them to existing species.

(4.9) Science concepts. The student knows that many likenesses between offspring and parents are inherited or learned. The student is expected to:

(A) distinguish between inherited traits and learned characteristics; and

(B) identify and provide examples of inherited traits and learned characteristics.

(4.10) Science concepts. The student knows that certain past events affect present and future events. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and observe effects of events that require time for changes to be noticeable including growth, erosion, dissolving, weathering, and flow; and

(B) draw conclusions about "what happened before" using fossils or charts and tables.

(4.11) Science concepts. The student knows that the natural world includes earth materials and objects in the sky. The student is expected to:

(A) test properties of soils including texture, capacity to retain water, and ability to support life;

(B) summarize the effects of the oceans on land; and

(C) identify the Sun as the major source of energy for the Earth and understand its role in the growth of plants, in the creation of winds, and in the water cycle.

 

Source: The provisions of this §112.6 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.7. Science, Grade 5.

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 5, the study of science includes planning and implementing field and laboratory investigations using scientific methods, analyzing information, making informed decisions, and using tools such as nets and cameras to collect and record information. Students also use computers and information technology tools to support scientific investigations.

(2) As students learn science skills, they identify structures and functions of Earth systems including the crust, mantle, and core and the effect of weathering on landforms. Students learn that growth, erosion, and dissolving are examples of how some past events have affected present events. Students learn about magnetism, physical states of matter, and conductivity as properties that are used to classify matter. In addition, students learn that light, heat, and electricity are all forms of energy.

(3) Students learn that adaptations can improve the survival of members of a species, and they explore an organism's niche within an ecosystem. Students continue the study of organisms by exploring a variety of traits that are inherited by offspring from their parents and study examples of learned characteristics.

(4) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(5) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(6) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(5.1) Scientific processes. The student conducts field and laboratory investigations following home and school safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(5.2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement descriptive and simple experimental investigations including asking well-defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting and using equipment and technology;

(B) collect information by observing and measuring;

(C) analyze and interpret information to construct reasonable explanations from direct and indirect evidence;

(D) communicate valid conclusions; and

(E) construct simple graphs, tables, maps, and charts using tools including computers to organize, examine, and evaluate information.

(5.3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) draw inferences based on information related to promotional materials for products and services;

(C) represent the natural world using models and identify their limitations;

(D) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment; and

(E) connect Grade 5 science concepts with the history of science and contributions of scientists.

(5.4) Scientific processes. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

(A) collect and analyze information using tools including calculators, microscopes, cameras, sound recorders, computers, hand lenses, rulers, thermometers, compasses, balances, hot plates, meter sticks, timing devices, magnets, collecting nets, and safety goggles; and

(B) demonstrate that repeated investigations may increase the reliability of results.

(5.5) Science concepts. The student knows that a system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. The student is expected to:

(A) describe some cycles, structures, and processes that are found in a simple system; and

(B) describe some interactions that occur in a simple system.

(5.6) Science concepts. The student knows that some change occurs in cycles. The student is expected to:

(A) identify events and describe changes that occur on a regular basis such as in daily, weekly, lunar, and seasonal cycles;

(B) identify the significance of the water, carbon, and nitrogen cycles; and

(C) describe and compare life cycles of plants and animals.

(5.7) Science concepts. The student knows that matter has physical properties. The student is expected to:

(A) classify matter based on its physical properties including magnetism, physical state, and the ability to conduct or insulate heat, electricity, and sound;

(B) demonstrate that some mixtures maintain the physical properties of their ingredients;

(C) identify changes that can occur in the physical properties of the ingredients of solutions such as dissolving sugar in water; and

(D) observe and measure characteristic properties of substances that remain constant such as boiling points and melting points.

(5.8) Science concepts. The student knows that energy occurs in many forms. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate among forms of energy including light, heat, electrical, and solar energy;

(B) identify and demonstrate everyday examples of how light is reflected, such as from tinted windows, and refracted, such as in cameras, telescopes, and eyeglasses;

(C) demonstrate that electricity can flow in a circuit and can produce heat, light, sound, and magnetic effects; and

(D) verify that vibrating an object can produce sound.

(5.9) Science concepts. The student knows that adaptations may increase the survival of members of a species. The student is expected to:

(A) compare the adaptive characteristics of species that improve their ability to survive and reproduce in an ecosystem;

(B) analyze and describe adaptive characteristics that result in an organism's unique niche in an ecosystem; and

(C) predict some adaptive characteristics required for survival and reproduction by an organism in an ecosystem.

(5.10) Science concepts. The student knows that likenesses between offspring and parents can be inherited or learned. The student is expected to:

(A) identify traits that are inherited from parent to offspring in plants and animals; and

(B) give examples of learned characteristics that result from the influence of the environment.

(5.11) Science concepts. The student knows that certain past events affect present and future events. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and observe actions that require time for changes to be measurable, including growth, erosion, dissolving, weathering, and flow;

(B) draw conclusions about "what happened before" using data such as from tree-growth rings and sedimentary rock sequences; and

(C) identify past events that led to the formation of the Earth's renewable, non-renewable, and inexhaustible resources.

(5.12) Science concepts. The student knows that the natural world includes earth materials and objects in the sky. The student is expected to:

(A) interpret how land forms are the result of a combination of constructive and destructive forces such as deposition of sediment and weathering;

(B) describe processes responsible for the formation of coal, oil, gas, and minerals;

(C) identify the physical characteristics of the Earth and compare them to the physical characteristics of the moon; and

(D) identify gravity as the force that keeps planets in orbit around the Sun and the moon in orbit around the Earth.

Source: The provisions of this §112.7 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

Chapter 112. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science

Subchapter B. Middle School

Statutory Authority: The provisions of this Subchapter B issued under the Texas Education Code, §28.002, unless otherwise noted.

§112.21. Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science, Middle School.

The provisions of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning September 1, 1998, and at that time shall supersede §75.28(g) and §75.44 of this title (relating to Science).

 

Source: The provisions of this §112.21 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.22. Science, Grade 6.

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 6, the study of science includes conducting field and laboratory investigations using scientific methods, analyzing data, making informed decisions, and using tools such as beakers, test tubes, and spring scales to collect, analyze, and record information. Students also use computers and information technology tools to support scientific investigations.

(2) As students learn science skills, they identify components of the solar system including the Sun, planets, moon, and asteroids and learn how seasons and the length of the day are caused by the tilt and rotation of the Earth as it orbits the Sun. Students investigate the rock cycle and identify sources of water in a watershed. In addition, students identify changes in objects including position, direction, and speed when acted upon by a force.

(3) Students classify substances by their chemical properties and identify the water cycle and decay of biomass as examples of the interactions between matter and energy. They identify life processes and the relationships between structure and function of organisms.

(4) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(5) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(6) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(6.1) Scientific processes. The student conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(6.2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific inquiry methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting and using equipment and technology;

(B) collect data by observing and measuring;

(C) analyze and interpret information to construct reasonable explanations from direct and indirect evidence;

(D) communicate valid conclusions; and

(E) construct graphs, tables, maps, and charts using tools including computers to organize, examine, and evaluate data.

(6.3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(C) represent the natural world using models and identify their limitations;

(D) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment; and

(E) connect Grade 6 science concepts with the history of science and contributions of scientists.

(6.4) Scientific processes. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

(A) collect, analyze, and record information using tools including beakers, petri dishes, meter sticks, graduated cylinders, weather instruments, timing devices, hot plates, test tubes, safety goggles, spring scales, magnets, balances, microscopes, telescopes, thermometers, calculators, field equipment, compasses, computers, and computer probes; and

(B) identify patterns in collected information using percent, average, range, and frequency.

(6.5) Scientific concepts. The student knows that systems may combine with other systems to form a larger system. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and describe a system that results from the combination of two or more systems such as in the solar system; and

(B) describe how the properties of a system are different from the properties of its parts.

(6.6) Science concepts. The student knows that there is a relationship between force and motion. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and describe the changes in position, direction of motion, and speed of an object when acted upon by force;

(B) demonstrate that changes in motion can be measured and graphically represented; and

(C) identify forces that shape features of the Earth including uplifting, movement of water, and volcanic activity.

(6.7) Science concepts. The student knows that substances have physical and chemical properties. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate that new substances can be made when two or more substances are chemically combined and compare the properties of the new substances to the original substances; and

(B) classify substances by their physical and chemical properties.

(6.8) Science concepts. The student knows that complex interactions occur between matter and energy. The student is expected to:

(A) define matter and energy;

(B) explain and illustrate the interactions between matter and energy in the water cycle and in the decay of biomass such as in a compost bin; and

(C) describe energy flow in living systems including food chains and food webs.

(6.9) Science concepts. The student knows that obtaining, transforming, and distributing energy affects the environment. The student is expected to:

(A) identify energy transformations occurring during the production of energy for human use such as electrical energy to heat energy or heat energy to electrical energy;

(B) compare methods used for transforming energy in devices such as water heaters, cooling systems, or hydroelectric and wind power plants; and

(C) research and describe energy types from their source to their use and determine if the type is renewable, non-renewable, or inexhaustible.

(6.10) Science concepts. The student knows the relationship between structure and function in living systems. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate between structure and function;

(B) determine that all organisms are composed of cells that carry on functions to sustain life; and

(C) identify how structure complements function at different levels of organization including organs, organ systems, organisms, and populations.

(6.11) Science concepts. The student knows that traits of species can change through generations and that the instructions for traits are contained in the genetic material of the organisms. The student is expected to:

(A) identify some changes in traits that can occur over several generations through natural occurrence and selective breeding;

(B) identify cells as structures containing genetic material; and

(C) interpret the role of genes in inheritance.

(6.12) Science concepts. The student knows that the responses of organisms are caused by internal or external stimuli. The student is expected to:

(A) identify responses in organisms to internal stimuli such as hunger or thirst;

(B) identify responses in organisms to external stimuli such as the presence or absence of heat or light; and

(C) identify components of an ecosystem to which organisms may respond.

(6.13) Science concepts. The student knows components of our solar system. The student is expected to:

(A) identify characteristics of objects in our solar system including the Sun, planets, meteorites, comets, asteroids, and moons; and

(B) describe types of equipment and transportation needed for space travel.

(6.14) Science concepts. The student knows the structures and functions of Earth systems. The student is expected to:

(A) summarize the rock cycle;

(B) identify relationships between groundwater and surface water in a watershed; and

(C) describe components of the atmosphere, including oxygen, nitrogen, and water vapor, and identify the role of atmospheric movement in weather change.

 

Source: The provisions of this §112.22 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.23. Science, Grade 7.

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 7, the study of science includes conducting field and laboratory investigations using scientific methods, critical-thinking, problem-solving, and using tools such as weather instruments and calculators to collect and analyze information to explain a phenomenon. Students also use computers and information technology tools to support scientific investigations.

(2) As students learn science skills, they identify gravity and phases of the moon as components of the solar system and explore the effects of events such as hurricanes on the Earth. Students use pulleys and levers to understand the relationship between force and motion. Students then relate the concept to processes in the human organism such as the movement of blood. In addition, students study chemical and physical properties of substances by examining the tarnishing of metal or burning of wood as examples of chemical processes, and by identifying physical properties used to place elements on the periodic table.

(3) Students learn about kinetic and potential energy and identify photosynthesis as an example of the transformation of radiant energy from the Sun into chemical energy for use by plants. Students investigate systems in humans to identify their structures and functions. Student compare asexual and sexual reproduction to illustrate that genetic materials are responsible for both dominant and recessive traits in organisms.

(4) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(5) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(6) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(7.1) Scientific processes. The student conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(7.2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific inquiry methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting and using equipment and technology;

(B) collect data by observing and measuring;

(C) organize, analyze, make inferences, and predict trends from direct and indirect evidence;

(D) communicate valid conclusions; and

(E) construct graphs, tables, maps, and charts using tools including computers to organize, examine, and evaluate data.

(7.3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(C) represent the natural world using models and identify their limitations;

(D) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment; and

(F) connect Grade 7 science concepts with the history of science and contributions of scientists.

(7.4) Scientific processes. The student knows how to use tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

(A) collect, analyze, and record information to explain a phenomenon using tools including beakers, petri dishes, meter sticks, graduated cylinders, weather instruments, hot plates, dissecting equipment, test tubes, safety goggles, spring scales, balances, microscopes, telescopes, thermometers, calculators, field equipment, computers, computer probes, timing devices, magnets, and compasses; and

(B) collect and analyze information to recognize patterns such as rates of change.

(7.5) Science concepts. The student knows that an equilibrium of a system may change. The student is expected to:

(A) describe how systems may reach an equilibrium such as when a volcano erupts; and

(B) observe and describe the role of ecological succession in maintaining an equilibrium in an ecosystem.

(7.6) Science concepts. The student knows that there is a relationship between force and motion. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate basic relationships between force and motion using simple machines including pulleys and levers;

(B) demonstrate that an object will remain at rest or move at a constant speed and in a straight line if it is not being subjected to an unbalanced force; and

(C) relate forces to basic processes in living organisms including the flow of blood and the emergence of seedlings.

(7.7) Science concepts. The student knows that substances have physical and chemical properties. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and demonstrate everyday examples of chemical phenomena such as rusting and tarnishing of metals and burning of wood;

(B) describe physical properties of elements and identify how they are used to position an element on the periodic table; and

(C) recognize that compounds are composed of elements.

(7.8) Science concepts. The student knows that complex interactions occur between matter and energy. The student is expected to:

(A) illustrate examples of potential and kinetic energy in everyday life such as objects at rest, movement of geologic faults, and falling water; and

(B) identify that radiant energy from the Sun is transferred into chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis.

(7.9) Science concepts. The student knows the relationship between structure and function in living systems. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the systems of the human organism and describe their functions; and

(B) describe how organisms maintain stable internal conditions while living in changing external environments.

(7.10) Science concepts. The student knows that species can change through generations and that the instructions for traits are contained in the genetic material of the organisms. The student is expected to:

(A) identify that sexual reproduction results in more diverse offspring and asexual reproduction results in more uniform offspring;

(B) compare traits of organisms of different species that enhance their survival and reproduction; and

(C) distinguish between dominant and recessive traits and recognize that inherited traits of an individual are contained in genetic material.

(7.11) Science concepts. The student knows that the responses of organisms are caused by internal or external stimuli. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze changes in organisms such as a fever or vomiting that may result from internal stimuli; and

(B) identify responses in organisms to external stimuli found in the environment such as the presence or absence of light.

(7.12) Science concepts. The student knows that there is a relationship between organisms and the environment. The student is expected to:

(A) identify components of an ecosystem;

(B) observe and describe how organisms including producers, consumers, and decomposers live together in an environment and use existing resources;

(C) describe how different environments support different varieties of organisms; and

(D) observe and describe the role of ecological succession in ecosystems.

(7.13) Science concepts. The student knows components of our solar system. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and illustrate how the tilt of the Earth on its axis as it rotates and revolves around the Sun causes changes in seasons and the length of a day; and

(B) relate the Earth's movement and the moon's orbit to the observed cyclical phases of the moon.

(7.14) Science concepts. The student knows that natural events and human activity can alter Earth systems. The student is expected to:

(A) describe and predict the impact of different catastrophic events on the Earth;

(B) analyze effects of regional erosional deposition and weathering; and

(C) make inferences and draw conclusions about effects of human activity on Earth's renewable, non-renewable, and inexhaustible resources.

 

Source: The provisions of this §112.23 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.24. Science, Grade 8.

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 8, the study of science includes planning and conducting field and laboratory investigations using scientific methods, analyzing data, critical-thinking, scientific problem-solving, and using tools such as telescopes to collect and analyze information. Students also use computers and information technology tools to support scientific investigations.

(2) As students learn science skills, they identify the roles of both human activities and natural events in altering Earth systems. Students learn that stars and galaxies are part of the universe, identify light years as a way to describe distance, and learn about scientific theories of the origin of the universe. Cycles within Earth systems are studied as students learn about lunar cycles and the rock cycle.

(3) Students examine information on the periodic table to recognize that elements are grouped into families. In addition, students demonstrate that exothermic and endothermic chemical reactions indicate that energy is lost or gained during a chemical reaction. Interactions in matter and energy are explored in solar, weather, and ocean systems. Students identify the origin of waves and investigate their ability to travel through different media.

(4) Students predict possible outcomes that result from different genetic combinations and explore the extinction of some species.

(5) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(6) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(7) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(8.1) Scientific processes. The student conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(8.2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific inquiry methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting and using equipment and technology;

(B) collect data by observing and measuring;

(C) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from direct and indirect evidence;

(D) communicate valid conclusions; and

(E) construct graphs, tables, maps, and charts using tools including computers to organize, examine, and evaluate data.

(8.3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(C) represent the natural world using models and identify their limitations;

(D) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment; and

(E) connect Grade 8 science concepts with the history of science and contributions of scientists.

(8.4) Scientific processes. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

(A) collect, record, and analyze information using tools including beakers, petri dishes, meter sticks, graduated cylinders, weather instruments, hot plates, dissecting equipment, test tubes, safety goggles, spring scales, balances, microscopes, telescopes, thermometers, calculators, field equipment, computers, computer probes, water test kits, and timing devices; and

(B) extrapolate from collected information to make predictions.

(8.5) Scientific processes. The student knows that relationships exist between science and technology. The student is expected to:

(A) identify a design problem and propose a solution;

(B) design and test a model to solve the problem; and

(C) evaluate the model and make recommendations for improving the model.

(8.6) Science concepts. The student knows that interdependence occurs among living systems. The student is expected to:

(A) describe interactions among systems in the human organism;

(B) identify feedback mechanisms that maintain equilibrium of systems such as body temperature, turgor pressure, and chemical reactions; and

(C) describe interactions within ecosystems.

(8.7) Science concepts. The student knows that there is a relationship between force and motion. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate how unbalanced forces cause changes in the speed or direction of an object's motion; and

(B) recognize that waves are generated and can travel through different media.

(8.8) Science concepts. The student knows that matter is composed of atoms. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the structure and parts of an atom; and

(B) identify the properties of an atom including mass and electrical charge.

(8.9) Science concepts. The student knows that substances have chemical and physical properties. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate that substances may react chemically to form new substances;

(B) interpret information on the periodic table to understand that physical properties are used to group elements;

(C) recognize the importance of formulas and equations to express what happens in a chemical reaction; and

(D) identify that physical and chemical properties influence the development and application of everyday materials such as cooking surfaces, insulation, adhesives, and plastics.

(8.10) Science concepts. The student knows that complex interactions occur between matter and energy. The student is expected to:

(A) illustrate interactions between matter and energy including specific heat;

(B) describe interactions among solar, weather, and ocean systems; and

(C) identify and demonstrate that loss or gain of heat energy occurs during exothermic and endothermic chemical reactions.

(8.11) Science concepts. The student knows that traits of species can change through generations and that the instructions for traits are contained in the genetic material of the organisms. The student is expected to:

(A) identify that change in environmental conditions can affect the survival of individuals and of species;

(B) distinguish between inherited traits and other characteristics that result from interactions with the environment; and

(C) make predictions about possible outcomes of various genetic combinations of inherited characteristics.

(8.12) Science concepts. The student knows that cycles exist in Earth systems. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze and predict the sequence of events in the lunar and rock cycles;

(B) relate the role of oceans to climatic changes; and

(C) predict the results of modifying the Earth's nitrogen, water, and carbon cycles.

(8.13) Science concepts. The student knows characteristics of the universe. The student is expected to:

(A) describe characteristics of the universe such as stars and galaxies;

(B) explain the use of light years to describe distances in the universe; and

(C) research and describe historical scientific theories of the origin of the universe.

(8.14) Science concepts. The student knows that natural events and human activities can alter Earth systems. The student is expected to:

(A) predict land features resulting from gradual changes such as mountain building, beach erosion, land subsidence, and continental drift;

(B) analyze how natural or human events may have contributed to the extinction of some species; and

(C) describe how human activities have modified soil, water, and air quality.

 

Source: The provisions of this §112.24 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

Chapter 112. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science

Subchapter C. High School

Statutory Authority: The provisions of this Subchapter C issued under the Texas Education Code, §28.002, unless otherwise noted.

§112.41. Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science, High School.

The provisions of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning September 1, 1998, and at that time shall supersede §75.64 of this title (relating to Science).

 

Source: The provisions of this §112.41 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.42. Integrated Physics and Chemistry.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Prerequisites: none. This course is recommended for students in Grades 9 or 10.

(b) Introduction.

(1) In Integrated Physics and Chemistry, students conduct field and laboratory investigations, use scientific methods during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical-thinking and scientific problem-solving. This course integrates the disciplines of physics and chemistry in the following topics: motion, waves, energy transformations, properties of matter, changes in matter, and solution chemistry.

(2) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(3) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(4) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

(B) collect data and make measurements with precision;

(C) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and

(D) communicate valid conclusions.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(C) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment;

(D) describe connections between physics and chemistry, and future careers; and

(E) research and describe the history of physics, chemistry, and contributions of scientists.

(4) Science concepts. The student knows concepts of force and motion evident in everyday life. The student is expected to:

(A) calculate speed, momentum, acceleration, work, and power in systems such as in the human body, moving toys, and machines;

(B) investigate and describe applications of Newton's laws such as in vehicle restraints, sports activities, geological processes, and satellite orbits;

(C) analyze the effects caused by changing force or distance in simple machines as demonstrated in household devices, the human body, and vehicles; and

(D) investigate and demonstrate mechanical advantage and efficiency of various machines such as levers, motors, wheels and axles, pulleys, and ramps.

(5) Science concepts. The student knows the effects of waves on everyday life. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate wave types and their characteristics through a variety of activities such as modeling with ropes and coils, activating tuning forks, and interpreting data on seismic waves;

(B) demonstrate wave interactions including interference, polarization, reflection, refraction, and resonance within various materials;

(C) identify uses of electromagnetic waves in various technological applications such as fiber optics, optical scanners, and microwaves; and

(D) demonstrate the application of acoustic principles such as in echolocation, musical instruments, noise pollution, and sonograms.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows the impact of energy transformations in everyday life. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the law of conservation of energy;

(B) investigate and demonstrate the movement of heat through solids, liquids, and gases by convection, conduction, and radiation;

(C) analyze the efficiency of energy conversions that are responsible for the production of electricity such as from radiant, nuclear, and geothermal sources, fossil fuels such as coal, gas, oil, and the movement of water or wind;

(D) investigate and compare economic and environmental impacts of using various energy sources such as rechargeable or disposable batteries and solar cells;

(E) measure the thermal and electrical conductivity of various materials and explain results;

(F) investigate and compare series and parallel circuits;

(G) analyze the relationship between an electric current and the strength of its magnetic field using simple electromagnets; and

(H) analyze the effects of heating and cooling processes in systems such as weather, living, and mechanical.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows relationships exist between properties of matter and its components. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate and identify properties of fluids including density, viscosity, and buoyancy;

(B) research and describe the historical development of the atomic theory;

(C) identify constituents of various materials or objects such as metal salts, light sources, fireworks displays, and stars using spectral-analysis techniques;

(D) relate the chemical behavior of an element including bonding, to its placement on the periodic table; and

(E) classify samples of matter from everyday life as being elements, compounds, or mixtures.

(8) Science concepts. The student knows that changes in matter affect everyday life. The student is expected to:

(A) distinguish between physical and chemical changes in matter such as oxidation, digestion, changes in states, and stages in the rock cycle;

(B) analyze energy changes that accompany chemical reactions such as those occurring in heat packs, cold packs, and glow sticks to classify them as endergonic or exergonic reactions;

(C) investigate and identify the law of conservation of mass;

(D) describe types of nuclear reactions such as fission and fusion and their roles in applications such as medicine and energy production; and

(E) research and describe the environmental and economic impact of the end-products of chemical reactions.

(9) Science concepts. The student knows how solution chemistry is a part of everyday life. The student is expected to:

(A) relate the structure of water to its function as the universal solvent;

(B) relate the concentration of ions in a solution to physical and chemical properties such as pH, electrolytic behavior, and reactivity;

(C) simulate the effects of acid rain on soil, buildings, statues, or microorganisms;

(D) demonstrate how various factors influence solubility including temperature, pressure, and nature of the solute and solvent; and

(E) demonstrate how factors such as particle size, influence the rate of dissolving.

 

Source: The provisions of this §112.42 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.43. Biology.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Prerequisites: none. This course is recommended for students in Grades 9, 10, or 11.

(b) Introduction.

(1) In Biology, students conduct field and laboratory investigations, use scientific methods during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical-thinking and scientific problem-solving. Students in Biology study a variety of topics that include: structures and functions of cells and viruses; growth and development of organisms; cells, tissues, and organs; nucleic acids and genetics; biological evolution; taxonomy; metabolism and energy transfers in living organisms; living systems; homeostasis; ecosystems; and plants and the environment.

(2) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(3) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(4) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

(B) collect data and make measurements with precision;

(C) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and

(D) communicate valid conclusions.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) evaluate promotional claims that relate to biological issues such as product labeling and advertisements;

(C) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment;

(D) describe the connection between biology and future careers;

(E) evaluate models according to their adequacy in representing biological objects or events; and

(F) research and describe the history of biology and contributions of scientists.

(4) Science concepts. The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things and have specialized parts that perform specific functions, and that viruses are different from cells and have different properties and functions. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the parts of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells;

(B) investigate and identify cellular processes including homeostasis, permeability, energy production, transportation of molecules, disposal of wastes, function of cellular parts, and synthesis of new molecules;

(C) compare the structures and functions of viruses to cells and describe the role of viruses in causing diseases and conditions such as acquired immune deficiency syndrome, common colds, smallpox, influenza, and warts; and

(D) identify and describe the role of bacteria in maintaining health such as in digestion and in causing diseases such as in streptococcus infections and diphtheria.

(5) Science concepts. The student knows how an organism grows and how specialized cells, tissues, and organs develop. The student is expected to:

(A) compare cells from different parts of plants and animals including roots, stems, leaves, epithelia, muscles, and bones to show specialization of structure and function;

(B) identify cell differentiation in the development of organisms; and

(C) sequence the levels of organization in multicellular organisms to relate the parts to each other and to the whole.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows the structures and functions of nucleic acids in the mechanisms of genetics. The student is expected to:

(A) describe components of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and illustrate how information for specifying the traits of an organism is carried in the DNA;

(B) explain replication, transcription, and translation using models of DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA);

(C) identify and illustrate how changes in DNA cause mutations and evaluate the significance of these changes;

(D) compare genetic variations observed in plants and animals;

(E) compare the processes of mitosis and meiosis and their significance to sexual and asexual reproduction; and

(F) identify and analyze karyotypes.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows the theory of biological evolution. The student is expected to:

(A) identify evidence of change in species using fossils, DNA sequences, anatomical similarities, physiological similarities, and embryology; and

(B) illustrate the results of natural selection in speciation, diversity, phylogeny, adaptation, behavior, and extinction.

(8) Science concepts. The student knows applications of taxonomy and can identify its limitations. The student is expected to:

(A) collect and classify organisms at several taxonomic levels such as species, phylum, and kingdom using dichotomous keys;

(B) analyze relationships among organisms and develop a model of a hierarchical classification system based on similarities and differences using taxonomic nomenclature; and

(C) identify characteristics of kingdoms including monerans, protists, fungi, plants, and animals.

(9) Science concepts. The student knows metabolic processes and energy transfers that occur in living organisms. The student is expected to:

(A) compare the structures and functions of different types of biomolecules such as carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids;

(B) compare the energy flow in photosynthesis to the energy flow in cellular respiration;

(C) investigate and identify the effects of enzymes on food molecules; and

(D) analyze the flow of matter and energy through different trophic levels and between organisms and the physical environment.

(10) Science concepts. The student knows that, at all levels of nature, living systems are found within other living systems, each with its own boundary and limits. The student is expected to:

(A) interpret the functions of systems in organisms including circulatory, digestive, nervous, endocrine, reproductive, integumentary, skeletal, respiratory, muscular, excretory, and immune;

(B) compare the interrelationships of organ systems to each other and to the body as a whole; and

(C) analyze and identify characteristics of plant systems and subsystems.

(11) Science concepts. The student knows that organisms maintain homeostasis. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and describe the relationships between internal feedback mechanisms in the maintenance of homeostasis;

(B) investigate and identify how organisms, including humans, respond to external stimuli;

(C) analyze the importance of nutrition, environmental conditions, and physical exercise on health; and

(D) summarize the role of microorganisms in maintaining and disrupting equilibrium including diseases in plants and animals and decay in an ecosystem.

(12) Science concepts. The student knows that interdependence and interactions occur within an ecosystem. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the flow of energy through various cycles including the carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and water cycles;

(B) interpret interactions among organisms exhibiting predation, parasitism, commensalism, and mutualism;

(C) compare variations, tolerances, and adaptations of plants and animals in different biomes;

(D) identify and illustrate that long-term survival of species is dependent on a resource base that may be limited; and

(E) investigate and explain the interactions in an ecosystem including food chains, food webs, and food pyramids.

(13) Science concepts. The student knows the significance of plants in the environment. The student is expected to:

(A) evaluate the significance of structural and physiological adaptations of plants to their environments; and

(B) survey and identify methods of reproduction, growth, and development of various types of plants.

 

Source: The provisions of this §112.43 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.44. Environmental Systems.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Suggested prerequisite: one unit of high school science. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10, 11, or 12.

(b) Introduction.

(1) In Environmental Systems, students conduct field and laboratory investigations, use scientific methods during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. Students study a variety of topics that include: biotic and abiotic factors in habitats; ecosystems and biomes; interrelationships among resources and an environmental system; sources and flow of energy though an environmental system; relationship between carrying capacity and changes in populations and ecosystems; and changes in environments.

(2) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(3) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(4) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

(B) collect data and make measurements with precision;

(C) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and

(D) communicate valid conclusions.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) make responsible choices in selecting everyday products and services using scientific information;

(C) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment;

(D) describe the connection between environmental science and future careers; and

(E) research and describe the history of environmental science and contributions of scientists.

(4) Science concepts. The student knows the relationships of biotic and abiotic factors within habitats, ecosystems, and biomes. The student is expected to:

(A) identify indigenous plants and animals, assess their role within an ecosystem, and compare them to plants and animals in other ecosystems and biomes;

(B) make observations and compile data about fluctuations in abiotic cycles and evaluate the effects of abiotic factors on local ecosystems and biomes;

(C) evaluate the impact of human activity such as methods of pest control, hydroponics, organic gardening, or farming on ecosystems;

(D) predict how the introduction, removal, or reintroduction of an organism may alter the food chain and affect existing populations; and

(E) predict changes that may occur in an ecosystem if biodiversity is increased or reduced.

(5) Science concepts. The student knows the interrelationships among the resources within the local environmental system. The student is expected to:

(A) summarize methods of land use and management;

(B) identify source, use, quality, and conservation of water;

(C) document the use and conservation of both renewable and non-renewable resources;

(D) identify renewable and non-renewable resources that must come from outside an ecosystem such as food, water, lumber, and energy;

(E) analyze and evaluate the economic significance and interdependence of components of the environmental system; and

(F) evaluate the impact of human activity and technology on land fertility and aquatic viability.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows the sources and flow of energy through an environmental system. The student is expected to:

(A) summarize forms and sources of energy;

(B) explain the flow of energy in an ecosystem;

(C) investigate and explain the effects of energy transformations within an ecosystem; and

(D) investigate and identify energy interactions in an ecosystem.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows the relationship between carrying capacity and changes in populations and ecosystems. The student is expected to:

(A) relate carrying capacity to population dynamics;

(B) calculate exponential growth of populations;

(C) evaluate the depletion of non-renewable resources and propose alternatives; and

(D) analyze and make predictions about the impact on populations of geographic locales, natural events, diseases, and birth and death rates.

(8) Science concepts. The student knows that environments change. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze and describe the effects on environments of events such as fires, hurricanes, deforestation, mining, population growth, and municipal development;

(B) explain how regional changes in the environment may have a global effect;

(C) describe how communities have restored an ecosystem; and

(D) examine and describe a habitat restoration or protection program.

 

Source: The provisions of this §112.44 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.45. Chemistry.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Suggested prerequisites: one unit of high school science, Algebra I, and completion of or concurrent enrollment in a second year of math. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10, 11, or 12.

(b) Introduction.

(1) In Chemistry, students conduct field and laboratory investigations, use scientific methods during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. Students study a variety of topics that include: characteristics of matter; energy transformations during physical and chemical changes; atomic structure; periodic table of elements; behavior of gases; bonding; nuclear fusion and nuclear fission; oxidation-reduction reactions; chemical equations; solutes; properties of solutions; acids and bases; and chemical reactions. Students will investigate how chemistry is an integral part of our daily lives.

(2) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(3) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(4) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

(B) collect data and make measurements with precision;

(C) express and manipulate chemical quantities using scientific conventions and mathematical procedures such as dimensional analysis, scientific notation, and significant figures;

(D) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and

(E) communicate valid conclusions.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) make responsible choices in selecting everyday products and services using scientific information;

(C) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment;

(D) describe the connection between chemistry and future careers; and

(E) research and describe the history of chemistry and contributions of scientists.

(4) Science concepts. The student knows the characteristics of matter. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate between physical and chemical properties of matter;

(B) analyze examples of solids, liquids, and gases to determine their compressibility, structure, motion of particles, shape, and volume;

(C) investigate and identify properties of mixtures and pure substances; and

(D) describe the physical and chemical characteristics of an element using the periodic table and make inferences about its chemical behavior.

(5) Science concepts. The student knows that energy transformations occur during physical or chemical changes in matter. The student is expected to:

(A) identify changes in matter, determine the nature of the change, and examine the forms of energy involved;

(B) identify and measure energy transformations and exchanges involved in chemical reactions; and

(C) measure the effects of the gain or loss of heat energy on the properties of solids, liquids, and gases.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows that atomic structure is determined by nuclear composition, allowable electron cloud, and subatomic particles. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the existence and properties of subatomic particles;

(B) analyze stable and unstable isotopes of an element to determine the relationship between the isotope's stability and its application; and

(C) summarize the historical development of the periodic table to understand the concept of periodicity.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows the variables that influence the behavior of gases. The student is expected to:

(A) describe interrelationships among temperature, particle number, pressure, and volume of gases contained within a closed system; and

(B) illustrate the data obtained from investigations with gases in a closed system and determine if the data are consistent with the Universal Gas Law.

(8) Science concepts. The student knows how atoms form bonds to acquire a stable arrangement of electrons. The student is expected to:

(A) identify characteristics of atoms involved in chemical bonding;

(B) investigate and compare the physical and chemical properties of ionic and covalent compounds;

(C) compare the arrangement of atoms in molecules, ionic crystals, polymers, and metallic substances; and

(D) describe the influence of intermolecular forces on the physical and chemical properties of covalent compounds.

(9) Science concepts. The student knows the processes, effects, and significance of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. The student is expected to:

(A) compare fission and fusion reactions in terms of the masses of the reactants and products and the amount of energy released in the nuclear reactions;

(B) investigate radioactive elements to determine half-life;

(C) evaluate the commercial use of nuclear energy and medical uses of radioisotopes; and

(D) evaluate environmental issues associated with the storage, containment, and disposal of nuclear wastes.

(10) Science concepts. The student knows common oxidation-reduction reactions. The student is expected to:

(A) identify oxidation-reduction processes; and

(B) demonstrate and document the effects of a corrosion process and evaluate the importance of electroplating metals.

(11) Science concepts. The student knows that balanced chemical equations are used to interpret and describe the interactions of matter. The student is expected to:

(A) identify common elements and compounds using scientific nomenclature;

(B) demonstrate the use of symbols, formulas, and equations in describing interactions of matter such as chemical and nuclear reactions; and

(C) explain and balance chemical and nuclear equations using number of atoms, masses, and charge.

(12) Science concepts. The student knows the factors that influence the solubility of solutes in a solvent. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and explain effects of temperature and the nature of solid solutes on the solubility of solids;

(B) develop general rules for solubility through investigations with aqueous solutions; and

(C) evaluate the significance of water as a solvent in living organisms and in the environment.

(13) Science concepts. The student knows relationships among the concentration, electrical conductivity, and colligative properties of a solution. The student is expected to:

(A) compare unsaturated, saturated, and supersaturated solutions;

(B) interpret relationships among ionic and covalent compounds, electrical conductivity, and colligative properties of water; and

(C) measure and compare the rates of reaction of a solid reactant in solutions of varying concentration.

(14) Science concepts. The student knows the properties and behavior of acids and bases. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze and measure common household products using a variety of indicators to classify the products as acids or bases;

(B) demonstrate the electrical conductivity of acids and bases;

(C) identify the characteristics of a neutralization reaction; and

(D) describe effects of acids and bases on an ecological system.

(15) Science concepts. The student knows factors involved in chemical reactions. The student is expected to:

(A) verify the law of conservation of energy by evaluating the energy exchange that occurs as a consequence of a chemical reaction; and

(B) relate the rate of a chemical reaction to temperature, concentration, surface area, and presence of a catalyst.

 

Source: The provisions of this §112.45 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.46. Aquatic Science.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Suggested prerequisite: one unit of high school science. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10, 11, or 12.

(b) Introduction.

(1) In Aquatic Science, students conduct field and laboratory investigations, use scientific methods during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. Students study a variety of topics that include: components of an aquatic ecosystem; relationships among aquatic habitats and ecosystems; roles of cycles within an aquatic environment; adaptations of aquatic organisms; changes within aquatic environments; geological phenomena and fluid dynamics effects; and origin and use of water in a watershed.

(2) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(3) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(4) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

(B) collect data and make measurements with precision;

(C) express and manipulate quantities using mathematical procedures such as dimensional analysis, scientific notation, and significant figures;

(D) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and

(E) communicate valid conclusions.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) make responsible choices in selecting everyday products and services using scientific information;

(C) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment;

(D) describe the connection between aquatic science and future careers; and

(E) research and describe the history of aquatic science and contributions of scientists.

(4) Science concepts. The student knows the components of aquatic ecosystems. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate among freshwater, brackish, and saltwater ecosystems;

(B) research and identify biological, chemical, geological, and physical components of an aquatic ecosystem; and

(C) collect and analyze baseline quantitative data such as pH, salinity, temperature, mineral content, nitrogen compounds, and turbidity from an aquatic environment.

(5) Science concepts. The student knows the relationships within and among the aquatic habitats and ecosystems in an aquatic environment. The student is expected to:

(A) observe and compile data over a period of time from an established aquatic habitat documenting seasonal changes and the behavior of organisms;

(B) observe and evaluate patterns and interrelationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers in an aquatic ecosystem;

(C) identify the interdependence of organisms in an aquatic environment such as a pond, river, lake, ocean, or aquifer, and the biosphere; and

(D) evaluate trends in data to determine the factors that impact aquatic ecosystems.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows the roles of cycles in an aquatic environment. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the role of various cycles such as carbon, nitrogen, water, and nutrients in an aquatic environment;

(B) interpret the role of aquatic systems in climate and weather; and

(C) collect and evaluate global environmental data using technology.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows environmental adaptations of aquatic organisms. The student is expected to:

(A) classify different aquatic organisms using dichotomous keys;

(B) compare and describe how adaptations allow an organism to exist within an aquatic environment;

(C) predict adaptations of an organism prompted by environmental changes; and

(D) compare differences in adaptations of aquatic organisms to fresh water and marine environments.

(8) Science concepts. The student knows that aquatic environments change. The student is expected to:

(A) predict effects of chemical, organic, physical, and thermal changes on the living and nonliving components of an aquatic ecosystem;

(B) analyze the cumulative impact of natural and human influence on an aquatic system;

(C) identify and describe a local or global issue affecting an aquatic system; and

(D) analyze and discuss human influences on an aquatic environment including fishing, transportation, and recreation.

(9) Science concepts. The student knows that geological phenomena and fluid dynamics affect aquatic systems. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate the principles of fluid dynamics including Archimedes' and Bernoulli's Principles and hydrostatic pressure;

(B) identify interrelationships of plate tectonics, ocean currents, climates, and biomes; and

(C) research and describe fluid dynamics in an upwelling.

(10) Science concepts. The student knows the origin and use of water in a watershed. The student is expected to:

(A) identify sources and determine the amounts of water in a watershed including groundwater and surface water;

(B) research and identify the types of uses and volumes of water used in a watershed; and

(C) identify water quantity and quality in a local watershed.

 

Source: The provisions of this §112.46 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.47. Physics.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Suggested prerequisites: one unit of high school science, Algebra I, and completion of or concurrent enrollment in a second year of mathematics. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10, 11, or 12.

(b) Introduction.

(1) In Physics, students conduct field and laboratory investigations, use scientific methods during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. Students study a variety of topics that include: laws of motion; changes within physical systems and conservation of energy and momentum; force; thermodynamics; characteristics and behavior of waves; and quantum physics. This course provides students with a conceptual framework, factual knowledge, and analytical and scientific skills.

(2) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(3) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(4) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement experimental procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

(B) make quantitative observations and measurements with precision;

(C) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data;

(D) communicate valid conclusions;

(E) graph data to observe and identify relationships between variables; and

(F) read the scale on scientific instruments with precision.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) express laws symbolically and employ mathematical procedures including vector addition and right-triangle geometry to solve physical problems;

(C) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment;

(D) describe the connection between physics and future careers; and

(E) research and describe the history of physics and contributions of scientists.

(4) Science concepts. The student knows the laws governing motion. The student is expected to:

(A) generate and interpret graphs describing motion including the use of real-time technology;

(B) analyze examples of uniform and accelerated motion including linear, projectile, and circular;

(C) demonstrate the effects of forces on the motion of objects;

(D) develop and interpret a free-body diagram for force analysis; and

(E) identify and describe motion relative to different frames of reference.

(5) Science concepts. The student knows that changes occur within a physical system and recognizes that energy and momentum are conserved. The student is expected to:

(A) interpret evidence for the work-energy theorem;

(B) observe and describe examples of kinetic and potential energy and their transformations;

(C) calculate the mechanical energy and momentum in a physical system such as billiards, cars, and trains; and

(D) demonstrate the conservation of energy and momentum.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows forces in nature. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the influence of mass and distance on gravitational forces;

(B) research and describe the historical development of the concepts of gravitational, electrical, and magnetic force;

(C) identify and analyze the influences of charge and distance on electric forces;

(D) demonstrate the relationship between electricity and magnetism;

(E) design and analyze electric circuits; and

(F) identify examples of electrical and magnetic forces in everyday life.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows the laws of thermodynamics. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze and explain everyday examples that illustrate the laws of thermodynamics; and

(B) evaluate different methods of heat energy transfer that result in an increasing amount of disorder.

(8) Science concepts. The student knows the characteristics and behavior of waves. The student is expected to:

(A) examine and describe a variety of waves propagated in various types of media and describe wave characteristics such as velocity, frequency, amplitude, and behaviors such as reflection, refraction, and interference;

(B) identify the characteristics and behaviors of sound and electromagnetic waves; and

(C) interpret the role of wave characteristics and behaviors found in medicinal and industrial applications.

(9) Science concepts. The student knows simple examples of quantum physics. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the photoelectric effect; and

(B) explain the line spectra from different gas-discharge tubes.

 

Source: The provisions of this §112.47 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.48. Astronomy.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Suggested prerequisite: one unit of high school science. This course is recommended for students in Grades 11 or 12.

(b) Introduction.

(1) In Astronomy, students conduct field and laboratory investigations, use scientific methods during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. Students study the following topics: information about the universe; scientific theories of the evolution of the universe; characteristics and the life cycle of stars; exploration of the universe; role of the Sun in our solar system; planets; and the orientation and placement of the Earth.

(2) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(3) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(4) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

(B) collect data and make measurements with precision;

(C) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and

(D) communicate valid conclusions.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving skills to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(C) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment;

(D) describe the connection between astronomy and future careers; and

(E) research and describe the history of astronomy and contributions of scientists.

(4) Science concepts. The student knows scientific information about the universe. The student is expected to:

(A) observe and record data about lunar phases and uses that information to model the earth, moon, and sun system; and

(B) describe characteristics of galaxies.

(5) Science concepts. The student knows the scientific theories of the evolution of the universe. The student is expected to:

(A) research and analyze scientific empirical data on the estimated age of the universe;

(B) research and describe the historical development of the Big Bang Theory; and

(C) interpret data concerning the formation of galaxies and our solar system.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows the characteristics and the life cycle of stars. The student is expected to:

(A) describe nuclear reactions in stars;

(B) identify the characteristics of stars such as temperature, age, relative size, composition, and radial velocity using spectral analysis; and

(C) identify the stages in the life cycle of stars by examining the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows how mathematical models, computer simulations, and exploration can be used to study the universe. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate the use of units of measurement in astronomy such as light year and Astronomical Units;

(B) research and describe the historical development of the laws of universal gravitation and planetary motion and the theory of special relativity;

(C) analyze a model that simulates planetary motion and universal gravitation;

(D) identify the historical origins of the perceived patterns of constellations and their role in ancient and modern navigation; and

(E) analyze the impact of the space program on the collection of data about the Earth and the universe.

(8) Science concepts. The student knows the role of the Sun in our solar system. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the approximate mass, size, motion, temperature, structure, and composition of the Sun;

(B) identify the source of energy within the Sun and explain that the Sun is the major source of energy for the Earth; and

(C) describe the Sun's effects on the Earth.

(9) Science concepts. The student knows that planets of different size, composition, and surface features orbit around the Sun. The student is expected to:

(A) observe the night-time sky to determine movement of the planets relative to stars;

(B) compare the planets in terms of orbit, size, composition, rotation, atmosphere, moons, and geologic activity;

(C) identify objects, other than planets, that orbit the Sun; and

(D) relate the role of gravitation to the motion of the planets around the Sun and to the motion of moons and satellites around the planets.

(10) Science concepts. The student knows how life on Earth is affected by its unique placement and orientation in our solar system. The student is expected to:

(A) compare the factors essential to life on Earth such as temperature, water, mass, and gases to conditions on other planets;

(B) determine the effects of the Earth's rotation, revolution, and tilt on its environment; and

(C) identify the effects of the moon on tides.

 

Source: The provisions of this §112.48 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.49. Geology, Meteorology, and Oceanography.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Suggested prerequisite: one unit of high school science. This course is recommended for students in Grades 11 or 12.

(b) Introduction.

(1) In Geology, Meteorology, Oceanography, students conduct field and laboratory investigations, use scientific methods during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. Students study a variety of topics that include: characteristics and conditions of the Earth; formation and history of the Earth; plate tectonics; origin and composition of minerals and rocks and the rock cycle; processes and products of weathering; natural energy resources; interactions in a watershed; characteristics of oceans; characteristics of the atmosphere; and the role of energy in weather and climate.

(2) Science is a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how science has built a vast body of changing and increasing knowledge described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models, and also should know that science may not answer all questions.

(3) A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. Students should understand a whole in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other and to the whole. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems and can be observed and measured as patterns. These patterns help to predict what will happen next and can change over time.

(4) Investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

(B) collect data and make measurements with precision;

(C) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and

(D) communicate valid conclusions.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(C) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment;

(D) describe the connections between geology, meteorology, oceanography, and future careers; and

(E) research and describe the history of geology, meteorology, oceanography, and contributions of scientists.

(4) Science concepts. The student knows the Earth's unique characteristics and conditions. The student is expected to:

(A) research and describe the Earth's unique placement in the solar system; and

(B) analyze conditions on Earth that enable organisms to survive.

(5) Science concepts. The student knows about the formation and history of the Earth. The student is expected to:

(A) research and describe the historical development of scientific theories of the Earth's formation; and

(B) use current theories to design and construct a geologic time scale.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows the processes of plate tectonics. The student is expected to:

(A) research and describe the historical development of the theories of plate tectonics including continental drift and sea-floor spreading;

(B) analyze the processes that power the movement of the Earth's continental and oceanic plates and identify the effects of this movement including faulting, folding, earthquakes, and volcanic activity; and

(C) analyze methods of tracking continental and oceanic plate movement.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows the origin and composition of minerals and rocks and the significance of the rock cycle. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate the density, hardness, streak, and cleavage of particular minerals;

(B) identify common minerals and describe their economic significance;

(C) classify rocks according to how they are formed during a rock cycle; and

(D) examine and describe conditions such as depth of formation, rate of cooling, and mineral composition that are factors in the formation of rock types.

(8) Science concepts. The student knows the processes and end products of weathering. The student is expected to:

(A) distinguish chemical from mechanical weathering and identify the role of weathering agents such as wind, water, and gravity;

(B) identify geologic formations that result from differing weathering processes; and

(C) illustrate the role of weathering in soil formation.

(9) Science concepts. The student knows the role of natural energy resources. The student is expected to:

(A) research and describe the origin of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas;

(B) analyze issues regarding the use of fossil fuels and other renewable, non-renewable, or alternative energy resources; and

(C) analyze the significance and economic impact of the use of fossil fuels and alternative energy resources.

(10) Science concepts. The student knows the interactions that occur in a watershed. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the characteristics of a local watershed such as average annual rainfall, run-off patterns, aquifers, locations of river basins, and surface water reservoirs;

(B) analyze the impact of floods, droughts, irrigation, and industrialization on a watershed; and

(C) describe the importance and sources of surface and subsurface water.

(11) Science concepts. The student knows characteristics of oceans. The student is expected to:

(A) identify physical characteristics of ocean water including salinity, solubility, heat capacity, colligative properties, and density;

(B) evaluate the effects of tides, tidal bores, and tsunamis; and

(C) compare the topography of the ocean floor to the topography of the continents.

(12) Science concepts. The student knows the characteristics of the atmosphere. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the atmosphere as a mixture of gases, water vapor, and particulate matter;

(B) analyze the range of atmospheric conditions that organisms will tolerate including types of gases, temperature, particulate matter, and moisture; and

(C) determine the impact on the atmosphere of natural events and human activity.

(13) Science concepts. The student knows the role of energy in governing weather and climate. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the transfer of heat energy at the boundaries between the atmosphere, land masses, and oceans resulting in layers of different temperatures and densities in both the ocean and atmosphere;

(B) identify, describe, and compare climatic zones; and

(C) describe the effects of phenomena such as El Niņo and the Jet Stream on local weather.

 

Source: The provisions of this §112.49 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

Chapter 112. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science

Subchapter D. Other Science Courses

Statutory Authority: The provisions of this Subchapter D issued under the Texas Education Code, §28.002, unless otherwise noted.

§112.61. Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science, Other Science Courses.

The provisions of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning September 1, 1998.

 

Source: The provisions of this §112.61 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.62. Advanced Placement (AP) Biology (One to One and One-Half Credits).

(a) General Requirements. Students can be awarded one to one and one-half credits for successful completion of this course. Recommended prerequisites: Biology, Chemistry.

(b) Content Requirements. Content requirements for Advanced Placement (AP) Biology are prescribed in the College Board Publication Advanced Placement Course Description: Biology, published by The College Board.

 

Source: The provisions of this §112.62 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.63. Advanced Placement (AP) Chemistry (One to One and One-Half Credits).

(a) General Requirements. Students can be awarded one to one and one-half credits for successful completion of this course. Recommended prerequisites: Chemistry, Algebra II.

(b) Content Requirements. Content requirements for Advanced Placement (AP) Chemistry are prescribed in the College Board Publication Advanced Placement Course Description: Chemistry, published by The College Board.

 

Source: The provisions of this §112.63 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.64. Advanced Placement (AP) Physics B (One to One and One-Half Credits).

(a) General Requirements. Students can be awarded one to one and one-half credits for successful completion of this course. Recommended prerequisites: Physics, Algebra I, Algebra II, Geometry.

(b) Content Requirements. Content requirements for Advanced Placement (AP) Physics are prescribed in the College Board Publication Advanced Placement Course Description: Physics, published by The College Board.

 

Source: The provisions of this §112.64 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.65. Advanced Placement (AP) Physics C (One to One and One-Half Credits).

(a) General Requirements. Students can be awarded one to one and one-half credits for successful completion of this course. Recommended prerequisites: for Physics, Algebra I, Algebra II, Geometry, Calculus.

(b) Content Requirements. Content requirements for Advanced Placement (AP) Physics are prescribed in the College Board Publication Advanced Placement Course Description: Physics, published by The College Board.

 

Source: The provisions of this §112.65 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.66. Advanced Placement (AP) Environmental Science (One to One and One-Half Credits).

(a) General Requirements. Students can be awarded one to one and one-half credits for successful completion of this course. Recommended prerequisites: Algebra I, two years of high school laboratory science including one year of life science and one year of physical science.

(b) Content Requirements. Content requirements for Advanced Placement (AP) Environmental Science are prescribed in the College Board Publication Advanced Placement Course Description: Environmental Science, published by The College Board.

 

Source: The provisions of this §112.66 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.67. International Baccalaureate Biology (IB) (One to One and One-Half Credits).

(a) General Requirements. Students can be awarded one to one and one-half credits for successful completion of this course. Recommended prerequisites: two years of high school laboratory science.

(b) Content Requirements. Content requirements for International Baccalaureate (IB) Biology are prescribed by the International Baccalaureate Organization.

 

Source: The provisions of this §112.67 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.68. International Baccalaureate Chemistry (IB) (One to One and One-Half Credits).

(a) General Requirements. Students can be awarded one to one and one-half credits for successful completion of this course. Recommended prerequisites: two years of high school laboratory science.

(b) Content Requirements. Content requirements for International Baccalaureate (IB) Chemistry are prescribed by the International Baccalaureate Organization.

 

Source: The provisions of this §112.68 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.69. International Baccalaureate Physics (IB) (One to One and One-Half Credits).

(a) General Requirements. Students can be awarded one to one and one-half credits for successful completion of this course. Recommended prerequisites: two years of high school laboratory science.

(b) Content Requirements. Content requirements for International Baccalaureate (IB) Physics are prescribed by the International Baccalaureate Organization.

 

Source: The provisions of this §112.69 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.70. International Baccalaureate Environmental Systems (IB) (One Credit).

(a) General Requirements. Students can be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Recommended prerequisite: one year of high school science.

(b) Content Requirements. Content requirements for International Baccalaureate (IB) Environmental Systems are prescribed by the International Baccalaureate Organization.

 

Source: The provisions of this §112.70 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.

§112.71. Other Courses for which Students May Receive Science Credit.

(a) Health science technology education courses.

(1) Scientific Research and Design. Students shall be awarded one credit in science for successful completion of this course as described in §121.12 of this title (relating to Scientific Research and Design). Suggested prerequisite: one unit of high school science. Students must meet the 40% laboratory and fieldwork requirement in §74.3(b)(2)(C) of this title (relating to Description of a Required Secondary Curriculum). This course is recommended for students in Grade 11 or 12.

(2) Anatomy and Physiology of Human Systems. Students shall be awarded one credit in science for successful completion of this course as described in §121.13 of this title (relating to Anatomy and Physiology of Human Systems). Suggested prerequisites: Biology and Chemistry. Students must meet the 40% laboratory and fieldwork requirement in §74.3(b)(2)(C) of this title (relating to Description of a Required Secondary Curriculum). This course is recommended for students in Grade 11 or 12.

(3) Medical Microbiology. Students shall be awarded one-half credit in science for successful completion of this course as described in §121.14 of this title: (relating to Medical Microbiology). Suggested prerequisites: biology and chemistry or biology and concurrent enrollment in chemistry. Students must meet the 40% laboratory and fieldwork requirement in §74.3(b)(2)(C) of this title (relating to Description of a Required Secondary Curriculum). This course is recommended for students in Grade 11 or 12.

(4) Pathophysiology. Students shall be awarded one-half credit in science for successful completion of this course as described in §121.15 of this title (relating to Pathophysiology). Suggested prerequisites: Biology, Chemistry, and Anatomy and Physiology of Human Systems. Students must meet the 40% laboratory and fieldwork requirement in §74.3(b)(2)(C) of this title (relating to Description of a Required Secondary Curriculum). This course is recommended for students in Grade 11 or 12.

(b) Technology education/industrial technology education courses.

(1) Principles of Technology I. Students shall be awarded one credit in science for successful completion of this course as described in §123.82 of this title (relating to Principles of Technology I). Suggested prerequisites: one course in science and Algebra I. Students must meet the 40% laboratory and fieldwork requirement in §74.3(b)(2)(C) of this title (relating to Description of a Required Secondary Curriculum). This course is recommended for students in Grades 10-12.

(2) Principles of Technology II. Students shall be awarded one credit in science for successful completion of this course as described in §123.83 of this title (relating to Principles of Technology II). Suggested prerequisite: Principles of Technology I. Students must meet the 40% laboratory and fieldwork requirement in §74.3(b)(2)(C) of this title (relating to Description of a Required Secondary Curriculum). This course is recommended for students in Grades 11-12.

(c) Concurrent enrollment in college courses.

(1) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one-half credit for each semester of successful completion of a college course in which the student is concurrently enrolled while in high school.

(2) Content requirements. In order for students to receive state graduation credit for concurrent enrollment courses, content requirements must meet or exceed the essential knowledge and skills in a given course.

 

Source: The provisions of this §112.71 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.