Chapter 113. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Social Studies

Subchapter A. Elementary

 

Statutory Authority: The provisions of this Subchapter A issued under the Texas Education Code, §28.002, unless otherwise noted.

§113.1. Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Social Studies, Elementary.

The provisions of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning September 1, 1998, and at the time shall supersede §75.32(h)-(l) of this title (relating to Social Studies, Texas and United States History).

 

Source: The provisions of this §113.1 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.

§113.2. Social Studies, Kindergarten.

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Kindergarten, the focus is on the self, home, family, and classroom. The study of our state and national heritage begins with an examination of the celebration of patriotic holidays and the contributions of historical people. The concept of chronology is introduced. Students discuss geographic concepts of location and physical and human characteristics of places. Students are introduced to the basic human needs of food, clothing, and shelter and to ways that people meet these needs. Students learn the purpose of rules and the role of authority figures in the home and school. Students learn customs, symbols, and celebrations that represent American beliefs and principles and contribute to our national identity. Students compare family customs and traditions and describe examples of technology in the home and school. Students acquire information from a variety of oral and visual sources.

(2) To support the teaching of the essential knowledge and skills, the use of a variety of rich material such as biographies; folktales, myths, and legends; and poetry, songs, and artworks is encouraged. Selections may include You're a Grand Old Flag and a children's biography of George Washington. Motivating resources are also available from museums, historical sites, presidential libraries, and local and state preservation societies.

(3) The eight strands of the essential knowledge and skills for social studies are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes. Skills listed in the geography and social studies skills strands in subsection (b) of this section should be incorporated into the teaching of all essential knowledge and skills for social studies. A greater depth of understanding of complex content material can be attained when integrated social studies content from the various disciplines and critical-thinking skills are taught together.

(4) Throughout social studies in Kindergarten-Grade 12, students build a foundation in history; geography; economics; government; citizenship; culture; science, technology, and society; and social studies skills. The content, as appropriate for the grade level or course, enables students to understand the importance of patriotism, function in a free enterprise society, and appreciate the basic values of our state and nation as referenced in the Texas Education Code, §28.002(h).

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(K.1) History. The student understands that holidays are celebrations of special events. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the reasons for national patriotic holidays such as Presidents' Day and Independence Day; and

(B) identify customs associated with national patriotic holidays such as parades and fireworks on Independence Day.

(K.2) History. The student understands how historical figures and ordinary people helped to shape the community, state, and nation. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the contributions of historical figures such as Stephen F. Austin and George Washington who helped to shape our state and nation; and

(B) identify ordinary people who have shaped the community.

(K.3) History. The student understands the concept of chronology. The student is expected to:

(A) place events in chronological order; and

(B) use vocabulary related to time and chronology, including before, after, next, first, and last.

(K.4) Geography. The student understands the concept of location. The student is expected to:

(A) use terms, including over, under, near, far, left, and right, to describe relative location; and

(B) locate places on the school campus and describe their relative locations.

(K.5) Geography. The student understands the physical and human characteristics of the environment. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the physical characteristics of places such as landforms, bodies of water, natural resources, and weather; and

(B) identify the human characteristics of places such as types of houses and ways of earning a living.

(K.6) Economics. The student understands that basic human needs are met in many ways. The student is expected to:

(A) identify basic human needs; and

(B) explain how basic human needs of food, clothing, and shelter can be met.

(K.7) Economics. The student understands the importance of jobs. The student is expected to:

(A) identify jobs in the home, school, and community; and

(B) explain why people have jobs.

(K.8) Government. The student understands the purpose of rules. The student is expected to:

(A) identify purposes for having rules; and

(B) identify rules that provide order, security, and safety in the home and school.

(K.9) Government. The student understands the role of authority figures. The student is expected to:

(A) identify authority figures in the home, school, and community; and

(B) explain how authority figures make and enforce rules.

(K.10) Citizenship. The student understands important customs, symbols, and celebrations that represent American beliefs and principles and contribute to our national identity. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the flags of the United States and Texas;

(B) recite the Pledge of Allegiance; and

(C) explain the use of voting as a method for group decision making.

(K.11) Culture. The student understands similarities and differences among people. The student is expected to:

(A) identify personal attributes common to all people such as physical characteristics; and

(B) identify differences among people.

(K.12) Culture. The student understands how people learn about themselves through family customs and traditions. The student is expected to:

(A) identify family customs and traditions and explain their importance;

(B) compare family customs and traditions; and

(C) describe customs of the local community.

(K.13) Science, technology, and society. The student understands ways technology is used in the home and school. The student is expected to:

(A) identify examples of technology used in the home and school; and

(B) describe how technology helps accomplish specific tasks.

(K.14) Science, technology, and society. The student understands ways in which technology has changed how people live. The student is expected to:

(A) describe how his or her life might be different without modern technology; and

(B) list ways in which technology meets people's needs.

(K.15) Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of sources including electronic technology. The student is expected to:

(A) obtain information about a topic using a variety of oral sources such as conversations, interviews, and music;

(B) obtain information about a topic using a variety of visual sources such as pictures, symbols, television, maps, computer images, print material, and artifacts;

(C) sequence and categorize information; and

(D) identify main ideas from oral, visual, and print sources.

(K.16) Social studies skills. The student communicates in oral and visual forms. The student is expected to:

(A) express ideas orally based on knowledge and experiences; and

(B) create and interpret visuals including pictures and maps.

(K.17) Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings. The student is expected to:

(A) use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution; and

(B) use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather information, identify options, predict consequences, and take action to implement a decision.

 

Source: The provisions of this §113.2 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.

§113.3. Social Studies, Grade 1.

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 1, students learn about their relationship to the classroom, school, and community. The concepts of time and chronology are developed by distinguishing among past, present, and future events. Students identify anthems and mottoes of the United States and Texas. Students make simple maps to identify the location of places in the classroom, school, and community. The concepts of goods and services and the value of work are introduced. Students identify historic figures and ordinary people who exhibit good citizenship. Students describe the importance of family customs and traditions and identify how technology has changed family life. Students sequence and categorize information.

(2) To support the teaching of the essential knowledge and skills, the use of a variety of rich material such as biographies; folktales, myths, and legends; and poetry, songs, and artworks is encouraged. Selections may include a children's biography of Abraham Lincoln. Motivating resources are also available from museums, historical sites, presidential libraries, and local and state preservation societies.

(3) The eight strands of the essential knowledge and skills for social studies are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes. Skills listed in the geography and social studies skills strands in subsection (b) of this section should be incorporated into the teaching of all essential knowledge and skills for social studies. A greater depth of understanding of complex content material can be attained when integrated social studies content from the various disciplines and critical-thinking skills are taught together.

(4) Throughout social studies in Kindergarten-Grade 12, students build a foundation in history; geography; economics; government; citizenship; culture; science, technology, and society; and social studies skills. The content, as appropriate for the grade level or course, enables students to understand the importance of patriotism, function in a free enterprise society, and appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation as referenced in the Texas Education Code, §28.002(h).

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1.1) History. The student understands how historical figures helped to shape our community, state, and nation. The student is expected to:

(A) identify contributions of historical figures such as Sam Houston and Abraham Lincoln who have influenced the community, state, and nation;

(B) identify historic figures such as Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Edison who have exhibited a love of individualism and inventiveness; and

(C) compare the similarities and differences among the lives and activities of historical figures who have influenced the community, state, and nation.

(1.2) History. The student understands the origins of customs, holidays, and celebrations. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the origins of selected customs, holidays, and celebrations of the community, state, and nation such as Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, Independence Day, and Veterans' Day;

(B) compare the observance of holidays and celebrations, past and present; and

(C) identify anthems and mottoes of the United States and Texas.

(1.3) History. The student understands the concepts of time and chronology. The student is expected to:

(A) distinguish among past, present, and future;

(B) create a calendar or timeline; and

(C) use vocabulary related to chronology, including yesterday, today, and tomorrow.

(1.4) Geography. The student understands the relative location of places. The student is expected to:

(A) locate places using the four cardinal directions; and

(B) describe the location of self and objects relative to other locations in the classroom and school.

(1.5) Geography. The student understands the purpose of maps and globes. The student is expected to:

(A) create and use simple maps to identify the location of places in the classroom, school, community, and beyond; and

(B) locate places of significance on maps and globes such as the local community, Texas, and the United States.

(1.6) Geography. The student understands various physical and human characteristics of the environment. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and describe the physical characteristics of places such as landforms, bodies of water, natural resources, and weather;

(B) identify examples of and uses for natural resources in the community, state, and nation; and

(C) identify and describe the human characteristics of places such as types of houses and ways of earning a living.

(1.7) Economics. The student understands the concepts of goods and services. The student is expected to:

(A) identify examples of goods and services in the home, school, and community;

(B) identify ways people exchange goods and services; and

(C) identify the role of markets in the exchange of goods and services.

(1.8) Economics. The student understands the condition of not being able to have all the goods and services one wants. The student is expected to:

(A) identify examples of people wanting more than they can have;

(B) explain why wanting more than they can have requires that people make choices; and

(C) identify examples of choices families make when buying goods and services.

(1.9) Economics. The student understands the value of work. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the requirements of various jobs and the characteristics of a job well-performed; and

(B) describe how specialized jobs contribute to the production of goods and services.

(1.10) Government. The student understands the purpose of rules and laws. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the need for rules and laws in the home, school, and community; and

(B) give examples of rules or laws that establish order, provide security, and manage conflict.

(1.11) Government. The student understands the role of authority figures and public officials. The student is expected to:

(A) identify leaders in the community, state, and nation;

(B) describe the roles of public officials including mayor, governor, and president; and

(C) identify the responsibilities of authority figures in the home, school, and community.

(1.12) Citizenship. The student understands characteristics of good citizenship as exemplified by historic figures and ordinary people. The student is expected to:

(A) identify characteristics of good citizenship such as a belief in justice, truth, equality, and responsibility for the common good;

(B) identify historic figures such as Clara Barton, Nathan Hale, and Eleanor Roosevelt who have exemplified good citizenship; and

(C) identify ordinary people who exemplify good citizenship and exhibit a love of individualism and inventiveness.

(1.13) Citizenship. The student understands important customs, symbols, and celebrations that represent American beliefs and principles and contribute to our national identity. The student is expected to:

(A) explain selected national and state patriotic symbols such as the U.S. and Texas flags, the Liberty Bell, and the Alamo;

(B) recite and explain the meaning of the Pledge of Allegiance and the Pledge to the Texas Flag;

(C) use voting as a way of making choices and decisions; and

(D) explain how selected customs, symbols, and celebrations reflect an American love of individualism, inventiveness, and freedom.

(1.14) Culture. The student understands how families meet basic human needs. The student is expected to:

(A) describe ways that families meet basic human needs; and

(B) describe similarities and differences in ways families meet basic human needs.

(1.15) Culture. The student understands the importance of family beliefs, customs, language, and traditions. The student is expected to:

(A) describe various beliefs, customs, and traditions of families and explain their importance; and

(B) retell stories from selected folktales and legends such as Aesop's fables.

(1.16) Science, technology, and society. The student understands how technology has affected daily life, past and present. The student is expected to:

(A) describe how household tools and appliances have changed the ways families live;

(B) describe how technology has changed communication, transportation, and recreation; and

(C) describe how technology has changed the way people work.

(1.17) Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of sources including electronic technology. The student is expected to:

(A) obtain information about a topic using a variety of oral sources such as conversations, interviews, and music;

(B) obtain information about a topic using a variety of visual sources such as pictures, graphics, television, maps, computer images, literature, and artifacts;

(C) sequence and categorize information; and

(D) identify main ideas from oral, visual, and print sources.

(1.18) Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:

(A) express ideas orally based on knowledge and experiences; and

(B) create visual and written material including pictures, maps, timelines, and graphs.

(1.19) Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings. The student is expected to:

(A) use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution; and

(B) use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather information, identify options, predict consequences, and take action to implement a decision.

 

Source: The provisions of this §113.3 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.

§113.4. Social Studies, Grade 2.

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 2, students focus on a study of their local community by examining the impact of significant individuals and events on the history of the community as well as on the state and nation. Students begin to develop the concepts of time and chronology by measuring calendar time by days, weeks, months, and years. The relationship between the physical environment and human activities is introduced as are the concepts of consumers and producers. Students identify functions of government as well as services provided by the local government. Students continue to acquire knowledge of important customs, symbols, and celebrations that represent American beliefs and principles. Students identify the significance of works of art in the local community and explain how technological innovations have changed transportation and communication. Students communicate what they have learned in written, oral, and visual forms.

(2) To support the teaching of the essential knowledge and skills, the use of a variety of rich material such as biographies; folktales, myths, and legends; and poetry, songs, and artworks is encouraged. Selections may include the legend of the bluebonnet. Motivating resources are also available from museums, historical sites, presidential libraries, and local and state preservation societies.

(3) The eight strands of the essential knowledge and skills for social studies are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes. Skills listed in the geography and social studies skills strands in subsection (b) of this section should be incorporated into the teaching of all essential knowledge and skills for social studies. A greater depth of understanding of complex content material can be attained when integrated social studies content from the various disciplines and critical-thinking skills are taught together.

(4) Throughout social studies in Kindergarten-Grade 12, students build a foundation in history; geography; economics; government; citizenship; culture; science, technology, and society; and social studies skills. The content, as appropriate for the grade level or course, enables students to understand the importance of patriotism, function in a free enterprise society, and appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation as referenced in the Texas Education Code, §28.002(h).

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(2.1) History. The student understands the historical significance of landmarks and celebrations in the community, state, and nation. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the significance of various community, state, and national celebrations such as Memorial Day, Independence Day, and Thanksgiving; and

(B) identify and explain the significance of various community, state, and national landmarks such as the county courthouse and state and national capitol buildings.

(2.2) History. The student understands the concepts of time and chronology. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the order of events by using designations of time periods such as ancient times and modern times;

(B) use vocabulary related to chronology, including past, present, and future;

(C) create and interpret timelines; and

(D) describe and measure calendar time by days, weeks, months, and years.

(2.3) History. The student understands how various sources provide information about the past. The student is expected to:

(A) name several sources of information about a given period or event; and

(B) compare various interpretations of the same time period using evidence such as photographs and interviews.

(2.4) History. The student understands how historical figures and ordinary people helped to shape our community, state, and nation. The student is expected to:

(A) identify contributions of historical figures such as Henrietta King and Thurgood Marshall who have influenced the community, state, and nation;

(B) identify historic figures such as Amelia Earhart and Robert Fulton who have exhibited a love of individualism and inventiveness; and

(C) explain how local people and events have influenced local community history.

(2.5) Geography. The student uses simple geographic tools such as maps, globes, and photographs. The student is expected to:

(A) use symbols, find locations, and determine directions on maps and globes; and

(B) draw maps to show places and routes.

(2.6) Geography. The student understands the locations and characteristics of places and regions. The student is expected to:

(A) identify major landforms and bodies of water, including continents and oceans, on maps and globes;

(B) locate the community, Texas, the United States, and selected countries on maps and globes; and

(C) compare information from different sources about places and regions.

(2.7) Geography. The student understands how physical characteristics of places and regions affect people's activities and settlement patterns. The student is expected to:

(A) describe how weather patterns, natural resources, seasonal patterns, and natural hazards affect activities and settlement patterns; and

(B) explain how people depend on the physical environment and its natural resources to satisfy their basic needs.

(2.8) Geography. The student understands how humans use and modify the physical environment. The student is expected to:

(A) identify ways in which people depend on the physical environment, including natural resources, to meet basic needs;

(B) identify ways in which people have modified the physical environment such as building roads, clearing land for urban development, and mining coal;

(C) identify consequences of human modification of the physical environment such as the use of irrigation to improve crop yields; and

(D) identify ways people can conserve and replenish natural resources.

(2.9) Economics. The student understands the importance of work. The student is expected to:

(A) explain how work provides income to purchase goods and services; and

(B) explain the choices people in the U.S. free enterprise system can make about earning, spending, and saving money, and where to live and work.

(2.10) Economics. The student understands the roles of producers and consumers in the production of goods and services. The student is expected to:

(A) distinguish between producing and consuming;

(B) identify ways in which people are both producers and consumers; and

(C) trace the development of a product from a natural resource to a finished product.

(2.11) Government. The student understands the purpose of governments. The student is expected to:

(A) identify functions of governments;

(B) identify some governmental services in the community such as libraries, schools, and parks and explain their value to the community; and

(C) describe how governments establish order, provide security, and manage conflict.

(2.12) Government. The student understands the role of public officials. The student is expected to:

(A) compare the roles of public officials including mayor, governor, and president; and

(B) identify ways that public officials are selected, including election and appointment to office.

(2.13) Citizenship. The student understands characteristics of good citizenship as exemplified by historic figures and ordinary people. The student is expected to:

(A) identify characteristics of good citizenship such as a belief in justice, truth, equality, and responsibility for the common good;

(B) identify historic figures such as Florence Nightingale, Paul Revere, and Sojourner Truth who have exemplified good citizenship; and

(C) identify ordinary people who exemplify good citizenship.

(2.14) Citizenship. The student understands important customs, symbols, and celebrations that represent American beliefs and principles and contribute to our national identity. The student is expected to:

(A) identify selected patriotic songs such as America the Beautiful;

(B) identify selected symbols such as state and national birds and flowers and patriotic symbols such as the U.S. and Texas flags and Uncle Sam; and

(C) explain how selected customs, symbols, and celebrations reflect an American love of individualism, inventiveness, and freedom.

(2.15) Culture. The student understands the significance of works of art in the local community. The student is expected to:

(A) identify selected stories, poems, statues, paintings, and other examples of the local cultural heritage; and

(B) explain the significance of selected stories, poems, statues, paintings, and other examples of the local cultural heritage.

(2.16) Science, technology, and society. The student understands how science and technology have affected life, past and present. The student is expected to:

(A) describe how science and technology have changed communication, transportation, and recreation; and

(B) explain how science and technology have changed the ways in which people meet basic needs.

(2.17) Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of sources including electronic technology. The student is expected to:

(A) obtain information about a topic using a variety of oral sources such as conversations, interviews, and music;

(B) obtain information about a topic using a variety of visual sources such as pictures, graphics, television, maps, computer software, literature, reference sources, and artifacts;

(C) use various parts of a source, including the table of contents, glossary, and index, as well as keyword computer searches, to locate information;

(D) sequence and categorize information; and

(E) interpret oral, visual, and print material by identifying the main idea, predicting, and comparing and contrasting.

(2.18) Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:

(A) express ideas orally based on knowledge and experiences; and

(B) create written and visual material such as stories, poems, maps, and graphic organizers to express ideas.

(2.19) Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings. The student is expected to:

(A) use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution; and

(B) use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather information, identify options, predict consequences, and take action to implement a decision.

 

Source: The provisions of this §113.4 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.

§113.5. Social Studies, Grade 3.

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 3, students learn how individuals have changed their communities and world. Students study the effects inspiring heroes have had on communities, past and present. Students learn about the lives of heroic men and women who made important choices, overcame obstacles, sacrificed for the betterment of others, and embarked on journeys that resulted in new ideas, new inventions, and new communities. Students expand their knowledge through the identification and study of people who made a difference, influenced public policy and decision making, and participated in resolving issues that are important to all people. Throughout Grade 3, students develop an understanding of the economic, cultural, and scientific contributions made by individuals.

(2) To support the teaching of the essential knowledge and skills, the use of a variety of rich material such as biographies; folktales, myths, and legends; and poetry, songs, and artworks is encouraged. Selections may include the legend of Paul Bunyan. Motivating resources are also available from museums, historical sites, presidential libraries, and local and state preservation societies.

(3) The eight strands of the essential knowledge and skills for social studies are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes. Skills listed in the geography and social studies skills strands in subsection (b) of this section should be incorporated into the teaching of all essential knowledge and skills for social studies. A greater depth of understanding of complex content material can be attained when integrated social studies content from the various disciplines and critical-thinking skills are taught together.

(4) Throughout social studies in Kindergarten-Grade 12, students build a foundation in history; geography; economics; government; citizenship; culture; science, technology, and society; and social studies skills. The content, as appropriate for the grade level or course, enables students to understand the importance of patriotism, function in a free enterprise society, and appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation as referenced in the Texas Education Code, §28.002(h).

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(3.1) History. The student understands how individuals, events, and ideas have influenced the history of various communities. The student is expected to:

(A) describe how individuals, events, and ideas have changed communities over time;

(B) identify individuals such as Pierre-Charles L'Enfant who have helped to shape communities; and

(C) describe how individuals such as Christopher Columbus and Meriwether Lewis and William Clark have contributed to the expansion of existing communities or to the creation of new communities.

(3.2) History. The student understands common characteristics of communities, past and present. The student is expected to:

(A) identify reasons people have formed communities, including a need for security, law, and material well-being; and

(B) compare ways in which people in the local community and communities around the world meet their needs for government, education, communication, transportation, and recreation, over time and in the present.

(3.3) History. The student understands the concepts of time and chronology. The student is expected to:

(A) use vocabulary related to chronology, including ancient and modern times and past, present, and future times;

(B) create and interpret timelines; and

(C) describe historical times in terms of years, decades, and centuries.

(3.4) Geography. The student understands how humans adapt to variations in the physical environment. The student is expected to:

(A) describe and explain variations in the physical environment including climate, landforms, natural resources, and natural hazards;

(B) compare how people in different communities adapt to or modify the physical environment;

(C) describe the effects of physical and human processes in shaping the landscape; and

(D) identify and compare the human characteristics of selected regions.

(3.5) Geography. The student understands the concepts of location, distance, and direction on maps and globes. The student is expected to:

(A) use cardinal and intermediate directions to locate places such as the Amazon River, Himalayan Mountains, and Washington D.C. on maps and globes;

(B) use a scale to determine the distance between places on maps and globes;

(C) identify and use the compass rose, grid, and symbols to locate places on maps and globes; and

(D) draw maps of places and regions that contain map elements including a title, compass rose, legend, scale, and grid system.

(3.6) Economics. The student understands the purposes of spending and saving money. The student is expected to:

(A) identify ways of earning, spending, and saving money; and

(B) analyze a simple budget that allocates money for spending and saving.

(3.7) Economics. The student understands the concept of an economic system. The student is expected to:

(A) define and identify examples of scarcity;

(B) explain the impact of scarcity on the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services;

(C) explain the impact of scarcity on interdependence within and among communities; and

(D) explain the concept of a free market.

(3.8) Economics. The student understands how businesses operate in the U.S. free enterprise system. The student is expected to:

(A) give examples of how a simple business operates;

(B) explain how supply and demand affect the price of a good or service;

(C) explain how the cost of production and selling price affect profits; and

(D) identify historic figures, such as Henry Ford, and ordinary people in the community who have started new businesses.

(3.9) Government. The student understands the basic structure and functions of local government. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the basic structure of government in the local community;

(B) identify services commonly provided by local governments;

(C) identify local government officials and explain how they are chosen;

(D) explain how local government services are financed; and

(E) explain the importance of the consent of the governed to the functions of local government.

(3.10) Citizenship. The student understands characteristics of good citizenship as exemplified by historic figures and ordinary people. The student is expected to:

(A) identify characteristics of good citizenship such as a belief in justice, truth, equality, and responsibility for the common good;

(B) identify historic figures such as Jane Addams, Helen Keller, and Harriet Tubman who have exemplified good citizenship;

(C) identify and explain the importance of acts of civic responsibility, including obeying laws and voting; and

(D) identify ordinary people who exemplify good citizenship.

(3.11) Citizenship. The student understands the impact of individual and group decisions on communities in a democratic society. The student is expected to:

(A) give examples of community changes that result from individual or group decisions;

(B) identify examples of actions individuals and groups can take to improve the community; and

(C) identify examples of nonprofit and/or civic organizations such as the Red Cross and explain how they serve the common good.

(3.12) Culture. The student understands ethnic and/or cultural celebrations of the United States and other nations. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the significance of selected ethnic and/or cultural celebrations in Texas, the United States, and other nations such as St. Patrick's Day, Cinco de Mayo, and Kwanzaa; and

(B) compare ethnic and/or cultural celebrations in Texas, the United States, and other nations.

(3.13) Culture. The student understands the role of real and mythical heroes in shaping the culture of communities, the state, and the nation. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the heroic deeds of state and national heroes such as Daniel Boone and Davy Crockett;

(B) retell the heroic deeds of characters from American folktales and legends such as Pecos Bill and Paul Bunyan;

(C) retell the heroic deeds of characters of Greek and Roman myths; and

(D) identify how selected fictional characters such as Robinson Crusoe created new communities.

(3.14) Culture. The student understands the importance of writers and artists to the cultural heritage of communities. The student is expected to:

(A) identify selected individual writers and artists and their stories, poems, statues, paintings, and other examples of cultural heritage from communities around the world; and

(B) explain the significance of selected individual writers and artists and their stories, poems, statues, paintings, and other examples of cultural heritage to communities around the world.

(3.15) Science, technology, and society. The student understands how individuals have created or invented new technology and affected life in communities around the world, past and present. The student is expected to:

(A) identify scientists and inventors such as Louis Daguerre, Cyrus McCormick, Louis Pasteur, and Jonas Salk who have created or invented new technology; and

(B) identify the impact of new technology in photography, farm equipment, pasteurization, and medical vaccines on communities around the world.

(3.16) Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of sources including electronic technology. The student is expected to:

(A) obtain information, including historical and geographic data about the community, using a variety of print, oral, visual, and computer sources;

(B) sequence and categorize information;

(C) interpret oral, visual, and print material by identifying the main idea, identifying cause and effect, and comparing and contrasting;

(D) use various parts of a source, including the table of contents, glossary, and index, as well as keyword computer searches, to locate information;

(E) interpret and create visuals including graphs, charts, tables, timelines, illustrations, and maps; and

(F) use appropriate mathematical skills to interpret social studies information such as maps and graphs.

(3.17) Social studies skills. The student communicates effectively in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:

(A) express ideas orally based on knowledge and experiences;

(B) create written and visual material such as stories, poems, pictures, maps, and graphic organizers to express ideas; and

(C) use standard grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and punctuation.

(3.18) Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings. The student is expected to:

(A) use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution; and

(B) use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather information, identify options, predict consequences, and take action to implement a decision.

 

Source: The provisions of this §113.5 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.

§113.6. Social Studies, Grade 4.

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 4, students examine the history of Texas from the early beginnings to the present within the context of influences of the Western Hemisphere. Historical content focuses on Texas history including the Texas revolution, establishment of the Republic of Texas, and subsequent annexation to the United States. Students discuss important issues, events, and individuals of the 19th and 20th centuries. Students conduct a thorough study of regions in Texas and the Western Hemisphere that result from human activity and from physical features. A focus on the location, distribution, and patterns of economic activities and of settlement in Texas further enhances the concept of regions. Students describe how early Native Americans in Texas and the Western Hemisphere met their basic economic needs and identify economic motivations for European exploration and colonization and reasons for the establishment of Spanish missions. Students explain how Native Americans governed themselves and identify characteristics of Spanish and Mexican colonial governments in Texas. Students recite and explain the meaning of the Pledge to the Texas Flag. Students identify the contributions of people of various racial, ethnic, and religious groups to Texas and describe the impact of science and technology on life in the state. Students use critical-thinking skills to identify cause-and-effect relationships, compare and contrast, and make generalizations and predictions.

(2) To support the teaching of the essential knowledge and skills, the use of a variety of rich primary and secondary source material such as biographies; novels; speeches and letters; and poetry, songs, and artworks is encouraged. Selections may include a children's biography of Stephen F. Austin. Motivating resources are also available from museums, historical sites, presidential libraries, and local and state preservation societies.

(3) The eight strands of the essential knowledge and skills for social studies are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes with the history and geography strands establishing a sense of time and a sense of place. Skills listed in the geography and social studies skills strands in subsection (b) of this section should be incorporated into the teaching of all essential knowledge and skills for social studies. A greater depth of understanding of complex content material can be attained when integrated social studies content from the various disciplines and critical-thinking skills are taught together.

(4) Throughout social studies in Kindergarten-Grade 12, students build a foundation in history; geography; economics; government; citizenship; culture; science, technology, and society; and social studies skills. The content, as appropriate for the grade level or course, enables students to understand the importance of patriotism, function in a free enterprise society, and appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation as referenced in the Texas Education Code, §28.002(h).

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(4.1) History. The student understands the similarities and differences of Native-American groups in Texas and the Western Hemisphere before European exploration. The student is expected to:

(A) identify Native-American groups in Texas and the Western Hemisphere before European exploration and describe the regions in which they lived; and

(B) compare the ways of life of Native-American groups in Texas and the Western Hemisphere before European exploration.

(4.2) History. The student understands the causes and effects of European exploration and colonization of Texas and the Western Hemisphere. The student is expected to:

(A) summarize reasons for European exploration and settlement of Texas and the Western Hemisphere;

(B) identify the accomplishments of significant explorers such as Cabeza de Vaca; Christopher Columbus; Francisco Coronado; and René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle and explain their impact on the settlement of Texas;

(C) explain when, where, and why the Spanish established Catholic missions in Texas;

(D) identify the accomplishments of significant empresarios including Moses Austin, Stephen F. Austin, and Martín de León and explain their impact on the settlement of Texas; and

(E) identify the impact of Mexico's independence from Spain on the events in Texas.

(4.3) History. The student understands the causes and effects of the Texas Revolution, the Republic of Texas, and the annexation of Texas to the United States. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the causes, major events, and effects of the Texas Revolution, including the battles of the Alamo and San Jacinto;

(B) describe the successes and problems of the Republic of Texas;

(C) explain the events that led to the annexation of Texas to the United States;

(D) explain the impact of the Mexican War on Texas; and

(E) identify leaders important to the founding of Texas as a republic and state, including Sam Houston, Mirabeau Lamar, and Anson Jones.

(4.4) History. The student understands the political, economic, and social changes in Texas during the last half of the 19th century. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on Texas;

(B) explain the growth and development of the cattle and oil industries;

(C) identify the impact of railroads on life in Texas, including changes to cities and major industries; and

(D) describe the effects of political, economic, and social changes on Native Americans in Texas.

(4.5) History. The student understands important issues, events, and individuals of the 20th century in Texas. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the impact of various issues and events on life in Texas such as urbanization, increased use of oil and gas, and the growth of aerospace and other technology industries; and

(B) identify the accomplishments of notable individuals such as Henry Cisneros, Miriam A. Ferguson, Audie Murphy, Cleto Rodríguez, and John Tower.

(4.6) Geography. The student uses geographic tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:

(A) apply geographic tools, including grid systems, legends, symbols, scales, and compass roses, to construct and interpret maps; and

(B) translate geographic data into a variety of formats such as raw data to graphs and maps.

(4.7) Geography. The student understands the concept of regions. The student is expected to:

(A) describe a variety of regions in Texas and the Western Hemisphere such as political, population, and economic regions that result from patterns of human activity;

(B) describe a variety of regions in Texas and the Western Hemisphere such as landform, climate, and vegetation regions that result from physical characteristics; and

(C) compare the regions of Texas with regions of the United States and other parts of the world.

(4.8) Geography. The student understands the location and patterns of settlement and the geographic factors that influence where people live. The student is expected to:

(A) identify clusters of settlement in Texas and explain their distribution;

(B) explain patterns of settlement at different time periods in Texas;

(C) describe the location of cities in Texas and explain their distribution, past and present; and

(D) explain the geographic factors that influence patterns of settlement and the distribution of population in Texas, past and present.

(4.9) Geography. The student understands how people adapt to and modify their environment. The student is expected to:

(A) describe ways people have adapted to and modified their environment in Texas, past and present;

(B) identify reasons why people have adapted to and modified their environment in Texas, past and present, such as the use of natural resources to meet basic needs; and

(C) analyze the consequences of human modification of the environment in Texas, past and present.

(4.10) Economics. The student understands the basic economic patterns of early societies in Texas and the Western Hemisphere. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the economic patterns of various early Native-American groups in Texas and the Western Hemisphere; and

(B) explain the economic patterns of early European immigrants to Texas and the Western Hemisphere.

(4.11) Economics. The student understands the reasons for exploration and colonization. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the economic motivations for European exploration and settlement in Texas and the Western Hemisphere; and

(B) identify the economic motivations for Anglo-American colonization in Texas.

(4.12) Economics. The student understands the characteristics and benefits of the free enterprise system in Texas. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the development of the free enterprise system in Texas;

(B) describe how the free enterprise system works in Texas; and

(C) give examples of the benefits of the free enterprise system in Texas.

(4.13) Economics. The student understands patterns of work and economic activities in Texas. The student is expected to:

(A) explain how people in different regions of Texas earn their living, past and present;

(B) explain how geographic factors have influenced the location of economic activities in Texas;

(C) analyze the effects of immigration, migration, and limited resources on the economic development and growth of Texas;

(D) describe the impact of mass production, specialization, and division of labor on the economic growth of Texas;

(E) explain how developments in transportation and communication have influenced economic activities in Texas; and

(F) explain the impact of American ideas about progress and equality of opportunity on the economic development and growth of Texas.

(4.14) Economics. The student understands how Texas, the United States, and other parts of the world are economically interdependent. The student is expected to:

(A) identify ways in which technological changes have resulted in increased interdependence among Texas, the United States, and the world;

(B) identify oil and gas, agricultural, and technological products of Texas that are purchased to meet needs in the United States and around the world; and

(C) explain how Texans meet some of their needs through the purchase of products from the United States and the rest of the world.

(4.15) Government. The student understands how people organized governments in different ways during the early development of Texas. The student is expected to:

(A) compare how selected Native-American groups governed themselves; and

(B) identify characteristics of Spanish and Mexican colonial governments and their influence on inhabitants of Texas.

(4.16) Government. The student understands important ideas in historic documents of Texas. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the purposes and explain the importance of the Texas Declaration of Independence, the Texas Constitution, and the Treaty of Velasco; and

(B) identify and explain the basic functions of the three branches of state government.

(4.17) Citizenship. The student understands important customs, symbols, and celebrations of Texas. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the meaning of selected patriotic symbols and landmarks of Texas, including the six flags over Texas, San José Mission, and the San Jacinto Monument;

(B) sing or recite Texas, Our Texas;

(C) recite and explain the meaning of the Pledge to the Texas Flag; and

(D) describe the origins and significance of state celebrations such as Texas Independence Day and Juneteenth.

(4.18) Citizenship. The student understands the importance of voluntary individual participation in the democratic process. The student is expected to:

(A) explain how individuals can participate voluntarily in civic affairs at state and local levels;

(B) explain the role of the individual in state and local elections;

(C) identify the importance of historical figures such as Sam Houston, Barbara Jordan, and Lorenzo de Zavala who modeled active participation in the democratic process; and

(D) explain how to contact elected and appointed leaders in state and local governments.

(4.19) Citizenship. The student understands the importance of effective leadership in a democratic society. The student is expected to:

(A) identify leaders in state and local governments, including the governor, selected members of the Texas Legislature, and Texans who have been President of the United States, and their political parties; and

(B) identify leadership qualities of state and local leaders, past and present.

(4.20) Culture. The student understands the contributions of people of various racial, ethnic, and religious groups to Texas. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the similarities and differences within and among selected racial, ethnic, and religious groups in Texas;

(B) identify customs, celebrations, and traditions of various culture groups in Texas; and

(C) summarize the contributions of people of various racial, ethnic, and religious groups in the development of Texas.

(4.21) Science, technology, and society. The student understands the impact of science and technology on life in Texas. The student is expected to:

(A) identify famous inventors and scientists such as Gail Borden, Joseph Glidden, and Patillo Higgins and their contributions;

(B) describe how scientific discoveries and technological innovations have benefited individuals, businesses, and society in Texas; and

(C) predict how future scientific discoveries and technological innovations might affect life in Texas.

(4.22) Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of sources including electronic technology. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate between, locate, and use primary and secondary sources such as computer software; interviews; biographies; oral, print, and visual material; and artifacts to acquire information about the United States and Texas;

(B) analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions;

(C) organize and interpret information in outlines, reports, databases, and visuals including graphs, charts, timelines, and maps;

(D) identify different points of view about an issue or topic;

(E) identify the elements of frame of reference that influenced the participants in an event; and

(F) use appropriate mathematical skills to interpret social studies information such as maps and graphs.

(4.23) Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:

(A) use social studies terminology correctly;

(B) incorporate main and supporting ideas in verbal and written communication;

(C) express ideas orally based on research and experiences;

(D) create written and visual material such as journal entries, reports, graphic organizers, outlines, and bibliographies; and

(E) use standard grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and punctuation.

(4.24) Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings. The student is expected to:

(A) use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution; and

(B) use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather information, identify options, predict consequences, and take action to implement a decision.

 

Source: The provisions of this §113.6 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.

§113.7. Social Studies, Grade 5.

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 5, students learn about the history of the United States from its early beginnings to the present with a focus on colonial times through the 20th century. Historical content includes the colonial and revolutionary periods, the establishment of the United States, and issues that led to the Civil War. An overview of major events and significant individuals of the late-19th century and the 20th century is provided. Students learn about a variety of regions in the United States that result from physical features and human activity and identify how people adapt to and modify the environment. Students explain the characteristics and benefits of the free enterprise system and describe economic activities in the United States. Students identify the roots of representative government in this nation as well as the important ideas in the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution. Students recite and explain the meaning of the Pledge of Allegiance. Students examine the importance of effective leadership in a democratic society and identify important leaders in the national government. Students examine fundamental rights guaranteed in the Bill of Rights. Students describe customs and celebrations of various racial, ethnic, and religious groups in the nation and identify the contributions of famous inventors and scientists. Students use critical-thinking skills including sequencing, categorizing, and summarizing information and drawing inferences and conclusions.

(2) To support the teaching of the essential knowledge and skills, the use of a variety of rich primary and secondary source material such as biographies; novels; speeches and letters; and poetry, songs, and artworks is encouraged. Selections may include Yankee Doodle. Motivating resources are also available from museums, historical sites, presidential libraries, and local and state preservation societies.

(3) The eight strands of the essential knowledge and skills for social studies are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes with the history and geography strands establishing a sense of time and a sense of place. Skills listed in the geography and social studies skills strands in subsection (b) of this section should be incorporated into the teaching of all essential knowledge and skills for social studies. A greater depth of understanding of complex content material can be attained when integrated social studies content from the various disciplines and critical-thinking skills are taught together.

(4) Throughout social studies in Kindergarten-Grade 12, students build a foundation in history; geography; economics; government; citizenship; culture; science, technology, and society; and social studies skills. The content, as appropriate for the grade level or course, enables students to understand the importance of patriotism, function in a free enterprise society, and appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation as referenced in the Texas Education Code, §28.002(h).

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(5.1) History. The student understands the causes and effects of European colonization in the United States. The student is expected to:

(A) explain when, where, and why groups of people colonized and settled in the United States; and

(B) describe the accomplishments of significant colonial leaders such as Anne Hutchinson, William Penn, John Smith, and Roger Williams.

(5.2) History. The student understands how conflict between the American colonies and Great Britain led to American independence. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the contributions of significant individuals during the revolutionary period, including Thomas Jefferson and George Washington;

(B) analyze the causes and effects of events prior to and during the American Revolution such as the Boston Tea Party; and

(C) summarize the results of the American Revolution, including the establishment of the United States and the origins of U.S. military institutions.

(5.3) History. The student understands the events that led from the Articles of Confederation to the creation of the U.S. Constitution and the government it established. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the contributions of individuals including James Madison and Roger Sherman who helped create the U.S. Constitution; and

(B) summarize the events that led to the creation of the U.S. Constitution.

(5.4) History. The student understands political, economic, and social changes that occurred in the United States during the 19th century. The student is expected to:

(A) identify changes in society resulting from the Industrial Revolution and explain how these changes led to conflict among sections of the United States;

(B) identify reasons people moved west;

(C) identify examples of U.S. territorial expansion;

(D) describe the causes and effects of the Civil War;

(E) explain the reasons for and rights provided by the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments to the U.S. Constitution;

(F) explain how industry and the mechanization of agriculture changed the American way of life; and

(G) identify the challenges, opportunities, and contributions of people from selected Native-American and immigrant groups.

(5.5) History. The student understands important issues, events, and individuals of the 20th century in the United States. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze various issues and events of the 20th century such as urbanization, industrialization, increased use of oil and gas, world wars, and the Great Depression; and

(B) identify the accomplishments of notable individuals such as Carrie Chapman Catt, Dwight Eisenhower, Martin Luther King, Jr., Rosa Parks, Colin Powell, and Franklin D. Roosevelt who have made contributions to society in the areas of civil rights, women's rights, military actions, and politics.

(5.6) Geography. The student uses geographic tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:

(A) apply geographic tools, including grid systems, legends, symbols, scales, and compass roses, to construct and interpret maps; and

(B) translate geographic data into a variety of formats such as raw data to graphs and maps.

(5.7) Geography. The student understands the concept of regions. The student is expected to:

(A) describe a variety of regions in the United States such as political, population, and economic regions that result from patterns of human activity;

(B) describe a variety of regions in the United States such as landform, climate, and vegetation regions that result from physical characteristics; and

(C) locate the fifty states on a map and identify regions such as New England and the Great Plains made up of various groups of states.

(5.8) Geography. The student understands the location and patterns of settlement and the geographic factors that influence where people live. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and describe the types of settlement and patterns of land use in the United States;

(B) describe clusters of settlement in the United States and explain their distribution;

(C) analyze the location of cities in the United States, including capital cities, and explain their distribution, past and present; and

(D) explain the geographic factors that influence patterns of settlement and the distribution of population in the United States, past and present.

(5.9) Geography. The student understands how people adapt to and modify their environment. The student is expected to:

(A) describe ways people have adapted to and modified their environment in the United States, past and present;

(B) identify reasons why people have adapted to and modified their environment in the United States, past and present, such as the use of human resources to meet basic needs; and

(C) analyze the consequences of human modification of the environment in the United States, past and present.

(5.10) Economics. The student understands the basic economic patterns of early societies in the United States. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the economic patterns of various early Native-American groups in the United States; and

(B) explain the economic patterns of early European colonists.

(5.11) Economics. The student understands the reasons for exploration and colonization. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the economic motivations for European exploration and settlement in the United States; and

(B) identify major industries of colonial America.

(5.12) Economics. The student understands the characteristics and benefits of the free enterprise system in the United States. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the development of the free enterprise system in colonial America and the United States;

(B) describe how the free enterprise system works in the United States; and

(C) give examples of the benefits of the free enterprise system in the United States.

(5.13) Economics. The student understands the impact of supply and demand on consumers and producers in a free enterprise system. The student is expected to:

(A) explain how supply and demand affects consumers in the United States; and

(B) evaluate the effects of supply and demand on business, industry, and agriculture, including the plantation system, in the United States.

(5.14) Economics. The student understands patterns of work and economic activities in the United States. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze how people in different parts of the United States earn a living, past and present;

(B) identify and explain how geographic factors have influenced the location of economic activities in the United States;

(C) analyze the effects of immigration, migration, and limited resources on the economic development and growth of the United States;

(D) describe the impact of mass production, specialization, and division of labor on the economic growth of the United States;

(E) analyze how developments in transportation and communication have influenced economic activities in the United States; and

(F) explain the impact of American ideas about progress and equality of opportunity on the economic development and growth of the United States.

(5.15) Government. The student understands how people organized governments in colonial America. The student is expected to:

(A) compare the systems of government of early European colonists; and

(B) identify examples of representative government in the American colonies, including the Mayflower Compact and the Virginia House of Burgesses.

(5.16) Government. The student understands important ideas in the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the purposes and explain the importance of the Declaration of Independence; and

(B) explain the purposes of the U.S. Constitution as identified in the Preamble to the Constitution.

(5.17) Government. The student understands the framework of government created by the U.S. Constitution. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and explain the basic functions of the three branches of government;

(B) identify the reasons for and describe the system of checks and balances outlined in the U.S. Constitution; and

(C) distinguish between national and state governments and compare their responsibilities in the U.S. federal system.

(5.18) Citizenship. The student understands important customs, symbols, and celebrations that represent American beliefs and principles and contribute to our national identity. The student is expected to:

(A) explain selected patriotic symbols and landmarks such as the Statue of Liberty and the White House and political symbols such as the donkey and elephant;

(B) sing or recite The Star-Spangled Banner and explain its history;

(C) recite and explain the meaning of the Pledge of Allegiance; and

(D) describe the origins and significance of national celebrations such as Memorial Day, Labor Day, and Columbus Day.

(5.19) Citizenship. The student understands the importance of individual participation in the democratic process. The student is expected to:

(A) explain how individuals can participate in civic affairs and political parties at the national level;

(B) analyze the role of the individual in national elections;

(C) identify significant individuals such as César Chávez and Benjamin Franklin who modeled active participation in the democratic process; and

(D) explain how to contact elected and appointed leaders in the national governments.

(5.20) Citizenship. The student understands the importance of effective leadership in a democratic society. The student is expected to:

(A) identify leaders in the national governments, including the president and selected members of Congress, and their political parties; and

(B) identify and compare leadership qualities of national leaders, past and present.

(5.21) Citizenship. The student understands the fundamental rights of American citizens guaranteed in the Bill of Rights and other amendments to the U.S. Constitution. The student is expected to:

(A) summarize the reasons for the creation of the Bill of Rights;

(B) describe important individual rights including freedom of religion, speech, and press and the right to assemble and petition the government;

(C) describe important due process rights including trial by jury and the right to an attorney; and

(D) summarize selected amendments to the U.S. Constitution such as those that extended voting rights of U.S. citizens.

(5.22) Culture. The student understands the relationship between the arts and the times during which they were created. The student is expected to:

(A) identify significant examples of art, music, and literature from various periods in U.S. history; and

(B) explain how examples of art, music, and literature reflect the times during which they were created.

(5.23) Culture. The student understands the contributions of people of various racial, ethnic, and religious groups to the United States. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the similarities and differences within and among selected racial, ethnic, and religious groups in the United States;

(B) describe customs, celebrations, and traditions of selected racial, ethnic, and religious groups in the United States; and

(C) summarize the contributions of people of selected racial, ethnic, and religious groups to our national identity.

(5.24) Science, technology, and society. The student understands the impact of science and technology on life in the United States. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the contributions of famous inventors and scientists such as Neil Armstrong, John J. Audubon, Benjamin Banneker, Clarence Birdseye, George Washington Carver, Thomas Edison, and Carl Sagan;

(B) identify how scientific discoveries and technological innovations such as the transcontinental railroad, the discovery of oil, and the rapid growth of technology industries have advanced the economic development of the United States;

(C) explain how scientific discoveries and technological innovations in the fields of medicine, communication, and transportation have benefited individuals and society in the United States;

(D) analyze environmental changes brought about by scientific discoveries and technological innovations such as air conditioning and fertilizers; and

(E) predict how future scientific discoveries and technological innovations could affect life in the United States.

(5.25) Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of sources including electronic technology. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate between, locate, and use primary and secondary sources such as computer software; interviews; biographies; oral, print, and visual material; and artifacts to acquire information about the United States and Texas;

(B) analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions;

(C) organize and interpret information in outlines, reports, databases, and visuals including graphs, charts, timelines, and maps;

(D) identify different points of view about an issue or topic;

(E) identify the elements of frame of reference that influenced the participants in an event; and

(F) use appropriate mathematical skills to interpret social studies information such as maps and graphs.

(5.26) Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:

(A) use social studies terminology correctly;

(B) incorporate main and supporting ideas in verbal and written communication;

(C) express ideas orally based on research and experiences;

(D) create written and visual material such as journal entries, reports, graphic organizers, outlines, and bibliographies; and

(E) use standard grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and punctuation.

(5.27) Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings. The student is expected to:

(A) use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution; and

(B) use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather information, identify options, predict consequences, and take action to implement a decision.

 

Source: The provisions of this §113.7 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.

Chapter 113. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Social Studies

Subchapter B. Middle School

Statutory Authority: The provisions of this Subchapter B issued under the Texas Education Code, §28.002, unless otherwise noted.

§113.21. Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Social Studies, Middle School.

The provisions of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning September 1, 1998, and at that time shall supersede §75.32(m) and §75.48 of this title (relating to Social Studies, Texas and United States History).

 

Source: The provisions of this §113.21 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.

§113.22. Social Studies, Grade 6.

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 6, students study people and places of the contemporary world. Societies selected for study are chosen from the following regions of the world: Europe, Russia and the Eurasian republics, North America, Middle America, South America, Southwest Asia-North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Realm. Students describe the influence of individuals and groups on historical and contemporary events in those societies and identify the locations and geographic characteristics of selected societies. Students identify different ways of organizing economic and governmental systems. The concepts of limited and unlimited government are introduced, and students describe the nature of citizenship in various societies. Students compare institutions common to all societies such as government, education, and religious institutions. Students explain how the level of technology affects the development of the selected societies and identify different points of view about selected events.

(2) To support the teaching of the essential knowledge and skills, the use of a variety of rich primary and secondary source material such as biographies and autobiographies; novels; speeches and letters; and poetry, songs, and artworks is encouraged. Selections may include Sadako and the Thousand Paper Cranes. Motivating resources are also available from museums, art galleries, and historical sites.

(3) The eight strands of the essential knowledge and skills for social studies are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes. Skills listed in the geography and social studies skills strands in subsection (b) of this section should be incorporated into the teaching of all essential knowledge and skills for social studies. A greater depth of understanding of complex content material can be attained when integrated social studies content from the various disciplines and critical-thinking skills are taught together.

(4) Throughout social studies in Kindergarten-Grade 12, students build a foundation in history; geography; economics; government; citizenship; culture; science, technology, and society; and social studies skills. The content, as appropriate for the grade level or course, enables students to understand the importance of patriotism, function in a free enterprise society, and appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation as referenced in the Texas Education Code, §28.002(h).

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(6.1) History. The student understands that historical events influence contemporary events. The student is expected to:

(A) describe characteristics of selected contemporary societies such as Bosnia and Northern Ireland that resulted from historical events or factors such as invasion, conquests, colonization, immigration, and trade; and

(B) analyze the historical background of selected contemporary societies to evaluate relationships between past conflicts and current conditions.

(6.2) History. The student understands the contributions of individuals and groups from various cultures to selected historical and contemporary societies. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the significance of individuals or groups from selected societies, past and present; and

(B) describe the influence of individual and group achievement on selected historical or contemporary societies.

(6.3) Geography. The student uses maps, globes, graphs, charts, models, and databases to answer geographic questions. The student is expected to:

(A) create thematic maps, graphs, charts, models, and databases depicting various aspects of world regions and countries such as population, disease, and economic activities;

(B) pose and answer questions about geographic distributions and patterns for selected world regions and countries shown on maps, graphs, charts, models, and databases; and

(C) compare selected world regions and countries using data from maps, graphs, charts, databases, and models.

(6.4) Geography. The student understands the characteristics and relative locations of major historical and contemporary societies. The student is expected to:

(A) locate major historical and contemporary societies on maps and globes;

(B) identify and explain the geographic factors responsible for patterns of population in places and regions;

(C) explain ways in which human migration influences the character of places and regions; and

(D) identify and explain the geographic factors responsible for the location of economic activities in places and regions.

(6.5) Geography. The student understands how geographic factors influence the economic development, political relationships, and policies of societies. The student is expected to:

(A) explain factors such as location, physical features, transportation corridors and barriers, and distribution of natural resources that influence the economic development and foreign policies of societies; and

(B) identify geographic factors that influence a society's ability to control territory and that shape the domestic and foreign policies of the society.

(6.6) Geography. The student understands the impact of physical processes on patterns in the environment. The student is expected to:

(A) describe and explain how physical processes such as erosion, ocean circulation, and earthquakes have resulted in physical patterns on Earth's surface;

(B) describe and explain the physical processes that produce renewable and nonrenewable natural resources such as fossil fuels, fertile soils, and timber; and

(C) analyze the effects of physical processes and the physical environment on humans.

(6.7) Geography. The student understands the impact of interactions between people and the physical environment on the development of places and regions. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and analyze ways people have adapted to the physical environment in selected places and regions;

(B) identify and analyze ways people have modified the physical environment; and

(C) describe ways in which technology influences human capacity to modify the physical environment.

(6.8) Economics. The student understands the various ways in which people organize economic systems. The student is expected to:

(A) compare ways in which various societies organize the production and distribution of goods and services;

(B) identify and differentiate among traditional, market, and command economies in selected contemporary societies, including the benefits of the U.S. free enterprise system; and

(C) explain the impact of scarcity on international trade and economic interdependence among societies.

(6.9) Economics. The student understands the role factors of production play in a society's economy. The student is expected to:

(A) describe ways in which factors of production (natural resources, labor, capital, and entrepreneurs) influence the economies of selected contemporary societies; and

(B) identify problems and issues that may arise when one or more of the factors of production is in relatively short supply.

(6.10) Economics. The student understands categories of economic activities and the means used to measure a society's economic level. The student is expected to:

(A) define and give examples of primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary industries; and

(B) describe and measure levels of economic development using various indicators such as individual purchasing power, life expectancy, and literacy.

(6.11) Government. The student understands the concepts of limited governments, such as constitutional and democratic governments, and unlimited governments, such as totalitarian and nondemocratic governments. The student is expected to:

(A) describe characteristics of limited and unlimited governments;

(B) identify examples of limited and unlimited governments;

(C) identify reasons for limiting the power of government; and

(D) compare limited and unlimited governments.

(6.12) Government. The student understands alternative ways of organizing governments. The student is expected to:

(A) identify alternative ways of organizing governments such as rule by one, few, or many;

(B) identify examples of governments with rule by one, few, or many;

(C) identify historical origins of democratic forms of government; and

(D) compare how governments function in selected world societies such as China, Germany, India, and Russia.

(6.13) Citizenship. The student understands that the nature of citizenship varies among societies. The student is expected to:

(A) describe roles and responsibilities of citizens in selected contemporary societies including the United States;

(B) explain how opportunities for citizens to participate in and influence the political process vary among selected contemporary societies; and

(C) compare the role of citizens in the United States with the role of citizens from selected democratic and nondemocratic contemporary societies.

(6.14) Citizenship. The student understands the relationship among individual rights, responsibilities, and freedoms in democratic societies. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and explain the importance of voluntary civic participation in democratic societies; and

(B) explain relationships among rights and responsibilities in democratic societies.

(6.15) Culture. The student understands the similarities and differences within and among cultures in different societies. The student is expected to:

(A) define the concepts of culture and culture region;

(B) describe some traits that define cultures;

(C) analyze the similarities and differences among selected world societies; and

(D) identify and explain examples of conflict and cooperation between and among cultures within selected societies such as Belgium, Canada, and Rwanda.

(6.16) Culture. The student understands that certain institutions are basic to all societies, but characteristics of these institutions may vary from one society to another. The student is expected to:

(A) identify institutions basic to all societies, including government, economic, educational, and religious institutions; and

(B) compare characteristics of institutions in selected contemporary societies.

(6.17) Culture. The student understands relationships that exist among world cultures. The student is expected to:

(A) explain aspects that link or separate cultures and societies;

(B) explain the impact of political boundaries that cut across culture regions;

(C) analyze how culture traits spread;

(D) explain why cultures borrow from each other;

(E) evaluate how cultural borrowing affects world cultures; and

(F) evaluate the consequences of improved communication among cultures.

(6.18) Culture. The student understands the relationship that exists between artistic, creative, and literary expressions and the societies that produce them. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the relationships that exist between societies and their architecture, art, music, and literature;

(B) relate ways in which contemporary expressions of culture have been influenced by the past;

(C) describe ways in which societal issues influence creative expressions; and

(D) identify examples of art, music, and literature that have transcended the boundaries of societies and convey universal themes.

(6.19) Culture. The student understands the relationships among religion, philosophy, and culture. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the relationship among religious ideas, philosophical ideas, and cultures; and

(B) explain the significance of religious holidays and observances such as Christmas and Easter, Ramadan, and Yom Kippur and Rosh Hashanah in selected contemporary societies.

(6.20) Science, technology, and society. The student understands the relationships among science and technology and political, economic, and social issues and events. The student is expected to:

(A) give examples of scientific discoveries and technological innovations, including the roles of scientists and inventors, that have transcended the boundaries of societies and have shaped the world;

(B) explain how resources, belief systems, economic factors, and political decisions have affected the use of technology from place to place, culture to culture, and society to society; and

(C) make predictions about future social, economic, and environmental consequences that may result from future scientific discoveries and technological innovations.

(6.21) Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of sources including electronic technology. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate between, locate, and use primary and secondary sources such as computer software; interviews; biographies; oral, print, and visual material; and artifacts to acquire information about selected world cultures;

(B) analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions;

(C) organize and interpret information from outlines, reports, databases, and visuals including graphs, charts, timelines, and maps;

(D) identify different points of view about an issue or topic;

(E) identify the elements of frame of reference that influenced participants in an event; and

(F) use appropriate mathematical skills to interpret social studies information such as maps and graphs.

(6.22) Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:

(A) use social studies terminology correctly;

(B) incorporate main and supporting ideas in verbal and written communication;

(C) express ideas orally based on research and experiences;

(D) create written and visual material such as journal entries, reports, graphic organizers, outlines, and bibliographies; and

(E) use standard grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and punctuation.

(6.23) Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings. The student is expected to:

(A) use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution; and

(B) use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather information, identify options, predict consequences, and take action to implement a decision.

 

Source: The provisions of this §113.22 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.

§113.23. Social Studies, Grade 7.

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 7, students study the history of Texas from early times to the present. Content is presented with more depth and breadth than in Grade 4. Students examine the full scope of Texas history, including the cultures of Native Americans living in Texas prior to European exploration and the eras of mission-building, colonization, revolution, republic, and statehood. The focus in each era is on key individuals, events, and issues and their impact. Students identify regions of Texas and the distribution of population within and among the regions and explain the factors that caused Texas to change from an agrarian to an urban society. Students describe the structure and functions of municipal, county, and state governments, explain the influence of the U.S. Constitution on the Texas Constitution, and examine the rights and responsibilities of Texas citizens. Students use primary and secondary sources to examine the rich and diverse cultural background of Texas as they identify the different racial and ethnic groups that settled in Texas to build a republic and then a state. Students analyze the impact of scientific discoveries and technological innovations such as barbed wire and the oil and gas industries on the development of Texas. Students use primary and secondary sources to acquire information about Texas.

(2) To support the teaching of the essential knowledge and skills, the use of a variety of rich primary and secondary source material such as biographies and autobiographies; novels; speeches, letters, and diaries; and poetry, songs, and artworks is encouraged. Selections may include a biography of Barbara Jordan or Lorenzo de Zavala and William B. Travis' letter "To the People of Texas and All Americans in the World." Motivating resources are also available from museums, historical sites, presidential libraries, and local and state preservation societies.

(3) The eight strands of the essential knowledge and skills for social studies are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes with the history and geography strands establishing a sense of time and a sense of place. Skills listed in the geography and social studies skills strands in subsection (b) of this section should be incorporated into the teaching of all essential knowledge and skills for social studies. A greater depth of understanding of complex content material can be attained when integrated social studies content from the various disciplines and critical-thinking skills are taught together.

(4) Throughout social studies in Kindergarten-Grade 12, students build a foundation in history; geography; economics; government; citizenship; culture; science, technology, and society; and social studies skills. The content, as appropriate for the grade level or course, enables students to understand the importance of patriotism, function in a free enterprise society, and appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation as referenced in the Texas Education Code, §28.002(h).

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(7.1) History. The student understands traditional historical points of reference in Texas history. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the major eras in Texas history and describe their defining characteristics;

(B) apply absolute and relative chronology through the sequencing of significant individuals, events, and time periods; and

(C) explain the significance of the following dates: 1519, 1718, 1821, 1836, 1845, and 1861.

(7.2) History. The student understands how individuals, events, and issues prior to the Texas Revolution shaped the history of Texas. The student is expected to:

(A) compare the cultures of Native Americans in Texas prior to European colonization;

(B) identify important individuals, events, and issues related to European exploration and colonization of Texas, including the establishment of Catholic missions;

(C) identify the contributions of significant individuals including Moses Austin, Stephen F. Austin, and Juan Seguín during the colonization of Texas;

(D) identify the impact of the Mexican federal Constitution of 1824 on events in Texas;

(E) trace the development of events that led to the Texas Revolution, including the Law of April 6, 1830, the Turtle Bayou Resolutions, and the arrest of Stephen F. Austin; and

(F) contrast Spanish and Anglo purposes for and methods of settlement in Texas.

(7.3) History. The student understands how individuals, events, and issues related to the Texas Revolution shaped the history of Texas. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the roles played by significant individuals during the Texas Revolution, including George Childress, Lorenzo de Zavala, James Fannin, Sam Houston, Antonio López de Santa Anna, and William B. Travis; and

(B) explain the issues surrounding significant events of the Texas Revolution, including the battle of Gonzales, the siege of the Alamo, the convention of 1836, Fannin's surrender at Goliad, and the battle of San Jacinto.

(7.4) History. The student understands how individuals, events, and issues shaped the history of the Republic of Texas and early Texas statehood. The student is expected to:

(A) identify individuals, events, and issues during the Republic of Texas and early Texas statehood, including annexation, Sam Houston, Anson Jones, Mirabeau B. Lamar, problems of the Republic of Texas, the Texas Rangers, the Mexican War, and the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo; and

(B) analyze the causes of and events leading to Texas statehood.

(7.5) History. The student understands how events and issues shaped the history of Texas during the Civil War and Reconstruction. The student is expected to:

(A) explain reasons for the involvement of Texas in the Civil War; and

(B) analyze the political, economic, and social effects of the Civil War and Reconstruction in Texas.

(7.6) History. The student understands how individuals, events, and issues shaped the history of Texas from Reconstruction through the beginning of the 20th century. The student is expected to:

(A) identify significant individuals, events, and issues from Reconstruction through the beginning of the 20th century, including the factors leading to the expansion of the Texas frontier, the effects of westward expansion on Native Americans, the development of the cattle industry from its Spanish beginnings, the myth and realities of the cowboy way of life, the effects of the growth of railroads, the buffalo soldiers, James Hogg, Cynthia Parker, and Spindletop; and

(B) explain the political, economic, and social impact of the cattle and oil industries and the development of West Texas resulting from the close of the frontier.

(7.7) History. The student understands how individuals, events, and issues shaped the history of Texas during the 20th century. The student is expected to:

(A) define the impact of "boom and bust" and trace the boom-and-bust cycle of leading Texas industries throughout the 20th century, including farming, oil and gas, cotton, cattle ranching, real estate, and banking;

(B) evaluate the Progressive and other reform movements in Texas in the 19th and 20th centuries;

(C) trace the civil rights and equal rights movements of various groups in Texas in the 20th century and identify key leaders in these movements, including James Farmer, Hector P. García, Oveta Culp Hobby, and Lyndon B. Johnson;

(D) analyze the political, economic, and social impact of major wars, including World War I and World War II, on the history of Texas;

(E) trace the emergence of the two-party system in Texas during the second half of the 20th century.

(7.8) Geography. The student uses geographic tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:

(A) create thematic maps, graphs, charts, models, and databases representing various aspects of Texas during the 19th and 20th centuries; and

(B) pose and answer questions about geographic distributions and patterns in Texas during the 19th and 20th centuries.

(7.9) Geography. The student understands the location and characteristics of places and regions of Texas. The student is expected to:

(A) locate places and regions of importance in Texas during the 19th and 20th centuries;

(B) compare places and regions of Texas in terms of physical and human characteristics; and

(C) analyze the effects of physical and human factors such as climate, weather, landforms, irrigation, transportation, and communication on major events in Texas.

(7.10) Geography. The student understands the effects of the interaction between humans and the environment in Texas during the 19th and 20th centuries. The student is expected to:

(A) identify ways in which Texans have adapted to and modified the environment and analyze the consequences of the modifications; and

(B) explain ways in which geographic factors have affected the political, economic, and social development of Texas.

(7.11) Geography. The student understands the characteristics, distribution, and migration of population in Texas in the 19th and 20th centuries. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze why immigrant groups came to Texas and where they settled;

(B) analyze how immigration and migration to Texas in the 19th and 20th centuries have influenced Texas;

(C) analyze the effects of the changing population distribution in Texas during the 20th century; and

(D) describe the structure of the population of Texas using demographic concepts such as growth rate and age distribution.

(7.12) Economics. The student understands the factors that caused Texas to change from an agrarian to an urban society. The student is expected to:

(A) explain economic factors that led to the urbanization of Texas;

(B) trace the development of major industries that contributed to the urbanization of Texas; and

(C) explain the changes in the types of jobs and occupations that have resulted from the urbanization of Texas.

(7.13) Economics. The student understands the interdependence of the Texas economy with the United States and the world. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the impact of national and international markets and events on the production of goods and services in Texas;

(B) analyze the impact of economic phenomena within the free enterprise system such as supply and demand, profit, government regulation, and world competition on the economy of Texas; and

(C) analyze the impact of significant industries in Texas such as oil and gas, aerospace, and medical technology on local, national, and international markets.

(7.14) Government. The student understands the basic principles reflected in the Texas Constitution. The student is expected to:

(A) identify how the Texas Constitution reflects the principles of limited government, checks and balances, federalism, separation of powers, popular sovereignty, and individual rights; and

(B) identify the influence of ideas from the U.S. Constitution on the Texas Constitution.

(7.15) Government. The student understands the structure and functions of government created by the Texas Constitution. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the structure and functions of government at municipal, county, and state levels;

(B) identify major sources of revenue for state and local governments; and

(C) describe the structure and governance of Texas public education.

(7.16) Citizenship. The student understands the rights and responsibilities of Texas citizens. The student is expected to:

(A) summarize the rights guaranteed in the Texas Bill of Rights; and

(B) identify civic responsibilities of Texas citizens.

(7.17) Citizenship. The student understands the importance of the expression of different points of view in a democratic society. The student is expected to:

(A) identify different points of view of political parties and interest groups on important Texas issues;

(B) describe the importance of free speech and press in a democratic society; and

(C) express and defend a point of view on an issue of historical or contemporary interest in Texas.

(7.18) Citizenship. The student understands the importance of effective leadership in a democratic society. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the leadership qualities of elected and appointed leaders of Texas, past and present, including Texans who have been President of the United States; and

(B) analyze the contributions of Texas leaders such as Henry B. González, Phil Gramm, Barbara Jordan, and Sam Rayburn.

(7.19) Culture. The student understands the concept of diversity within unity in Texas. The student is expected to:

(A) explain how the diversity of Texas is reflected in a variety of cultural activities, celebrations, and performances;

(B) describe how people from selected racial, ethnic, and religious groups attempt to maintain their cultural heritage while adapting to the larger Texas culture; and

(C) identify examples of Spanish influence on place names such as Amarillo and Río Grande and on vocabulary in Texas, including words that originated from the Spanish cattle industry.

(7.20) Science, technology, and society. The student understands the impact of scientific discoveries and technological innovations on the political, economic, and social development of Texas. The student is expected to:

(A) compare types and uses of technology, past and present;

(B) identify Texas leaders in science and technology such as Roy Bedichek, Walter Cunningham, Michael DeBakey, and C.M. "Dad" Joiner;

(C) analyze the effects of scientific discoveries and technological innovations, such as barbed wire, the windmill, and oil, gas, and aerospace industries, on the developments of Texas;

(D) evaluate the effects of scientific discoveries and technological innovations on the use of resources such as fossil fuels, water, and land;

(E) analyze how scientific discoveries and technological innovations have resulted in an interdependence among Texas, the United States, and the world; and

(F) make predictions about economic, social, and environmental consequences that may result from future scientific discoveries and technological innovations.

(7.21) Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of sources including electronic technology. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate between, locate, and use primary and secondary sources such as computer software, databases, media and news services, biographies, interviews, and artifacts to acquire information about Texas;

(B) analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions;

(C) organize and interpret information from outlines, reports, databases, and visuals including graphs, charts, timelines, and maps;

(D) identify points of view from the historical context surrounding an event and the frame of reference that influenced the participants;

(E) support a point of view on a social studies issue or event;

(F) identify bias in written, oral, and visual material;

(G) evaluate the validity of a source based on language, corroboration with other sources, and information about the author; and

(H) use appropriate mathematical skills to interpret social studies information such as maps and graphs.

(7.22) Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:

(A) use social studies terminology correctly;

(B) use standard grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and punctuation;

(C) transfer information from one medium to another, including written to visual and statistical to written or visual, using computer software as appropriate; and

(D) create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.

(7.23) Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings. The student is expected to:

(A) use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution; and

(B) use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather information, identify options, predict consequences, and take action to implement a decision.

 

Source: The provisions of this §113.23 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.

§113.24. Social Studies, Grade 8.

(a) Introduction.

(1) In Grade 8, students study the history of the United States from the early colonial period through Reconstruction. The knowledge and skills in subsection (b) of this section comprise the first part of a two-year study of U.S. history. The second part, comprising U.S. history since Reconstruction to the present, is provided in §113.32 of this title (relating to United States History Studies Since Reconstruction (One Credit)). The content builds upon that from Grade 5 but provides more depth and breadth. Historical content focuses on the political, economic, and social events and issues related to the colonial and revolutionary eras, the creation and ratification of the U.S. Constitution, challenges of the early Republic, westward expansion, sectionalism, Civil War, and Reconstruction. Students describe the physical characteristics of the United States and their impact on population distribution and settlement patterns in the past and present. Students analyze the various economic factors that influenced the development of colonial America and the early years of the Republic and identify the origins of the free enterprise system. Students examine the American beliefs and principles, including limited government, checks and balances, federalism, separation of powers, and individual rights, reflected in the U.S. Constitution and other historical documents. Students evaluate the impact of Supreme Court cases and major reform movements of the 19th century and examine the rights and responsibilities of citizens of the United States as well as the importance of effective leadership in a democratic society. Students evaluate the impact of scientific discoveries and technological innovations on the development of the United States. Students use critical-thinking skills, including the identification of bias in written, oral, and visual material.

(2) To support the teaching of the essential knowledge and skills, the use of a variety of rich primary and secondary source material such as the complete text of the U.S. Constitution and the Declaration of Independence; landmark cases of the U.S. Supreme Court; biographies and autobiographies; novels; speeches, letters, and diaries; and poetry, songs, and artworks is encouraged. Selections may include excerpts from the letters of John and Abigail Adams, an excerpt from the Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions, and poems of the Civil War era. Motivating resources are also available from museums, historical sites, presidential libraries, and local and state preservation societies.

(3) The eight strands of the essential knowledge and skills for social studies are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes with the history and geography strands establishing a sense of time and a sense of place. Skills listed in the geography and social studies skills strands in subsection (b) of this section should be incorporated into the teaching of all essential knowledge and skills for social studies. A greater depth of understanding of complex content material can be attained when integrated social studies content from the various disciplines and critical-thinking skills are taught together.

(4) Throughout social studies in Kindergarten-Grade 12, students build a foundation in history; geography; economics; government; citizenship; culture; science, technology, and society; and social studies skills. The content, as appropriate for the grade level or course, enables students to understand the importance of patriotism, function in a free enterprise society, and appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation as referenced in the Texas Education Code, §28.002(h).

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(8.1) History. The student understands traditional historical points of reference in U.S. history through 1877. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the major eras in U.S. history through 1877 and describe their defining characteristics;

(B) apply absolute and relative chronology through the sequencing of significant individuals, events, and time periods; and

(C) explain the significance of the following dates: 1607, 1776, 1787, 1803, and 1861-1865.

(8.2) History. The student understands the causes of exploration and colonization eras. The student is expected to:

(A) identify reasons for European exploration and colonization of North America; and

(B) compare political, economic, and social reasons for establishment of the 13 colonies.

(8.3) History. The student understands the foundations of representative government in the United States. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the reasons for the growth of representative government and institutions during the colonial period;

(B) evaluate the importance of the Mayflower Compact, the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, and the Virginia House of Burgesses to the growth of representative government; and

(C) describe how religion contributed to the growth of representative government in the American colonies.

(8.4) History. The student understands significant political and economic issues of the revolutionary era. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze causes of the American Revolution, including mercantilism and British economic policies following the French and Indian War;

(B) explain the roles played by significant individuals during the American Revolution, including Samuel Adams, Benjamin Franklin, King George III, Thomas Jefferson, the Marquis de Lafayette, Thomas Paine, and George Washington;

(C) explain the issues surrounding important events of the American Revolution, including declaring independence; writing the Articles of Confederation; fighting the battles of Lexington, Concord, Saratoga, and Yorktown; and signing the Treaty of Paris; and

(D) analyze the issues of the Philadelphia Convention of 1787, including major compromises and arguments for and against ratification.

(8.5) History. The student understands the challenges confronted by the government and its leaders in the early years of the Republic. The student is expected to:

(A) describe major domestic problems faced by the leaders of the new Republic such as maintaining national security, creating a stable economic system, setting up the court system, and defining the authority of the central government;

(B) summarize arguments regarding protective tariffs, taxation, and the banking system;

(C) explain the origin and development of American political parties;

(D) explain the causes of and issues surrounding important events of the War of 1812;

(E) trace the foreign policies of Presidents Washington through Monroe and explain the impact of Washington's Farewell Address and the Monroe Doctrine;

(F) explain the impact of the election of Andrew Jackson, including the beginning of the modern Democratic Party; and

(G) analyze federal and state Indian policies and the removal and resettlement of Cherokee Indians during the Jacksonian era.

(8.6) History. The student understands westward expansion and its effects on the political, economic, and social development of the nation. The student is expected to:

(A) explain how the Northwest Ordinance established principles and procedures for orderly expansion of the United States;

(B) explain the political, economic, and social roots of Manifest Destiny;

(C) analyze the relationship between the concept of Manifest Destiny and the westward growth of the nation;

(D) explain the major issues and events of the Mexican War and their impact on the United States; and

(E) identify areas that were acquired to form the United States.

(8.7) History. The student understands how political, economic, and social factors led to the growth of sectionalism and the Civil War. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the impact of tariff policies on sections of the United States before the Civil War;

(B) compare the effects of political, economic, and social factors on slaves and free blacks;

(C) analyze the impact of slavery on different sections of the United States; and

(D) compare the provisions and effects of congressional conflicts and compromises prior to the Civil War, including the roles of John C. Calhoun, Henry Clay, and Daniel Webster.

(8.8) History. The student understands individuals, issues, and events of the Civil War. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the roles played by significant individuals during the Civil War, including Jefferson Davis, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, and Abraham Lincoln;

(B) explain the issues surrounding significant events of the Civil War, including the firing on Fort Sumter, the battles of Gettysburg and Vicksburg, the announcement of the Emancipation Proclamation, the assassination of Lincoln, and Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House; and

(C) analyze Abraham Lincoln's ideas about liberty, equality, union, and government as contained in his first and second inaugural addresses and the Gettysburg Address.

(8.9) History. The student understands the effects of Reconstruction on the political, economic, and social life of the nation. The student is expected to:

(A) evaluate legislative reform programs of the Radical Reconstruction Congress and reconstructed state governments;

(B) describe the economic difficulties faced by the United States during Reconstruction; and

(C) explain the social problems that faced the South during Reconstruction and evaluate their impact on different groups.

(8.10) Geography. The student uses geographic tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:

(A) create thematic maps, graphs, charts, models, and databases representing various aspects of the United States; and

(B) pose and answer questions about geographic distributions and patterns shown on maps, graphs, charts, models, and databases.

(8.11) Geography. The student understands the location and characteristics of places and regions of the United States, past and present. The student is expected to:

(A) locate places and regions of importance in the United States during the 18th and 19th centuries;

(B) compare places and regions of the United States in terms of physical and human characteristics; and

(C) analyze the effects of physical and human geographic factors on major historical and contemporary events in the United States.

(8.12) Geography. The student understands the physical characteristics of the United States during the 18th and 19th centuries and how humans adapted to and modified the environment. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze how physical characteristics of the environment influenced population distribution, settlement patterns, and economic activities in the United States during the 18th and 19th centuries;

(B) describe the consequences of human modification of the physical environment of the United States; and

(C) describe how different immigrant groups interacted with the environment in the United States during the 18th and 19th centuries.

(8.13) Economics. The student understands why various sections of the United States developed different patterns of economic activity. The student is expected to:

(A) identify economic differences among different regions of the United States;

(B) explain reasons for the development of the plantation system, the growth of the slave trade, and the spread of slavery; and

(C) analyze the causes and effects of economic differences among different regions of the United States at selected times in U.S. history.

(8.14) Economics. The student understands how various economic forces resulted in the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the War of 1812 as a cause of economic changes in the nation; and

(B) identify the economic factors that brought about rapid industrialization and urbanization.

(8.15) Economics. The student understands the origins and development of the free enterprise system in the United States. The student is expected to:

(A) explain why a free enterprise system of economics developed in the new nation; and

(B) describe the characteristics and the benefits of the U.S. free enterprise system during the 18th and 19th centuries.

(8.16) Government. The student understands the American beliefs and principles reflected in the U.S. Constitution and other important historic documents. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the influence of ideas from historic documents including the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights, the Mayflower Compact, the Declaration of Independence, the Federalist Papers, and selected anti-federalist writings on the U.S. system of government;

(B) summarize the strengths and weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation;

(C) identify colonial grievances listed in the Declaration of Independence and explain how those grievances were addressed in the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights; and

(D) analyze how the U.S. Constitution reflects the principles of limited government, republicanism, checks and balances, federalism, separation of powers, popular sovereignty, and individual rights.

(8.17) Government. The student understands the process of changing the U.S. Constitution and the impact of amendments on American society. The student is expected to:

(A) summarize the purposes for and processes of changing the U.S. Constitution;

(B) describe the impact of 19th-century amendments including the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments on life in the United States; and

(C) identify the origin of judicial review and analyze examples of congressional and presidential responses.

(8.18) Government. The student understands the dynamic nature of the powers of the national government and state governments in a federal system. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the arguments of the Federalists and Anti-Federalists, including those of Alexander Hamilton, Patrick Henry, James Madison, and George Mason; and

(B) describe historical conflicts arising over the issue of states' rights, including the Nullification Crisis and the Civil War.

(8.19) Government. The student understands the impact of landmark Supreme Court cases. The student is expected to:

(A) summarize the issues, decisions, and significance of landmark Supreme Court cases including Marbury v. Madison, McCulloch v. Maryland, and Gibbons v. Ogden; and

(B) evaluate the impact of selected landmark Supreme Court decisions including Dred Scott v. Sandford on life in the United States.

(8.20) Citizenship. The student understands the rights and responsibilities of citizens of the United States. The student is expected to:

(A) define and give examples of unalienable rights;

(B) summarize rights guaranteed in the Bill of Rights;

(C) explain the importance of personal responsibilities such as accepting responsibility for one's behavior and supporting one's family;

(D) identify examples of responsible citizenship, including obeying rules and laws, voting, and serving on juries;

(E) summarize the criteria and explain the process for becoming a naturalized citizen of the United States; and

(F) explain how the rights and responsibilities of U.S. citizens reflect our national identity.

(8.21) Citizenship. The student understands the importance of voluntary individual participation in the democratic process. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the role of significant individuals such as William Penn in the development of self-government in colonial America;

(B) evaluate the contributions of the Founding Fathers as models of civic virtue; and

(C) identify reasons for and the impact of selected examples of civil disobedience in U.S. history such as Henry David Thoreau's refusal to pay a tax.

(8.22) Citizenship. The student understands the importance of the expression of different points of view in a democratic society. The student is expected to:

(A) identify different points of view of political parties and interest groups on important historical and contemporary issues;

(B) describe the importance of free speech and press in a democratic society; and

(C) summarize a historical event in which compromise resulted in a peaceful resolution.

(8.23) Citizenship. The student understands the importance of effective leadership in a democratic society. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the leadership qualities of elected and appointed leaders of the United States such as Abraham Lincoln, John Marshall, and George Washington; and

(B) describe the contributions of significant political, social, and military leaders of the United States such as Frederick Douglass, John Paul Jones, James Monroe, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton.

(8.24) Culture. The student understands the relationships between and among people from various groups, including racial, ethnic, and religious groups, during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. The student is expected to:

(A) identify selected racial, ethnic, and religious groups that settled in the United States and their reasons for immigration;

(B) explain the relationship between urbanization and conflicts resulting from differences in religion, social class, and political beliefs;

(C) identify ways conflicts between people from various racial, ethnic, and religious groups were resolved;

(D) analyze the contributions of people of various racial, ethnic, and religious groups to our national identity; and

(E) identify the political, social, and economic contributions of women to American society.

(8.25) Culture. The student understands the major reform movements of the 19th century. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the historical development of the abolitionist movement; and

(B) evaluate the impact of reform movements including public education, temperance, women's rights, prison reform, and care of the disabled.

(8.26) Culture. The student understands the impact of religion on the American way of life. The student is expected to:

(A) trace the development of religious freedom in the United States;

(B) describe religious influences on immigration and on social movements, including the impact of the first and second Great Awakenings; and

(C) analyze the impact of the first amendment guarantees of religious freedom on the American way of life.

(8.27) Culture. The student understands the relationship between the arts and the times during which they were created. The student is expected to:

(A) describe developments in art, music, literature, drama, and other cultural activities in the history of the United States;

(B) analyze the relationship between fine arts and continuity and change in the American way of life; and

(C) identify examples of American art, music, and literature that transcend American culture and convey universal themes.

(8.28) Science, technology, and society. The student understands the impact of science and technology on the economic development of the United States. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the effects of technological and scientific innovations such as the steamboat, the cotton gin, and the Bessemer steel process;

(B) analyze the impact of transportation systems on the growth, development, and urbanization of the United States;

(C) analyze how technological innovations changed the way goods were manufactured and marketed, nationally and internationally; and

(D) explain how technological innovations led to rapid industrialization.

(8.29) Science, technology, and society. The student understands the impact of scientific discoveries and technological innovations on daily life in the United States. The student is expected to:

(A) compare the effects of scientific discoveries and technological innovations that have influenced daily life in different periods in U.S. history;

(B) describe how scientific ideas influenced technological developments during different periods in U.S. history; and

(C) identify examples of how industrialization changed life in the United States.

(8.30) Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of sources including electronic technology. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate between, locate, and use primary and secondary sources such as computer software, databases, media and news services, biographies, interviews, and artifacts to acquire information about the United States;

(B) analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions;

(C) organize and interpret information from outlines, reports, databases, and visuals including graphs, charts, timelines, and maps;

(D) identify points of view from the historical context surrounding an event and the frame of reference which influenced the participants;

(E) support a point of view on a social studies issue or event;

(F) identify bias in written, oral, and visual material;

(G) evaluate the validity of a source based on language, corroboration with other sources, and information about the author; and

(H) use appropriate mathematical skills to interpret social studies information such as maps and graphs.

(8.31) Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:

(A) use social studies terminology correctly;

(B) use standard grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and punctuation;

(C) transfer information from one medium to another, including written to visual and statistical to written or visual, using computer software as appropriate; and

(D) create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.

(8.32) Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings. The student is expected to:

(A) use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution; and

(B) use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather information, identify options, predict consequences, and take action to implement a decision.

 

Source: The provisions of this §113.24 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.

Chapter 113. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Social Studies

Subchapter C. High School

Statutory Authority: The provisions of this Subchapter C issued under the Texas Education Code, §28.002, unless otherwise noted.

§113.31. Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Social Studies, High School.

The provisions of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning September 1, 1998, and at that time shall supersede §75.68 of this title (relating to Social Studies, Texas and United States History).

 

Source: The provisions of this §113.31 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.

§113.32. United States History Studies Since Reconstruction (One Credit).

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one unit of credit for successful completion of this course.

(b) Introduction.

(1) In this course, which is the second part of a two-year study of U.S. history that begins in Grade 8, students study the history of the United States since Reconstruction to the present. Historical content focuses on the political, economic, and social events and issues related to industrialization and urbanization, major wars, domestic and foreign policies of the Cold War and post-Cold War eras, and reform movements including civil rights. Students examine the impact of geographic factors on major events and analyze causes and effects of the Great Depression. Students examine the impact of constitutional issues on American society, evaluate the dynamic relationship of the three branches of the federal government, and analyze efforts to expand the democratic process. Students describe the relationship between the arts and the times during which they were created. Students analyze the impact of technological innovations on the American labor movement. Students use critical-thinking skills to explain and apply different methods that historians use to interpret the past, including points of view and historical context.

(2) To support the teaching of the essential knowledge and skills, the use of a variety of rich primary and secondary source material such as biographies and autobiographies; landmark cases of the U.S. Supreme Court; novels; speeches, letters, and diaries; and poetry, songs, and artworks is encouraged. Selections may include a biography of Dwight Eisenhower, Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, and Martin Luther King's letter from the Birmingham City Jail. Motivating resources are also available from museums, historical sites, presidential libraries, and local and state preservation societies.

(3) The eight strands of the essential knowledge and skills for social studies are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes with the history and geography strands establishing a sense of time and a sense of place. Skills listed in the geography and social studies skills strands in subsection (c) of this section should be incorporated into the teaching of all essential knowledge and skills for social studies. A greater depth of understanding of complex content material can be attained when integrated social studies content from the various disciplines and critical-thinking skills are taught together.

(4) Throughout social studies in Kindergarten-Grade 12, students build a foundation in history; geography; economics; government; citizenship; culture; science, technology, and society; and social studies skills. The content, as appropriate for the grade level or course, enables students to understand the importance of patriotism, function in a free enterprise society, and appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation as referenced in the Texas Education Code, §28.002(h).

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) History. The student understands traditional historical points of reference in U.S. history from 1877 to the present. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the major eras in U.S. history from 1877 to the present and describe their defining characteristics;

(B) apply absolute and relative chronology through the sequencing of significant individuals, events, and time periods; and

(C) explain the significance of the following dates: 1898, 1914-1918, 1929, 1941-1945, and 1957.

(2) History. The student understands the political, economic, and social changes in the United States from 1877 to 1898. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze political issues such as Indian policies, the growth of political machines, and civil service reform;

(B) analyze economic issues such as industrialization, the growth of railroads, the growth of labor unions, farm issues, and the rise of big business; and

(C) analyze social issues such as the treatment of minorities, child labor, growth of cities, and problems of immigrants.

(3) History. The student understands the emergence of the United States as a world power between 1898 and 1920. The student is expected to:

(A) explain why significant events and individuals, including the Spanish-American War, U.S. expansionism, Henry Cabot Lodge, Alfred Thayer Mahan, and Theodore Roosevelt, moved the United States into the position of a world power;

(B) identify the reasons for U.S. involvement in World War I, including unrestricted submarine warfare;

(C) analyze significant events such as the battle of Argonne Forest and the impact of significant individuals including John J. Pershing during World War I; and

(D) analyze major issues raised by U.S. involvement in World War I, Wilson's Fourteen Points, and the Treaty of Versailles.

(4) History. The student understands the effects of reform and third party movements on American society. The student is expected to:

(A) evaluate the impact of Progressive Era reforms including initiative, referendum, recall, and the passage of the 16th and 17th amendments;

(B) evaluate the impact of reform leaders such as Susan B. Anthony, W.E.B. DuBois, and Robert LaFollette on American society; and

(C) evaluate the impact of third parties and their candidates such as Eugene Debs, H. Ross Perot, and George Wallace.

(5) History. The student understands significant individuals, events, and issues of the 1920s. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze causes and effects of significant issues such as immigration, the Red Scare, Prohibition, and the changing role of women; and

(B) analyze the impact of significant individuals such as Clarence Darrow, William Jennings Bryan, Henry Ford, and Charles A. Lindbergh.

(6) History. The student understands the impact of significant national and international decisions and conflicts from World War II and the Cold War to the present on the United States. The student is expected to:

(A) identify reasons for U.S. involvement in World War II, including the growth of dictatorships and the attack on Pearl Harbor;

(B) analyze major issues and events of World War II such as fighting the war on multiple fronts, the internment of Japanese-Americans, the Holocaust, the battle of Midway, the invasion of Normandy, and the development of and Harry Truman's decision to use the atomic bomb;

(C) explain the roles played by significant military leaders during World War II, including Omar Bradley, Dwight Eisenhower, Douglas MacArthur, George Marshall, and George Patton;

(D) describe U.S. responses to Soviet aggression after World War II, including the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and the Berlin airlift;

(E) analyze the conflicts in Korea and Vietnam and describe their domestic and international effects;

(F) describe the impact of the GI Bill, the election of 1948, McCarthyism, and Sputnik I;

(G) analyze reasons for the Western victory in the Cold War and the challenges of changing relationships among nations; and

(H) identify the origins of major domestic and foreign policy issues currently facing the United States.

(7) History. The student understands the impact of the American civil rights movement. The student is expected to:

(A) trace the historical development of the civil rights movement in the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries, including the 13th, 14th, 15th amendments;

(B) identify significant leaders of the civil rights movement, including Martin Luther King, Jr.;

(C) evaluate government efforts, including the Civil Rights Act of 1964, to achieve equality in the United States; and

(D) identify changes in the United States that have resulted from the civil rights movement such as increased participation of minorities in the political process.

(8) Geography. The student uses geographic tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:

(A) create thematic maps, graphs, charts, models, and databases representing various aspects of the United States; and

(B) pose and answer questions about geographic distributions and patterns shown on maps, graphs, charts, models, and databases.

(9) Geography. The student understands the impact of geographic factors on major events. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the effects of physical and human geographic factors on major events including the building of the Panama Canal; and

(B) identify and explain reasons for changes in political boundaries such as those resulting from statehood and international conflicts.

(10) Geography. The student understands the effects of migration and immigration on American society. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the effects of changing demographic patterns resulting from migration within the United States; and

(B) analyze the effects of changing demographic patterns resulting from immigration to the United States.

(11) Geography. The student understands the relationship between population growth and modernization on the physical environment. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the effects of population growth and distribution and predict future effects on the physical environment; and

(B) trace the development of the conservation of natural resources, including the establishment of the National Park System and efforts of private nonprofit organizations.

(12) Economics. The student understands domestic and foreign issues related to U.S. economic growth from the 1870s to 1920. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the relationship between private property rights and the settlement of the Great Plains;

(B) compare the purpose of the Interstate Commerce Commission with its performance over time;

(C) describe the impact of the Sherman Antitrust Act on businesses;

(D) analyze the effects of economic policies including the Open Door Policy and Dollar Diplomacy on U.S. diplomacy; and

(E) describe the economic effects of international military conflicts, including the Spanish-American War and World War I, on the United States.

(13) Economics. The student understands significant economic developments between World War I and World War II. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze causes of economic growth and prosperity in the 1920s;

(B) analyze the causes of the Great Depression, including the decline in worldwide trade, the stock market crash, and bank failures;

(C) analyze the effects of the Great Depression on the U.S. economy and government;

(D) evaluate the effectiveness of New Deal measures in ending the Great Depression; and

(E) analyze how various New Deal agencies and programs such as the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Securities and Exchange Commission, and Social Security continue to affect the lives of U.S. citizens.

(14) Economics. The student understands the economic effects of World War II, the Cold War, and increased worldwide competition on contemporary society. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the economic effects of World War II on the home front, including rationing, female employment, and the end of the Great Depression;

(B) identify the causes and effects of prosperity in the 1950s;

(C) describe the impact of the Cold War on the business cycle and defense spending;

(D) identify actions of government and the private sector to expand economic opportunities to all citizens; and

(E) describe the dynamic relationship between U.S. international trade policies and the U.S. free enterprise system.

(15) Government. The student understands changes in the role of government over time. The student is expected to:

(A) evaluate the impact of New Deal legislation on the historical roles of state and federal governments;

(B) explain the impact of significant international events such as World War I and World War II on changes in the role of the federal government;

(C) evaluate the effects of political incidents such as Teapot Dome and Watergate on the views of U.S. citizens concerning the role of the federal government; and

(D) predict the effects of selected contemporary legislation on the roles of state and federal governments.

(16) Government. The student understands the changing relationships among the three branches of the federal government. The student is expected to:

(A) evaluate the impact of events, including the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution and the War Powers Act, on the relationship between the legislative and executive branches of government; and

(B) evaluate the impact of events, including Franklin Roosevelt's attempt to increase the number of U.S. Supreme Court justices, on the relationships among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government.

(17) Government. The student understands the impact of constitutional issues on American society in the 20th century. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the effects of 20th-century landmark U.S. Supreme Court decisions such as Brown v. Board of Education, Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, and Reynolds v. Sims;

(B) analyze reasons for the adoption of 20th-century constitutional amendments.

(18) Citizenship. The student understands efforts to expand the democratic process. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and analyze methods of expanding the right to participate in the democratic process, including lobbying, protesting, court decisions, and amendments to the U.S. Constitution;

(B) evaluate various means of achieving equality of political rights, including the 19th, 24th, and 26th amendments; and

(C) explain how participation in the democratic process reflects our national identity.

(19) Citizenship. The student understands the importance of effective leadership in a democratic society. The student is expected to:

(A) describe qualities of effective leadership;

(B) evaluate the contributions of significant political and social leaders in the United States such as Andrew Carnegie, Shirley Chisholm, and Franklin D. Roosevelt; and

(C) identify the contributions of Texans who have been President of the United States.

(20) Culture. The student understands the relationship between the arts and the times during which they were created. The student is expected to:

(A) describe how the characteristics and issues of various eras in U.S. history have been reflected in works of art, music, and literature such as the paintings of Georgia O'Keeffe, rock and roll, and John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath;

(B) describe the impact of significant examples of cultural movements in art, music, and literature on American society, including the Harlem Renaissance;

(C) identify examples of American art, music, and literature that transcend American culture and convey universal themes;

(D) analyze the relationship between culture and the economy and identify examples such as the impact of the entertainment industry on the U.S. economy; and

(E) identify the impact of popular American culture on the rest of the world.

(21) Culture. The student understands how people from various groups, including racial, ethnic, and religious groups, adapt to life in the United States and contribute to our national identity. The student is expected to:

(A) explain actions taken by people from racial, ethnic, and religious groups to expand economic opportunities and political rights in American society;

(B) explain efforts of the Americanization movement to assimilate immigrants into American culture;

(C) analyze how the contributions of people of various racial, ethnic, and religious groups have helped to shape the national identity; and

(D) identify the political, social, and economic contributions of women to American society.

(22) Science, technology, and society. The student understands the impact of science and technology on the economic development of the United States. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the effects of scientific discoveries and technological innovations such as electric power, the telegraph and telephone, petroleum-based products, medical vaccinations, and computers on the development of the United States;

(B) explain how scientific discoveries and technological innovations such as those in agriculture, the military, and medicine resulted from specific needs; and

(C) analyze the impact of technological innovations on the nature of work, the American labor movement, and businesses.

(23) Science, technology, and society. The student understands the influence of scientific discoveries and technological innovations on daily life in the United States. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze how scientific discoveries and technological innovations, including those in transportation and communication, have changed the standard of living in the United States; and

(B) explain how technological innovations in areas such as space exploration have led to other innovations that affect daily life and the standard of living.

(24) Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of sources including electronic technology. The student is expected to:

(A) locate and use primary and secondary sources such as computer software, databases, media and news services, biographies, interviews, and artifacts to acquire information about the United States;

(B) analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions;

(C) explain and apply different methods that historians use to interpret the past, including the use of primary and secondary sources, points of view, frames of reference, and historical context;

(D) use the process of historical inquiry to research, interpret, and use multiple sources of evidence;

(E) evaluate the validity of a source based on language, corroboration with other sources, and information about the author;

(F) identify bias in written, oral, and visual material;

(G) support a point of view on a social studies issue or event; and

(H) use appropriate mathematical skills to interpret social studies information such as maps and graphs.

(25) Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:

(A) use social studies terminology correctly;

(B) use standard grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and punctuation;

(C) transfer information from one medium to another, including written to visual and statistical to written or visual, using computer software as appropriate; and

(D) create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.

(26) Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings. The student is expected to:

(A) use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution; and

(B) use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather information, identify options, predict consequences, and take action to implement a decision.

 

Source: The provisions of this §113.32 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.

§113.33. World History Studies (One Credit).

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one unit of credit for successful completion of this course.

(b) Introduction.

(1) World History Studies is the only course offering students an overview of the entire history of humankind. The major emphasis is on the study of significant people, events, and issues from the earliest times to the present. Traditional historical points of reference in world history are identified as students analyze important events and issues in western civilization as well as in civilizations in other parts of the world. Students evaluate the causes and effects of political and economic imperialism and of major political revolutions since the 17th century. Students examine the impact of geographic factors on major historic events and identify the historic origins of contemporary economic systems. Students analyze the process by which democratic-republican governments evolved as well as the ideas from historic documents that influenced that process. Students trace the historical development of important legal and political concepts. Students examine the history and impact of major religious and philosophical traditions. Students analyze the connections between major developments in science and technology and the growth of industrial economies, and they use the process of historical inquiry to research, interpret, and use multiple sources of evidence.

(2) To support the teaching of the essential knowledge and skills, the use of a variety of rich primary and secondary source material such as biographies and autobiographies; novels; speeches and letters; and poetry, songs, and artworks is encouraged. Selections may include excerpts from Hammurabi's Code. Motivating resources are also available from museums, art galleries, and historical sites.

(3) The eight strands of the essential knowledge and skills for social studies are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes with the history and geography strands establishing a sense of time and a sense of place. Skills listed in the geography and social studies skills strands in subsection (c) of this section should be incorporated into the teaching of all essential knowledge and skills for social studies. A greater depth of understanding of complex content material can be attained when integrated social studies content from the various disciplines and critical-thinking skills are taught together.

(4) Throughout social studies in Kindergarten-Grade 12, students build a foundation in history; geography; economics; government; citizenship; culture; science, technology, and society; and social studies skills. The content, as appropriate for the grade level or course, enables students to understand the importance of patriotism, function in a free enterprise society, and appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nations, as referenced in the Texas Education Code, §28.002(h).

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) History. The student understands traditional historical points of reference in world history. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the major eras in world history and describe their defining characteristics;

(B) identify changes that resulted from important turning points in world history such as the development of farming; the Mongol invasions; the development of cities; the European age of exploration and colonization; the scientific and industrial revolutions; the political revolutions of the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries; and the world wars of the 20th century;

(C) apply absolute and relative chronology through the sequencing of significant individuals, events, and time periods; and

(D) explain the significance of the following dates: 1066, 1215, 1492, 1789, 1914-1918, and 1939-1945.

(2) History. The student understands how the present relates to the past. The student is expected to:

(A) identify elements in a contemporary situation that parallel a historical situation; and

(B) describe variables in a contemporary situation that could result in different outcomes.

(3) History. The student understands how, as a result of the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, new political, economic, and social systems evolved, creating a new civilization in Western Europe. The student is expected to:

(A) compare medieval Europe with previous civilizations;

(B) describe the major characteristics of the political system of feudalism, the economic system of manorialism, and the authority exerted by the Roman Catholic Church; and

(C) identify the political, economic, and social impact of the Crusades.

(4) History. The student understands the influence of the European Renaissance and the Reformation eras. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the causes and characteristics of the European Renaissance and the Reformation eras; and

(B) identify the effects of the European Renaissance and the Reformation eras.

(5) History. The student understands causes and effects of European expansion beginning in the 16th century. The student is expected to:

(A) identify causes of European expansion beginning in the 16th century; and

(B) explain the political, economic, cultural, and technological influences of European expansion on both Europeans and non-Europeans, beginning in the 16th century.

(6) History. The student understands the major developments of civilizations of sub-Saharan Africa, Mesoamerica, Andean South America, and Asia. The student is expected to:

(A) summarize the major political and cultural developments of the civilizations of sub-Saharan Africa;

(B) summarize the major political, economic, and cultural developments of civilizations in Mesoamerica and Andean South America; and

(C) summarize the major political, economic, and cultural developments of civilizations in China, India, and Japan.

(7) History. The student understands the impact of political and economic imperialism throughout history. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze examples of major empires of the world such as the Aztec, British, Chinese, French, Japanese, Mongol, and Ottoman empires; and

(B) summarize effects of imperialism on selected societies.

(8) History. The student understands causes and effects of major political revolutions since the 17th century. The student is expected to:

(A) identify causes and evaluate effects of major political revolutions since the 17th century, including the English, American, French, and Russian revolutions;

(B) summarize the ideas from the English, American, French, and Russian revolutions concerning separation of powers, liberty, equality, democracy, popular sovereignty, human rights, constitutionalism, and nationalism;

(C) evaluate how the American Revolution differed from the French and Russian revolutions, including its long-term impact on political developments around the world; and

(D) summarize the significant events related to the spread and fall of communism, including worldwide political and economic effects.

(9) History. The student understands the impact of totalitarianism in the 20th century. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and explain causes and effects of World Wars I and II, including the rise of nazism/ fascism in Germany, Italy, and Japan; the rise of communism in the Soviet Union; and the Cold War; and

(B) analyze the nature of totalitarian regimes in China, Nazi Germany, and the Soviet Union.

(10) History. The student understands the influence of significant individuals of the 20th century. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the influence of significant individuals such as Winston Churchill, Adolf Hitler, Vladimir Lenin, Mao Zedong, and Woodrow Wilson on political events of the 20th century; and

(B) analyze the influence of significant social and/or religious leaders such as Mohandas Gandhi, Pope John Paul II, Mother Theresa, and Desmond Tutu on events of the 20th century.

(11) Geography. The student uses geographic skills and tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:

(A) create thematic maps, graphs, charts, models, and databases representing various aspects of world history; and

(B) pose and answer questions about geographic distributions and patterns in world history shown on maps, graphs, charts, models, and databases.

(12) Geography. The student understands the impact of geographic factors on major historic events. The student is expected to:

(A) locate places and regions of historical significance such as the Indus, Nile, Tigris and Euphrates, and Yellow (Huang He) river valleys and describe their physical and human characteristics;

(B) analyze the effects of physical and human geographic factors on major events in world history such as the effects of the opening of the Suez Canal on world trade patterns; and

(C) interpret historical and contemporary maps to identify and explain geographic factors such as control of the Straits of Hormuz that have influenced people and events in the past.

(13) Economics. The student understands the impact of the Neolithic agricultural revolution on humanity and the development of the first civilizations. The student is expected to:

(A) identify important changes in human life caused by the Neolithic agricultural revolution; and

(B) explain economic, social, and geographic factors that led to the development of the first civilizations.

(14) Economics. The student understands the historic origins of contemporary economic systems. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the historic origins of the economic systems of capitalism and socialism;

(B) identify the historic origins of the political and economic system of communism; and

(C) compare the relationships between and among contemporary countries with differing economic systems.

(15) Government. The student understands the historical antecedents of contemporary political systems. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the impact of parliamentary and constitutional systems of government on significant world political developments;

(B) define and give examples of different political systems, past and present;

(C) explain the impact of American political ideas on significant world political developments; and

(D) apply knowledge of political systems to make decisions about contemporary issues and events.

(16) Government. The student understands the process by which democratic-republican government evolved. The student is expected to:

(A) trace the process by which democratic-republican government evolved from its beginnings in classical Greece and Rome, through developments in England, and continuing with the Enlightenment; and

(B) identify the impact of political and legal ideas contained in significant historic documents, including Hammurabi's Code, Justinian's Code of Laws, Magna Carta, John Locke's Two Treatises of Government, and the Declaration of Independence.

(17) Citizenship. The student understands the significance of political choices and decisions made by individuals, groups, and nations throughout history. The student is expected to:

(A) evaluate political choices and decisions that individuals, groups, and nations have made in the past, taking into account historical context, and apply this knowledge to the analysis of choices and decisions faced by contemporary societies; and

(B) describe the different roles of citizens and noncitizens in historical cultures, especially as the roles pertain to civic participation.

(18) Citizenship. The student understands the historical development of significant legal and political concepts, including ideas about rights, republicanism, constitutionalism, and democracy. The student is expected to:

(A) trace the historical development of the rule of law and rights and responsibilities, beginning in the ancient world and continuing to the beginning of the first modern constitutional republics;

(B) summarize the worldwide influence of ideas concerning rights and responsibilities that originated from Greco-Roman and Judeo-Christian ideals in Western civilization such as equality before the law;

(C) identify examples of political, economic, and social oppression and violations of human rights throughout history, including slavery, the Holocaust, other examples of genocide, and politically-motivated mass murders in Cambodia, China, and the Soviet Union;

(D) assess the degree to which human rights and democratic ideals and practices have been advanced throughout the world during the 20th century.

(19) Culture. The student understands the history and relevance of major religious and philosophical traditions. The student is expected to:

(A) compare the historical origins, central ideas, and the spread of major religious and philosophical traditions including Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism; and

(B) identify examples of religious influence in historic and contemporary world events.

(20) Culture. The student understands the relationship between the arts and the times during which they were created. The student is expected to:

(A) identify significant examples of art and architecture that demonstrate an artistic ideal or visual principle from selected cultures;

(B) analyze examples of how art, architecture, literature, music, and drama reflect the history of cultures in which they are produced; and

(C) identify examples of art, music, and literature that transcend the cultures in which they were created and convey universal themes.

(21) Culture. The student understands the roles of women, children, and families in different historical cultures. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the specific roles of women, children, and families in different historical cultures; and

(B) describe the political, economic, and cultural influence of women in different historical cultures.

(22) Culture. The student understands how the development of ideas has influenced institutions and societies. The student is expected to:

(A) summarize the fundamental ideas and institutions of Eastern civilizations that originated in China and India;

(B) summarize the fundamental ideas and institutions of Western civilization that originated in Greece and Rome; and

(C) analyze how ideas such as Judeo-Christian ethics and the rise of secularism and individualism in Western civilization, beginning with the Enlightenment, have influenced institutions and societies.

(23) Science, technology, and society. The student understands how major scientific and mathematical discoveries and technological innovations have affected societies throughout history. The student is expected to:

(A) give examples of major mathematical and scientific discoveries and technological innovations that occurred at different periods in history and describe the changes produced by these discoveries and innovations;

(B) identify new ideas in mathematics, science, and technology that occurred during the Greco-Roman, Indian, Islamic, and Chinese civilizations and trace the spread of these ideas to other civilizations;

(C) summarize the ideas in astronomy, mathematics, and architectural engineering that developed in Mesoamerica and Andean South America;

(D) describe the origins of the scientific revolution in 16th-century Europe and explain its impact on scientific thinking worldwide; and

(E) identify the contributions of significant scientists such as Archimedes, Copernicus, Erastosthenes, Galileo, and Pythagorus.

(24) Science, technology, and society. The student understands connections between major developments in science and technology and the growth of industrial economies and societies in the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the causes of industrialization and evaluate both short-term and long-term impact on societies;

(B) describe the connection between scientific discoveries and technological innovations and new patterns of social and cultural life in the 20th century, such as developments in transportation and communication that affected social mobility; and

(C) identify the contributions of significant scientists and inventors such as Robert Boyle, Marie Curie, Thomas Edison, Albert Einstein, Robert Fulton, Sir Isaac Newton, Louis Pasteur, and James Watt.

(25) Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of sources including electronic technology. The student is expected to:

(A) identify ways archaeologists, anthropologists, historians, and geographers analyze limited evidence;

(B) locate and use primary and secondary sources such as computer software, databases, media and news services, biographies, interviews, and artifacts to acquire information;

(C) analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions;

(D) explain and apply different methods that historians use to interpret the past, including the use of primary and secondary sources, points of view, frames of reference, and historical context;

(E) use the process of historical inquiry to research, interpret, and use multiple sources of evidence;

(F) evaluate the validity of a source based on language, corroboration with other sources, and information about the author;

(G) identify bias in written, oral, and visual material;

(H) support a point of view on a social studies issue or event; and

(I) use appropriate mathematical skills to interpret social studies information such as maps and graphs.

(26) Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:

(A) use social studies terminology correctly;

(B) use standard grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and punctuation;

(C) interpret and create databases, research outlines, bibliographies, and visuals including graphs, charts, timelines, and maps; and

(D) transfer information from one medium to another, including written to visual and statistical to written or visual, using computer software as appropriate.

(27) Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings. The student is expected to:

(A) use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution; and

(B) use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather information, identify options, predict consequences, and take action to implement a decision.

 

Source: The provisions of this §113.33 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.

§113.34. World Geography Studies (One Credit).

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one unit of credit for successful completion of this course.

(b) Introduction.

(1) In World Geography Studies, students examine people, places, and environments at local, regional, national, and international scales from the spatial and ecological perspectives of geography. Students describe the influence of geography on events of the past and present. A significant portion of the course centers around the physical processes that shape patterns in the physical environment; the characteristics of major land forms, climates, and ecosystems and their interrelationships; the political, economic, and social processes that shape cultural patterns of regions; types and patterns of settlement; the distribution and movement of world population; relationships among people, places, and environments; and the concept of region. Students analyze how location affects economic activities in different economic systems throughout the world. Students identify the processes that influence political divisions of the planet and analyze how different points of view affect the development of public policies. Students compare how components of culture shape the characteristics of regions and analyze the impact of technology and human modifications on the physical environment. Students use problem-solving and decision-making skills to ask and answer geographic questions.

(2) To support the teaching of the essential knowledge and skills, the use of a variety of rich primary and secondary source material such as contemporary and historic maps of various types, satellite-produced images, photographs, graphs, sketches, and diagrams is encouraged.

(3) The eight strands of the essential knowledge and skills for social studies are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes. Skills listed in the geography and social studies skills strands in subsection (c) of this section should be incorporated into the teaching of all essential knowledge and skills for social studies. A greater depth of understanding of complex content material can be attained when integrated social studies content from the various disciplines and critical-thinking skills are taught together.

(4) Throughout social studies in Kindergarten-Grade 12, students build a foundation in history; geography; economics; government; citizenship; culture; science, technology, and society; and social studies skills. The content, as appropriate for the grade level or course, enables students to understand the importance of patriotism, function in a free enterprise society, and appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation as referenced in the Texas Education Code, §28.002(h).

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) History. The student understands how geographic contexts (the geography of places in the past) and processes of spatial exchange (diffusion) influenced events in the past and helped to shape the present. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the effects of physical and human geographic patterns and processes on events in the past and describe their effects on present conditions, including significant physical features and environmental conditions that influenced migration patterns in the past and shaped the distribution of culture groups today; and

(B) trace the spatial diffusion of a phenomenon and describe its effects on regions of contact such as the spread of bubonic plague, the diffusion and exchange of foods between the New and Old Worlds, or the diffusion of American slang.

(2) History. The student understands how people, places, and environments have changed over time and the effects of these changes on history. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the human and physical characteristics of the same place at different periods of history; and

(B) assess how people's changing perceptions of geographic features have led to changes in human societies.

(3) Geography. Such as student understands how physical processes shape patterns in the physical environment (lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere), including how Earth-Sun relationships affect physical processes and patterns on Earth's surface. The student is expected to:

(A) attribute occurrences of weather phenomena and climate to annual changes in Earth-Sun relationships; and

(B) describe physical environment of regions and the physical processes that affect these regions such as weather, tectonic forces, wave action, freezing and thawing, gravity, and soil-building processes.

(4) Geography. The student understands the patterns and characteristics of major landforms, climates, and ecosystems of Earth and the interrelated processes that produce them. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the distribution of different types of climate in terms of patterns of temperature, wind, and precipitation and the factors that influence climate regions such as elevation, latitude, location near warm and cold ocean currents, position on a continent, and mountain barriers;

(B) relate the physical processes to the development of distinctive land forms; and

(C) explain the distribution of plants and animals in different regions of the world using the relationships among climate, vegetation, soil, and geology.

(5) Geography. The student understands how political, economic, and social processes shape cultural patterns and characteristics in various places and regions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze how the character of a place is related to its political, economic, social, and cultural characteristics; and

(B) analyze political, economic, social, and demographic data to determine the level of development and standard of living in nations.

(6) Geography. The student understands the types and patterns of settlement, the factors that affect where people settle, and processes of settlement development over time. The student is expected to:

(A) locate settlements and observe patterns in the size and distribution of cities using maps, graphics, and other information; and

(B) explain the processes that have caused cities to grow such as location along transportation routes, availability of resources that have attracted settlers and economic activities, and continued access to other cities and resources.

(7) Geography. The student understands the growth, distribution, movement, and characteristics of world population. The student is expected to:

(A) construct and analyze population pyramids and use other data, graphics, and maps to describe the population characteristics of different societies and to predict future growth trends;

(B) explain the political, economic, social, and environmental factors that contribute to human migration such as how national and international migrations are shaped by push-and-pull factors and how physical geography affects the routes, flows, and destinations of migration;

(C) describe trends in past world population growth and distribution; and

(D) develop and defend hypotheses on likely population patterns for the future.

(8) Geography. The student understands how people, places, and environments are connected and interdependent. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the interrelationships among physical and human processes that shape the geographic characteristics of places such as connections among economic development, urbanization, population growth, and environmental change;

(B) compare ways that humans depend on, adapt to, and modify the physical environment using local, state, national, and international human activities in a variety of cultural and technological contexts;

(C) describe the impact of and analyze the reaction of the environment to abnormal and/or hazardous environmental conditions at different scales such as El Niño, floods, droughts, and hurricanes; and

(D) analyze statistical and other data to infer the effects of physical and human processes on patterns of settlement, population distribution, economic and political conditions, and resource distribution.

(9) Geography. The student understands the concept of region as an area of Earth's surface with unifying geographic characteristics. The student is expected to:

(A) identify physical or human factors that constitute a region such as soils, climate, vegetation, language, trade network, river systems, and religion; and

(B) identify the differences among formal, functional, and perceptual regions.

(10) Economics. The student understands the distribution and characteristics of economic systems throughout the world. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the characteristics of traditional, command, and market economies;

(B) explain how traditional, command, and market economies operate in specific countries; and

(C) compare the ways people satisfy their basic needs through the production of goods and services such as subsistence agriculture versus market-oriented agriculture or cottage industries versus commercial industries.

(11) Economics. The student understands the reasons for the location of economic activities (primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary) in different economic systems. The student is expected to:

(A) map the locations of different types of economic activities;

(B) identify factors affecting the location of different types of economic activities; and

(C) describe how changes in technology, transportation, and communication affect the location and patterns of economic activities.

(12) Economics. The student understands the economic importance of, and issues related to, the location and management of key natural resources. The student is expected to:

(A) compare global trade patterns at different periods of time and develop hypotheses to explain changes that have occurred in world trade and the implications of these changes;

(B) analyze how the creation and distribution of resources affect the location and patterns of movement of products, capital, and people; and

(C) evaluate the geographic and economic impact of policies related to the use of resources such as regulations for water use or policies related to the development of scarce natural resources.

(13) Government. The student understands the characteristics of a variety of political units. The student is expected to:

(A) prepare maps that illustrate a variety of political entities such as city maps showing precincts, country maps showing states, or continental maps showing countries; and

(B) compare maps of voting patterns or political boundaries to make inferences about the distribution of political power.

(14) Government. The student understands the geographic processes that influence political divisions, relationships, and policies. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze current events to infer the physical and human processes that lead to the formation of boundaries and other political divisions;

(B) explain how forces of conflict and cooperation influence the allocation of control of Earth's surface such as the formation of congressional voting districts or free trade zones; and

(C) explain the geographic factors that influence a nation's power to control territory and that shape the foreign policies and international political relations of selected nations such as Iraq, Israel, Japan, and the United Kingdom.

(15) Citizenship. The student understands how different points of view influence the development of public policies and decision-making processes on local, state, national, and international levels. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and give examples of different points of view that influence the development of public policies and decision-making processes on local, state, national, and international levels;

(B) explain how citizenship practices, public policies, and decision making may be influenced by cultural beliefs; and

(C) compare different points of view on geographic issues.

(16) Culture. The student understands how the components of culture affect the way people live and shape the characteristics of regions. The student is expected to:

(A) describe distinctive cultural patterns and landscapes associated with different places in Texas, the United States, and other regions of the world, and how these patterns influenced the processes of innovation and diffusion;

(B) give examples of ways various groups of people view cultures, places, and regions differently; and

(C) compare life in a variety of cities and nations in the world to evaluate the relationships involved in political, economic, social, and environmental changes.

(17) Culture. The student understands the distribution, patterns, and characteristics of different cultures. The student is expected to:

(A) describe and compare patterns of culture such as language, religion, land use, systems of education, and customs that make specific regions of the world distinctive; and

(B) compare economic opportunities in different cultures for women and religious minorities in selected regions of the world.

(18) Culture. The student understands the ways in which cultures change and maintain continuity. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the impact of general processes such as migration, war, trade, independent inventions, and diffusion of ideas and motivations on cultural change;

(B) analyze cultural changes in specific regions;

(C) analyze examples of cultures that maintain traditional ways; and

(D) evaluate case studies of the spread of cultural traits to find examples of cultural convergence and divergence such as the spread of democratic ideas, U.S.-based fast-food franchises in Russia and Eastern Europe, or the English language as a major medium of international communication for scientists and business people.

(19) Science, technology, and society. The student understands the impact of technology and human modifications on the physical environment. The student is expected to:

(A) evaluate the significance of major technological innovations, including fire, steam power, diesel machinery, and electricity that have been used to modify the physical environment; and

(B) analyze ways technological innovations have allowed humans to adapt to places shaped by physical processes such as floods, earthquakes, and hurricanes.

(20) Science, technology, and society. The student understands how technology affects definitions of, access to, and use of resources. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the impact of new technologies, new markets, and revised perceptions of resources; and

(B) analyze the role of technology in agriculture and other primary economic activities and identify the environmental consequences of the changes that have taken place.

(21) Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of sources including electronic technology. The student is expected to:

(A) use historical, geographic, and statistical information from a variety of sources such as databases, field interviews, media services, and questionnaires to answer geographic questions and infer geographic relationships;

(B) analyze and evaluate the validity and utility of multiple sources of geographic information such as primary and secondary sources, aerial photographs, and maps;

(C) construct and interpret maps to answer geographic questions, infer geographic relationships, and analyze geographic change;

(D) apply basic statistical concepts and analytical methods such as computer-based spreadsheets and statistical software to analyze geographic data; and

(E) use a series of maps, including a computer-based geographic information system, to obtain and analyze data needed to solve geographic and locational problems.

(22) Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:

(A) design and draw appropriate maps and other graphics such as sketch maps, diagrams, tables, and graphs to present geographic information including geographic features, geographic distributions, and geographic relationships;

(B) apply appropriate vocabulary, geographic models, generalizations, theories, and skills to present geographic information;

(C) use geographic terminology correctly; and

(D) use standard grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and punctuation.

(23) Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings. The student is expected to:

(A) plan, organize, and complete a group research project that involves asking geographic questions; acquiring, organizing, and analyzing geographic information; answering geographic questions; and communicating results;

(B) use case studies and geographic information systems to identify contemporary geographic problems and issues and to apply geographic knowledge and skills to answer real-world questions;

(C) use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution; and

(D) use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather information, identify options, predict consequences, and take action to implement a decision.

 

Source: The provisions of this §113.34 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.

§113.35. United States Government (One-Half Credit).

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one-half unit of credit for successful completion of this course.

(b) Introduction.

(1) In Government, the focus is on the principles and beliefs upon which the United States was founded and on the structure, functions, and powers of government at the national, state, and local levels. This course is the culmination of the civic and governmental content and concepts studied from Kindergarten through required secondary courses. Students learn major political ideas and forms of government in history. A significant focus of the course is on the U.S. Constitution, its underlying principles and ideas, and the form of government it created. Students analyze major concepts of republicanism, federalism, checks and balances, separation of powers, popular sovereignty, and individual rights and compare the U.S. system of government with other political systems. Students identify the role of government in the U.S. free enterprise system and examine the strategic importance of places to the United States. Students analyze the impact of individuals, political parties, interest groups, and the media on the American political system, evaluate the importance of voluntary individual participation in a democratic society, and analyze the rights guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution. Students examine the relationship between governmental policies and the culture of the United States. Students identify examples of government policies that encourage scientific research and use critical-thinking skills to create a product on a contemporary government issue.

(2) To support the teaching of the essential knowledge and skills, the use of a variety of rich primary and secondary source material such as the complete text of the U.S. constitution; selected Federalist Papers; landmark cases of the U.S. Supreme Court; biographies, autobiographies, and memoirs; speeches and letters; and periodicals that feature analyses of political issues and events is encouraged. Selections may include excerpts from John Locke's Two Treatises of Government, Federalist 51, and Miranda v. Arizona.

(3) The eight strands of the essential knowledge and skills for social studies are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes. Skills listed in the geography and social studies skills strands in subsection (c) of this section should be incorporated into the teaching of all essential knowledge and skills for social studies. A greater depth of understanding of complex content material can be attained when integrated social studies content from the various disciplines and critical-thinking skills are taught together.

(4) Throughout social studies in Kindergarten-Grade 12, students build a foundation in history; geography; economics; government; citizenship; culture; science, technology, and society; and social studies skills. The content, as appropriate for the grade level or course, enables students to understand the importance of patriotism, function in a free enterprise society, and appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation as referenced in the Texas Education Code, §28.002(h).

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) History. The student understands major political ideas and forms of government in history. The student is expected to:

(A) explain major political ideas in history such as natural law, natural rights, divine right of kings, and social contract theory; and

(B) identify the characteristics of classic forms of government such as absolute monarchy, authoritarianism, classical republic, despotism, feudalism, liberal democracy, and totalitarianism.

(2) History. The student understands how constitutional government, as developed in the United States, has been influenced by people, ideas, and historical documents. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the principles and ideas that underlie the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution, including those of Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Charles de Montesquieu;

(B) analyze the contributions of the political philosophies of the Founding Fathers, including John Adams, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, and James Madison, on the development of the U.S. government;

(C) analyze debates and compromises necessary to reach political decisions using historical documents; and

(D) identify significant individuals in the field of government and politics, including Abraham Lincoln, George Washington, and selected contemporary leaders.

(3) History. The student understands the roles played by individuals, political parties, interest groups, and the media in the U.S. political system, past and present. The student is expected to:

(A) give examples of the processes used by individuals, political parties, interest groups, or the media to affect public policy; and

(B) analyze the impact of political changes brought about by individuals, political parties, interest groups, or the media, past and present.

(4) Geography. The student understands why certain places and regions are important to the United States. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the political significance to the United States of the location and geographic characteristics of selected places or regions such as Cuba and Taiwan; and

(B) analyze the economic significance to the United States of the location and geographic characteristics of selected places and regions such as oil fields in the Middle East.

(5) Geography. The student understands how government policies can affect the physical and human characteristics of places and regions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze and evaluate the consequences of a government policy that affects the physical characteristics of a place or region; and

(B) analyze and evaluate the consequences of a government policy that affects the human characteristics of a place or region.

(6) Economics. The student understands the roles played by local, state, and national governments in both the public and private sectors of the U.S. free enterprise system. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze government policies that influence the economy at the local, state, and national levels;

(B) identify the sources of revenue and expenditures of the U. S. government and analyze their impact on the U.S. economy; and

(C) compare the role of government in the U.S. free enterprise system and other economic systems.

(7) Economics. The student understands the relationship between U.S. government policies and international trade. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the effects of international trade on U.S. economic and political policies; and

(B) explain the government's role in setting international trade policies.

(8) Government. The student understands the American beliefs and principles reflected in the U.S. Constitution. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the importance of a written constitution;

(B) evaluate how the federal government serves the purposes set forth in the Preamble to the U.S. Constitution;

(C) analyze how the Federalist Papers explain the principles of the American constitutional system of government;

(D) evaluate constitutional provisions for limiting the role of government, including republicanism, checks and balances, federalism, separation of powers, popular sovereignty, and individual rights;

(E) analyze the processes by which the U.S. Constitution can be changed and evaluate their effectiveness; and

(F) analyze how the American beliefs and principles reflected in the U.S. Constitution contribute to our national identity.

(9) Government. The student understands the structure and functions of the government created by the U.S. Constitution. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the structure and functions of the legislative branch of government, including the bicameral structure of Congress, the role of committees, and the procedure for enacting laws;

(B) analyze the structure and functions of the executive branch of government, including the constitutional powers of the president, the growth of presidential power, and the role of the Cabinet and executive departments;

(C) analyze the structure and functions of the judicial branch of government, including the federal court system and types of jurisdiction;

(D) analyze the functions of selected independent executive agencies and regulatory commissions such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Federal Communications Commission;

(E) explain how certain provisions of the U.S. Constitution provide for checks and balances among the three branches of government;

(F) analyze selected issues raised by judicial activism and judicial restraint;

(G) explain the major responsibilities of the federal government for domestic and foreign policy;

(H) compare the structure and functions of the Texas state government to the federal system; and

(I) analyze the structure and functions of local government.

(10) Government. The student understands the concept of federalism. The student is expected to:

(A) explain why the Founding Fathers created a distinctly new form of federalism and adopted a federal system of government instead of a unitary system;

(B) categorize government powers as national, state, or shared;

(C) analyze historical conflicts over the respective roles of national and state governments; and

(D) evaluate the limits on the national and state governments in the U.S. federal system of government.

(11) Government. The student understands the processes for filling public offices in the U.S. system of government. The student is expected to:

(A) compare different methods of filling public offices, including elected and appointed offices, at the local, state, and national levels; and

(B) analyze and evaluate the process of electing the President of the United States.

(12) Government. The student understands the role of political parties in the U.S. system of government. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the functions of political parties;

(B) analyze the two-party system and evaluate the role of third parties in the United States;

(C) analyze the role of political parties in the electoral process at local, state, and national levels; and

(D) identify opportunities for citizens to participate in political party activities at local, state, and national levels.

(13) Government. The student understands the similarities and differences that exist among the U.S. system of government and other political systems. The student is expected to:

(A) compare the U.S. system of government with other political systems;

(B) analyze advantages and disadvantages of federal, confederate, and unitary systems of government; and

(C) analyze advantages and disadvantages of presidential and parliamentary systems of government.

(14) Citizenship. The student understands rights guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution. The student is expected to:

(A) understand the roles of limited government and the rule of law to the protection of individual rights;

(B) analyze the rights guaranteed by the Bill of Rights, including first amendment freedoms;

(C) analyze issues addressed in selected cases such as Engel v. Vitale, Miranda v. Arizona, and Schenck v. U.S. that involve Supreme Court interpretations of rights guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution;

(D) analyze the role of each branch of government in protecting the rights of individuals;

(E) explain the importance of due process rights to the protection of individual rights and to the limits on the powers of government; and

(F) analyze the impact of the incorporation doctrine involving due process and the Bill of Rights on individual rights, federalism, and majority rule.

(15) Citizenship. The student understands the difference between personal and civic responsibilities. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the difference between personal and civic responsibilities;

(B) evaluate whether and/or when the obligation of citizenship requires that personal desires and interests be subordinated to the public good;

(C) evaluate whether and/or when the rights of individuals are inviolable even against claims for the public good; and

(D) analyze the consequences of political decisions and actions on society.

(16) Citizenship. The student understands the importance of voluntary individual participation in the U.S. democratic society. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the effectiveness of various methods of participation in the political process at local, state, and national levels;

(B) analyze historical and contemporary examples of citizen movements to bring about political change or to maintain continuity;

(C) analyze the factors that influence an individual's political attitudes and actions; and

(D) compare and evaluate characteristics, style, and effectiveness of state and national leaders, past and present.

(17) Citizenship. The student understands the importance of the expression of different points of view in a democratic society. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze different points of view of political parties and interest groups on important contemporary issues;

(B) analyze the importance of free speech and press in a democratic society; and

(C) express and defend a point of view on an issue of contemporary interest in the United States.

(18) Culture. The student understands the relationship between government policies and the culture of the United States. The student is expected to:

(A) evaluate a political policy or decision in the United States that was a result of changes in American culture; and

(B) analyze changes in American culture brought about by government policies such as voting rights, the GI bill, and racial integration; and

(C) describe an example of a government policy that has affected a particular racial, ethnic, or religious group.

(19) Science, technology, and society. The student understands the role the government plays in developing policies and establishing conditions that influence scientific discoveries and technological innovations. The student is expected to:

(A) identify examples of government-assisted research that, when shared with the private sector, have resulted in improved consumer products such as computer and communication technologies; and

(B) analyze how U.S. government policies fostering competition and entrepreneurship have resulted in scientific discoveries and technological innovations.

(20) Science, technology, and society. The student understands the impact of advances in science and technology on government and society. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the potential impact on society of recent scientific discoveries and technological innovations; and

(B) analyze the reaction of government to scientific discoveries and technological innovations.

(21) Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of sources including electronic technology. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions;

(B) create a product on a contemporary government issue or topic using critical methods of inquiry;

(C) explain a point of view on a government issue;

(D) analyze and evaluate the validity of information from primary and secondary sources for bias, propaganda, point of view, and frame of reference;

(E) evaluate government data using charts, tables, graphs, and maps; and

(F) use appropriate mathematical skills to interpret social studies information such as maps and graphs.

(22) Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:

(A) use social studies terminology correctly;

(B) use standard grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and punctuation;

(C) transfer information from one medium to another, including written to visual and statistical to written or visual, using computer software as appropriate; and

(D) create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.

(23) Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings. The student is expected to:

(A) use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution; and

(B) use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather information, identify options, predict consequences, and take action to implement a decision.

 

Source: The provisions of this §113.35 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.

§113.36. Psychology (One-Half Credit).

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one-half unit of credit for successful completion of this course.

(b) Introduction. In Psychology, an elective course, students consider the development of the individual and the personality. The study of psychology is based on an historical framework and relies on effective collection and analysis of data. Students study topics such as theories of human development, personality, motivation, and learning.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) The individual in society. The student understands the dynamics of the relationships between self and others to be a contributing member of the community. The student is expected to:

(A) participate in class as a leader and follower;

(B) adjust behavior appropriately to fit various situations;

(C) contribute to the development of a supportive climate in groups; and

(D) accept and fulfill social responsibilities associated with citizenship in a group setting.

(2) The individual in society. The student understands that beliefs, decisions, and actions have consequences. The student is expected to:

(A) predict the likely outcome of given courses of action in particular situations, such as refusing to pay taxes, to register to vote, or to obey the speed limit; and

(B) evaluate the predicted outcomes of given courses of actions in particular situations based on an understanding of the development of morality.

(3) The individual in society. The student understands behavioral, social learning, and cognitive perspectives of motivation to describe his or her role and impact on economic systems. The student is expected to:

(A) apply various perspectives of motivation to a given economic situation such as the choice of car to purchase, personal budget priorities, or choice of jobs;

(B) describe the role of reinforcement and punishment in determining persistence-and-effort allocation;

(C) describe the processes of modeling/imitation and vicarious reinforcement using typical classroom situations; and

(D) describe and explain self-esteem, self-efficacy, and expectancy from the perspective of attribution theory.

(4) The individual in society. The student understands the influence of sensory perceptions on the shaping of individual beliefs and attitudes. The student is expected to:

(A) relate sensation and perception to various points of view; and

(B) define and give examples of bias related to various points of view.

(5) The individual in society. The student understands the relationship between biology and behavior. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the anatomy and localized function of given brain areas; and

(B) explain the effects of the endocrine system on development and behavior.

(6) The individual in society. The student understands the basic principles of tests and measurements. The student is expected to:

(A) define and differentiate reliability and validity; and

(B) define the concept of "transformed score" and give examples of various types including percentile grade equivalent scores, intelligence quotient (IQ) scores, and College Entrance Examination Board (CEEB) scores such as Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) and Graduate Record Examination (GRE).

(7) History. The student understands the history of the field of psychology. The student is expected to:

(A) identify defining characteristics that differentiate the field of psychology from other related social sciences; and

(B) trace the impact of associationism, psychodynamic (Freudian) thinking, behaviorism, and humanism on current thinking in psychology.

(8) History. The student compares the processes of theory development and validation. The student is expected to:

(A) define and differentiate the concepts of theory and principle;

(B) describe the relationship between earlier and later theories related to a given psychological construct; and

(C) identify and describe the basic methods of social scientific reasoning.

(9) Culture. The student understands the dynamic relationships between self and one's environment. The student is expected to:

(A) describe and explain learning as an adaptation to the environment;

(B) relate cultural perspectives to the traditional physical environment of the culture group; and

(C) explain types of relationships of individuals with other individuals and with groups.

(10) Culture. The student understands behavioral, social, and cognitive perspectives of human learning. The student is expected to:

(A) identify related antecedents, behavior, and consequences in a provided behavioral situation;

(B) identify elements of social learning theory in modern advertising;

(C) describe the relationship between components of the structural information processing model; and

(D) evaluate the various perspectives of human learning and specify the strengths and weaknesses of each.

(11) Culture. The student understands the role of culture in forming the foundation and orienting framework for individuals and social behavior. The student is expected to:

(A) explain factors involved in cognitive development according to Piaget;

(B) define common psychological disorders;

(C) describe Erickson's stages of psychosocial development; and

(D) determine cultural influences such as fads or peers on one's own social behavior.

(12) Culture. The student understands personality development theories, including the applications and limitations. The student is expected to:

(A) give examples of growth and development based on social learning, behavioral, and cognitive theories; and

(B) evaluate the presented theories of human development and specify the strengths and weaknesses of each.

(13) Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of sources including electronic technology. The student is expected to:

(A) create a product on a contemporary psychology-related issue or topic using critical methods of inquiry;

(B) draw and evaluate conclusions from qualitative information;

(C) define and compute measures of central tendency (mean, median, and mode) and dispersion (range and standard deviation);

(D) explain and illustrate cautions related to interpreting statistics in news stories;

(E) apply evaluation rules to quantitative information; and

(F) analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions.

(14) Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:

(A) use psychology-related terminology correctly;

(B) use standard grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and punctuation;

(C) transfer information from one medium to another, including written to visual and written or visual to statistical, using computer software as appropriate; and

(D) create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.

(15) Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings. The student is expected to:

(A) use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution;

(B) use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather information, identify options, predict consequences, and take action to implement a decision; and

(C) participate in conflict resolution using persuasion, compromise, debate, and negotiation.

(16) Social studies skills. The student develops long-term and short-term goal-setting skills for individual and community problem solving. The student is expected to:

(A) illustrate the relationship and sequence between intermediate goals and terminal goals; and

(B) monitor and evaluate self-directed inquiry or projects for timelines, accuracy, and goal attainment.

(17) Science and technology. The student understands the implication of technology for the collection, storage, and use of psychological data. The student is expected to:

(A) apply the standards of the American Psychological Association for ethical decision making regarding the collection, storage, and use of psychological data; and

(B) acquire information through the use of electronic sources.

(18) Science and technology. The student understands the relationship of changes in technology to personal growth and development. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze examples of attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors related to changes in available technology; and

(B) evaluate the impact of changes in technology on personal growth and development.

 

Source: The provisions of this §113.36 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.

§113.37. Sociology (One-Half Credit).

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one-half unit of credit for successful completion of this course.

(b) Introduction. In Sociology, an elective course, students study dynamics and models of individual and group relationships. Students study topics such as the history and systems of sociology, cultural and social norms, social institutions, and mass communication.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Citizenship. The student understands that individuals require knowledge of the dynamics of the relationships between self and others to be contributing members of the community. The student is expected to:

(A) describe models of group systems and the interactive roles of individuals, groups, and the community; and

(B) evaluate role conflicts and methods of resolution that may occur among individuals and groups.

(2) Citizenship. The student analyzes groups in terms of membership roles, status, values, and socioeconomic stratification. The student is expected to:

(A) compare the roles of group membership in various formal and informal groups; and

(B) compare the roles of group membership in selected primary and secondary groups.

(3) Economics. The student understands how socioeconomic stratification affects human motivation. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the relationship between socioeconomic stratification and human motivation; and

(B) analyze the influence of different motivations and aspirations on economic decisions.

(4) Economics. The student understands the relationship between socioeconomic stratification and cultural values. The student is expected to:

(A) compare cultural values associated with socioeconomic stratification; and

(B) analyze and explain the influence of cultural values on economic behavior.

(5) Geography. The student uses geographic tools to collect, analyze, and interpret sociological data. The student is expected to:

(A) create thematic maps, graphs, charts, models, and data bases that represent various aspects of demographic and cultural patterns; and

(B) pose and answer questions about geographic distributions and demographic and cultural patterns shown on maps, graphs, charts, models, and databases.

(6) Geography. The student understands that socialization, cultural values, and norms vary in different geographic places and regions. The student is expected to:

(A) compare socialization in selected regions of the United States; and

(B) compare how geographic considerations have influenced the development of cultural values and norms.

(7) Government. The student understands how governments promote cultural values and provide for social controls. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the relationships between cultural values and the purposes and policies of government; and

(B) describe types of government social controls.

(8) Government. The student understands different styles and forms of leadership, political socialization, and communication techniques that influence perception, attitudes, and behavior. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and describe different forms of leadership as they relate to group-motivation techniques;

(B) analyze the relationship among social class, racial, ethnic, and other culture group membership, and political power in the United States; and

(C) evaluate different communication techniques, including propaganda and advertising, used to influence perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors of persons and groups.

(9) History. The student understands the theoretical perspectives of the historic interpretations of human social development. The student is expected to:

(A) trace the development of the field of sociology; and

(B) identify major sociologists and explain their contributions to the field.

(10) History. The student understands the causes and effects of social and institutional changes. The student is expected to:

(A) evaluate changes in U.S. institutions resulting from industrialization, urbanization, and immigrant assimilation; and

(B) analyze changes such as those in advertising, food, and business in the majority U.S. culture resulting from adaptations to various immigrant and Native-American cultures.

(11) History. The student understands basic sociological principles related to change within a group and across groups. The student is expected to:

(A) relate theories of change to major changes in U.S. public policy such as the origins and consequences of the civil rights movement; and

(B) analyze social change and resulting social problems within and across groups.

(12) Culture. The student understands how cultural socialization, norms, values, motivation, and communication influence relationships among groups. The student is expected to:

(A) compare cultural norms among various U.S. subculture groups such as ethnic, national origin, age, socioeconomic strata, and gender groups;

(B) describe stereotypes of the various U.S. subcultures; and

(C) analyze social problems in selected U.S. subcultures.

(13) Culture. The student understands how people develop social institutions to meet basic needs in a society. The student is expected to:

(A) summarize the functions of social institutions such as the family, religion, and education; and

(B) evaluate the importance of social institutions in the United States.

(14) Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of sources including electronic technology. The student is expected to:

(A) create a product on a contemporary sociological issue or topic using critical methods of inquiry;

(B) analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions; and

(C) use appropriate mathematical skills to interpret sociological information.

(15) Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:

(A) use sociology-related terminology correctly;

(B) use standard grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and punctuation;

(C) transfer information from one medium to another, including written to visual and written or visual to statistical, using computer software as appropriate; and

(D) create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.

(16) Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings. The student is expected to:

(A) use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution;

(B) use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather information, identify options, predict consequences, and take action to implement a decision; and

(C) participate in conflict resolution using persuasion, compromise, debate, and negotiation.

(17) Science, technology, and society. The student understands the impact of scientific discoveries and technological innovations on individuals and societies. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze how individual and societal behavior has changed as a result of scientific discoveries and technological innovations; and

(B) predict societal changes resulting from innovations in science and technology.

(18) Science, technology, and society. The student understands the impact of changes in science and technology on moral and ethical issues. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze how the norms and behaviors of a selected U.S. subculture group have changed as a result of changes in science and technology; and

(B) evaluate a current ethical issue that has resulted from scientific discoveries and/or technological innovations.

 

Source: The provisions of this §113.37 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.

§113.38. Special Topics in Social Studies (One-Half Credit).

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one-half unit of credit for successful completion of this course. Students may take this course with different course content for a maximum of two credits.

(b) Introduction. In Special Topics in Social Studies, an elective course comparable to the former Advanced Social Science Problems, students are provided the opportunity to apply the knowledge and skills of the social sciences to a variety of topics and issues. Students use critical-thinking skills to locate, organize, analyze, and use data collected from a variety of sources. Problem solving and decision making are important elements of the course as is the communication of information in written, oral, and visual forms.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of sources including electronic technology. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate between, locate, and use primary and secondary sources such as computer software, databases, media and news services, biographies, interviews, and artifacts to acquire information about a selected topic in social studies;

(B) analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions;

(C) identify points of view from the historic context surrounding an event and the frame of reference that influenced the participants;

(D) support a point of view on a social studies issue or event;

(E) identify bias in written, oral, and visual material;

(F) evaluate the validity of a source based on language, corroboration with other sources, and information about the author; and

(G) use appropriate mathematical skills to interpret social studies information such as maps and graphs.

(2) Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:

(A) use social studies terminology correctly;

(B) use standard grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and punctuation;

(C) transfer information from one medium to another, including written to visual and statistical to written or visual, using computer software as appropriate; and

(D) create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.

(3) Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings. The student is expected to:

(A) use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution; and

(B) use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather information, identify options, predict consequences, and take action to implement a decision.

 

Source: The provisions of this §113.38 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.

§113.39. Social Studies Research Methods (One-Half Credit).

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one-half unit of credit for successful completion of this course. Students may take this course with different course content for a maximum of two credits.

(b) Introduction. In Social Studies Research Methods, an elective course, students conduct advanced research on a selected topic in social studies using qualitative and quantitative methods of inquiry. The course is designed to be conducted in either classroom or independent settings.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Social studies skills. The student understands the basic philosophical foundation for qualitative and quantitative methods of inquiry. The student is expected to:

(A) develop and use criteria for the evaluation of qualitative and quantitative information;

(B) generate logical and consistent conclusions from given qualitative and quantitative information; and

(C) design a research project with a rationale for a given research method.

(2) Social studies skills. The student understands the need for an organizing framework to identify a problem or area of interest and collect information. The student is expected to:

(A) select an issue, problem, or area of interest; write a rationale and preliminary ideas for research methods; and develop a bibliography; and

(B) apply a process approach to a research problem.

(3) Social studies skills. The student understands the fundamental principles and requirements of validity and reliability (both social science and historical fields of inquiry). The student is expected to:

(A) define and differentiate reliability and validity;

(B) identify methods of checking for reliability; and

(C) evaluate various sources for reliability and validity and justify the conclusions.

(4) Social studies skills. The student understands how data can be collected from a variety of sources using a variety of methods. The student is expected to:

(A) collect information from a variety of sources (primary, secondary, written, and oral) using techniques such as questionnaires, interviews, and library research; and

(B) use various technology such as CD-ROM, library topic catalogues, networks, and on-line information systems to collect information about a selected topic.

(5) Social studies skills. The student understands the use of theory and research for descriptive and predictive purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the results of a research process; and

(B) make predictions as to future actions and/or outcomes based on conclusions of research.

(6) Social studies skills. The student understands the principles and requirements of the scientific method. The student is expected to:

(A) apply the scientific method in a research project;

(B) create a matrix relating various research methodologies such as survey research, ethnography, primary documents, and statistical analysis to given subject areas; and

(C) determine the most efficient research approach from a variety of alternatives using a cost-benefit analysis.

(7) Social studies skills. The student understands basic statistical approaches to the analysis of aggregate information. The student is expected to:

(A) define and compute statistical information using various statistical approaches such as means testing and correlation, measures of central tendency and distribution, the development of categorical systems, and logical analysis; and

(B) analyze information using a spreadsheet or statistical analysis information software.

(8) Social studies skills. The student understands the requirements of graphic displays of data. The student is expected to:

(A) construct visuals such as charts, graphs, tables, time lines, and maps to convey appropriate data; and

(B) create a presentation on a selected topic using word-processing, graphics, and multimedia software.

(9) Social studies skills. The student understands the basic principles of historic analysis. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate between primary and secondary sources and describe the best uses for each;

(B) construct and test cause-and-effect hypotheses and compare them with correlational analyses; and

(C) select the appropriate use of chronological relationships in historiography.

(10) Social studies skills. The student understands the ethical aspects of collecting, storing, and using data. The student is expected to:

(A) describe breaches of ethical standards for handling human experimental or survey information in a given scenario; and

(B) evaluate the relationship among copyright laws, proper citation requirements, and ethical ways of collecting and presenting information.

 

Source: The provisions of this §113.39 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.

Chapter 113. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Social Studies

Subchapter D. Other Social Studies Courses

Statutory Authority: The provisions of this Subchapter D issued under the Texas Education Code, §28.002, unless otherwise noted.

§113.51. Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Social Studies, Other Social Studies Courses.

The provisions of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning September 1, 1998.

 

Source: The provisions of this §113.51 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.

§113.52. Social Studies Advanced Studies (One-Half to One Credit).

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one-half to one unit of credit for successful completion of this course. Students may take this course with different course content for a maximum of two credits. Students who are pursuing the Distinguished Achievement Program may take Social Studies Advanced Studies to earn state credit for developing, researching, and presenting their mentorship or independent study advanced measure.

(b) Introduction. In Social Studies Advanced Studies, an elective course, students conduct in-depth research, prepare a product of professional quality, and present their findings to appropriate audiences. Students, working independently or in collaboration with a mentor, investigate a problem, issue, or concern; research the topic using a variety of technologies; and present a product of professional quality to an appropriate audience.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) The student will investigate, independently or collaboratively, a problem, issue, or concern within a selected profession or discipline. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the relationship between his or her interests and career/discipline;

(B) review literature from varied sources from the selected career or discipline;

(C) identify a problem, issue, or concern;

(D) survey and/or interview professionals to determine the appropriateness of a project; and

(E) develop a proposal that includes well-defined questions, goals and objectives, rationale, and procedures for the project.

(2) The student will demonstrate understanding of the research methods and/or technologies used in a selected profession or discipline. The student is expected to:

(A) develop an understanding of the requirements and practices of the profession in the selected career or discipline through observation;

(B) simulate the methods and/or technologies used in the research process particular to the selected field or discipline; and

(C) review and revise the original proposal to reflect changes needed based upon preliminary research and practices.

(3) The student will develop products that meet standards recognized by the selected profession or discipline. The student is expected to:

(A) collaborate with the appropriate professionals to define the product;

(B) develop a plan for product completion;

(C) develop assessment criteria for successful completion of the project;

(D) establish the appropriateness of the product for the intended audience;

(E) implement the plan for product completion; and

(F) maintain a journal to document all phases of the implementation of the plan and reflections on learning experiences and processes.

(4) The student will demonstrate an understanding of the selected problem, issue, or concern by explaining or justifying findings to an appropriate audience for public comment or professional response. The student is expected to:

(A) review and revise the plan to present the findings;

(B) make arrangements for the presentation of findings to an appropriate audience;

(C) present findings, simulating the skills used by professionals;

(D) consider feedback received from the audience;

(E) reflect on the study and its potential for impact on the field; and

(F) reflect on personal learning experiences of the study.

 

Source: The provisions of this §113.52 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.

§113.53. Advanced Placement (AP) United States History (One Credit).

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. This course may be used to meet either the course requirement for U.S. History for state graduation or elective course requirements.

(b) Content requirements. Content requirements for Advanced Placement (AP) United States History are prescribed in the College Board Publication Advanced Placement Course in United States History, published by The College Board.

 

Source: The provisions of this §113.53 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.

§113.54. Advanced Placement (AP) European History (One Credit).

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. This course may not be used as a substitute for World History Studies.

(b) Content requirements. Content requirements for Advanced Placement (AP) European History are prescribed in the College Board Publication Advanced Placement Course in European History, published by The College Board.

 

Source: The provisions of this §113.54 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.

§113.55. Advanced Placement (AP) U.S. Government and Politics (One-Half Credit).

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one-half credit for successful completion of this course. This course may be used to meet the course requirement in Government for state graduation.

(b) Content requirements. Content requirements for Advanced Placement (AP) U.S. Government and Politics are prescribed in the College Board Publication Advanced Placement Course in U.S. Government and Politics, published by The College Board.

 

Source: The provisions of this §113.55 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.

§113.56. Advanced Placement (AP) Comparative Government and Politics (One-Half Credit).

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one-half credit for successful completion of this course. This course may be used to meet only elective course requirements for state graduation.

(b) Content requirements. Content requirements for Advanced Placement (AP) Comparative Government and Politics are prescribed in the College Board Publication Advanced Placement Course in Comparative Government and Politics, published by The College Board.

 

Source: The provisions of this §113.56 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.

§113.57. Advanced Placement (AP) Psychology (One-Half Credit).

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one-half credit for successful completion of this course. This course may be used to meet only elective course requirements for state graduation.

(b) Content requirements. Content requirements for Advanced Placement (AP) Psychology are prescribed in the College Board Publication Advanced Placement Course in Psychology, published by The College Board.

 

Source: The provisions of this §113.57 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.

§113.58. International Baccalaureate (IB) History, Standard Level (SL) (One Credit).

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. This course may be used to meet only elective course requirements for state graduation.

(b) Content requirements. Content requirements for International Baccalaureate (IB) History SL are prescribed in the International Baccalaureate publication History.

 

Source: The provisions of this §113.58 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.

§113.59. International Baccalaureate (IB) History: Africa, Higher Level (HL) (Two Credits).

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded two credits for successful completion of this course. This course may be used to meet only elective course requirements for state graduation.

(b) Content requirements. Content requirements for International Baccalaureate (IB) History SL are prescribed in the International Baccalaureate publication History: Africa.

 

Source: The provisions of this §113.59 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.

§113.60. International Baccalaureate (IB) History: Americas, Higher Level (HL) (Two Credits).

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded two credits for successful completion of this course. One credit may be used to meet the course requirement in U.S. history for state graduation; the other credit may be used to meet only elective course requirements for state graduation.

(b) Content requirements. Content requirements for International Baccalaureate (IB) History: Americas HL are prescribed in the International Baccalaureate publication History: Americas.

 

Source: The provisions of this §113.60 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.

§113.61. International Baccalaureate (IB) History: East and Southeast Asia, Higher Level (HL) (Two Credits).

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded two credits for successful completion of this course. This course may be used to meet only elective course requirements for state graduation.

(b) Content requirements. Content requirements for International Baccalaureate (IB) History: East and Southeast Asia HL are prescribed in the International Baccalaureate publication History: East and Southeast Asia.

 

Source: The provisions of this §113.61 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.

§113.62. International Baccalaureate (IB) History: Europe, Higher Level (HL) (Two Credits).

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded two credits for successful completion of this course. This course may be used to meet only elective course requirements for state graduation.

(b) Content requirements. Content requirements for International Baccalaureate (IB) History: Europe HL are prescribed in the International Baccalaureate publication History: Europe.

 

Source: The provisions of this §113.62 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.

§113.63. International Baccalaureate (IB) Geography, Standard Level (SL) (One Credit).

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. This course may be used to meet required course requirements for state graduation.

(b) Content requirements. Content requirements for International Baccalaureate (IB) Geography SL are prescribed in the International Baccalaureate publication Geography.

 

Source: The provisions of this §113.63 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.

§113.64. International Baccalaureate (IB) Geography, Higher Level (HL) (Two Credits).

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded two credits for successful completion of this course. One credit may be used to meet the course requirement in World Geography Studies for state graduation; the other credit may be used to meet only elective course requirements for state graduation.

(b) Content requirements. Content requirements for International Baccalaureate (IB) Geography HL are prescribed in the International Baccalaureate publication Geography.

 

Source: The provisions of this §113.64 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.

§113.65. International Baccalaureate (IB) Psychology, Standard Level (SL) (One Credit).

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. This course may be used to meet only elective course requirements for state graduation.

(b) Content requirements. Content requirements for International Baccalaureate (IB) Psychology SL are prescribed in the International Baccalaureate publication Psychology.

 

Source: The provisions of this §113.65 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.

§113.66. International Baccalaureate (IB) Psychology, Higher Level (HL) (Two Credits).

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded two credits for successful completion of this course. This course may be used to meet only elective course requirements for state graduation.

(b) Content requirements. Content requirements for International Baccalaureate (IB) Psychology HL are prescribed in the International Baccalaureate publication Psychology.

 

Source: The provisions of this §113.66 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.

§113.67. Other Courses for which Students May Receive Social Studies Credit.

Cultural and Linguistic Topics. Upon successful completion of this course as described in §114.26 of this title (relating to Cultural and Linguistic Topics (One-Half to One Credit)), students may choose to receive one-half to one credit for a social studies elective course or for a nonsequential course in languages other than English.

 

Source: The provisions of this §113.67 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.

§113.68. Concurrent Enrollment in College Courses.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one-half credit for each semester of successful completion of a college course in which the student is concurrently enrolled while in high school.

(b) Content requirements. In order for students to receive state graduation credit for concurrent enrollment courses, content requirements must meet or exceed the essential knowledge and skills in a given course.

 

Source: The provisions of this §113.68 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684.