Chapter 110. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading
Subchapter A. Elementary


Statutory Authority: The provisions of this Subchapter A issued under the Texas Education Code, 7.102(c)(4) and §28.002, unless otherwise noted.


§110.1. Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading, Elementary, Adopted 2017.

(a) The provisions of this section and 110.2-110.7 of this title shall be implemented by school districts.

(b) No later than August 31, 2018, the commissioner of education shall determine whether instructional materials funding has been made available to Texas public schools for materials that cover the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading as adopted in 110.2-110.7 of this title.

(c) If the commissioner makes the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under subsection (b) of this section, 110.2-110.7 of this title shall be implemented beginning with the 2019-2020 school year and apply to the 2019-2020 and subsequent school years.

(d) If the commissioner does not make the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under subsection (b) of this section, the commissioner shall determine no later than August 31 of each subsequent school year whether instructional materials funding has been made available. If the commissioner determines that instructional materials funding has been made available, the commissioner shall notify the State Board of Education and school districts that 110.2-110.7 of this title shall be implemented for the following school year.

Source: The provisions of this 110.1 adopted to be effective September 25, 2017, 42 TexReg 4999; amended to be effective August 1, 2019, 44 TexReg 3835.


§110.2. English Language Arts and Reading, Kindergarten, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking -- oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively and ask questions to understand information and answer questions using multi-word responses;

(B) restate and follow oral directions that involve a short, related sequence of actions;

(C) share information and ideas by speaking audibly and clearly using the conventions of language;

(D) work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules for discussion, including taking turns; and

(E) develop social communication such as introducing himself/herself, using common greetings, and expressing needs and wants.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking -- beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate phonological awareness by:

(i) identifying and producing rhyming words;

(ii) recognizing spoken alliteration or groups of words that begin with the same spoken onset or initial sound;

(iii) identifying the individual words in a spoken sentence;

(iv) identifying syllables in spoken words;

(v) blending syllables to form multisyllabic words;

(vi) segmenting multisyllabic words into syllables;

(vii) blending spoken onsets and rimes to form simple words;

(viii) blending spoken phonemes to form one-syllable words;

(ix) manipulating syllables within a multisyllabic word; and

(x) segmenting spoken one-syllable words into individual phonemes;

(B) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) identifying and matching the common sounds that letters represent;

(ii) using letter-sound relationships to decode, including VC, CVC, CCVC, and CVCC words;

(iii) recognizing that new words are created when letters are changed, added, or deleted such as it - pit - tip - tap; and

(iv) identifying and reading at least 25 high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(C) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling words with VC, CVC, and CCVC;

(ii) spelling words using sound-spelling patterns; and

(iii) spelling high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(D) demonstrate print awareness by:

(i) identifying the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book;

(ii) holding a book right side up, turning pages correctly, and knowing that reading moves from top to bottom and left to right with return sweep;

(iii) recognizing that sentences are comprised of words separated by spaces and recognizing word boundaries;

(iv) recognizing the difference between a letter and a printed word; and

(v) identifying all uppercase and lowercase letters; and

(E) develop handwriting by accurately forming all uppercase and lowercase letters using appropriate directionality.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking --vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use a resource such as a picture dictionary or digital resource to find words;

(B) use illustrations and texts the student is able to read or hear to learn or clarify word meanings; and

(C) identify and use words that name actions; directions; positions; sequences; categories such as colors, shapes, and textures; and locations.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking --self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and interact independently with text for increasing periods of time.

(5) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts with adult assistance;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information with adult assistance;

(C) make and confirm predictions using text features and structures with adult assistance;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding with adult assistance;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society with adult assistance;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding with adult assistance;

(G) evaluate details to determine what is most important with adult assistance;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding with adult assistance; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, checking for visual cues, and asking questions when understanding breaks down with adult assistance.

(6) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources;

(B) provide an oral, pictorial, or written response to a text;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell texts in ways that maintain meaning;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as illustrating or writing; and

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate.

(7) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss topics and determine the basic theme using text evidence with adult assistance;

(B) identify and describe the main character(s);

(C) describe the elements of plot development, including the main events, the problem, and the resolution for texts read aloud with adult assistance; and

(D) describe the setting.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, fairy tales, and nursery rhymes;

(B) discuss rhyme and rhythm in nursery rhymes and a variety of poems;

(C) discuss main characters in drama;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea and supporting evidence with adult assistance;

(ii) titles and simple graphics to gain information; and

(iii) the steps in a sequence with adult assistance;

(E) recognize characteristics of persuasive text with adult assistance and state what the author is trying to persuade the reader to think or do; and

(F) recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(9) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss with adult assistance the author's purpose for writing text;

(B) discuss with adult assistance how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) discuss with adult assistance the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) discuss with adult assistance how the author uses words that help the reader visualize; and

(E) listen to and experience first- and third-person texts.

(10) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan by generating ideas for writing through class discussions and drawings;

(B) develop drafts in oral, pictorial, or written form by organizing ideas;

(C) revise drafts by adding details in pictures or words;

(D) edit drafts with adult assistance using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete sentences;

(ii) verbs;

(iii) singular and plural nouns;

(iv) adjectives, including articles ;

(v) prepositions;

(vi) pronouns, including subjective, objective, and possessive cases;

(vii) capitalization of the first letter in a sentence and name;

(viii) punctuation marks at the end of declarative sentences; and

(ix) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words; and

(E) share writing.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) dictate or compose literary texts, including personal narratives; and

(B) dictate or compose informational texts.

(12) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate questions for formal and informal inquiry with adult assistance;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) gather information from a variety of sources with adult assistance;

(D) demonstrate understanding of information gathered with adult assistance; and

(E) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

Source: The provisions of this 110.2 adopted to be effective September 25, 2017, 42 TexReg 4999; amended to be effective August 1, 2019, 44 TexReg 3835.


§110.3. English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 1, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking -- oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and answer questions using multi-word responses;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a short, related sequence of actions;

(C) share information and ideas about the topic under discussion, speaking clearly at an appropriate pace and using the conventions of language;

(D) work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules for discussion, including listening to others, speaking when recognized, and making appropriate contributions; and

(E) develop social communication such as introducing himself/herself and others, relating experiences to a classmate, and expressing needs and feelings.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking -- beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate phonological awareness by:

(i) producing a series of rhyming words;

(ii) recognizing spoken alliteration or groups of words that begin with the same spoken onset or initial sound;

(iii) distinguishing between long and short vowel sounds in one-syllable words;

(iv) recognizing the change in spoken word when a specified phoneme is added, changed, or removed;

(v) blending spoken phonemes to form one-syllable words, including initial and/or final consonant blends;

(vi) manipulating phonemes within base words; and

(vii) segmenting spoken one-syllable words of three to five phonemes into individual phonemes, including words with initial and/or final consonant blends;

(B) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) decoding words in isolation and in context by applying common letter sound correspondences;

(ii) decoding words with initial and final consonant blends, digraphs, and trigraphs;

(iii) decoding words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including vowel digraphs and diphthongs; and r-controlled syllables;

(iv) using knowledge of base words to decode common compound words and contractions;

(v) decoding words with inflectional endings, including -ed, -s, and -es; and

(vi) identifying and reading at least 100 high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(C) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling words with closed syllables, open syllables, VCe syllables, vowel teams, and r-controlled syllables;

(ii) spelling words with initial and final consonant blends, digraphs, and trigraphs;

(iii) spelling words using sound-spelling patterns; and

(iv) spelling high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(D) demonstrate print awareness by identifying the information that different parts of a book provide;

(E) alphabetize a series of words to the first or second letter and use a dictionary to find words; and

(F) develop handwriting by printing words, sentences, and answers legibly leaving appropriate spaces between words.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking --vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use a resource such as a picture dictionary or digital resource to find words;

(B) use illustrations and texts the student is able to read or hear to learn or clarify word meanings;

(C) identify the meaning of words with the affixes -s, -ed, and -ing; and

(D) identify and use words that name actions, directions, positions, sequences, categories, and locations.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking --fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking --self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and interact independently with text for increasing periods of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts with adult assistance;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information with adult assistance;

(C) make and correct or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures with adult assistance;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding with adult assistance;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society with adult assistance;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding with adult assistance;

(G) evaluate details to determine what is most important with adult assistance;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding with adult assistance; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, checking for visual cues, and asking questions when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources;

(B) write brief comments on literary or informational texts;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell texts in ways that maintain meaning;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as illustrating or writing; and

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss topics and determine theme using text evidence with adult assistance;

(B) describe the main character(s) and the reason(s) for their actions;

(C) describe plot elements, including the main events, the problem, and the resolution, for texts read aloud and independently; and

(D) describe the setting.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, fairy tales, and nursery rhymes;

(B) discuss rhyme, rhythm, repetition, and alliteration in a variety of poems;

(C) discuss elements of drama such as characters and setting;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea and supporting evidence with adult assistance;

(ii) features and simple graphics to locate or gain information; and

(iii) organizational patterns such as chronological order and description with adult assistance;

(E) recognize characteristics of persuasive text with adult assistance and state what the author is trying to persuade the reader to think or do; and

(F) recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss the author's purpose for writing text;

(B) discuss how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) discuss with adult assistance the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) discuss how the author uses words that help the reader visualize; and

(E) listen to and experience first- and third-person texts.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by generating ideas for writing such as by drawing and brainstorming;

(B) develop drafts in oral, pictorial, or written form by:

(i) organizing with structure; and

(ii) developing an idea with specific and relevant details;

(C) revise drafts by adding details in pictures or words;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii) past and present verb tense ;

(iii) singular, plural, common, and proper nouns;

(iv) adjectives, including articles;

(v) adverbs that convey time;

(vi) prepositions;

(vii) pronouns, including subjective, objective, and possessive cases;

(viii) capitalization for the beginning of sentences and the pronoun "I";

(ix) punctuation marks at the end of declarative, exclamatory, and interrogative sentences; and

(x) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words with adult assistance; and

(E) publish and share writing.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) dictate or compose literary texts, including personal narratives and poetry;

(B) dictate or compose informational texts, including procedural texts; and

(C) dictate or compose correspondence such as thank you notes or letters .

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate questions for formal and informal inquiry with adult assistance;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant sources and information to answer the questions with adult assistance;

(D) demonstrate understanding of information gathered with adult assistance; and

(E) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

Source: The provisions of this 110.3 adopted to be effective September 25, 2017, 42 TexReg 4999; amended to be effective August 1, 2019, 44 TexReg 3835.


§110.4. English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 2, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking -- oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and answer questions using multi-word responses;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a short, related sequence of actions;

(C) share information and ideas that focus on the topic under discussion, speaking clearly at an appropriate pace and using the conventions of language;

(D) work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules for discussion, including listening to others, speaking when recognized, making appropriate contributions, and building on the ideas of others; and

(E) develop social communication such as distinguishing between asking and telling.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking -- beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate phonological awareness by:

(i) producing a series of rhyming words;

(ii) distinguishing between long and short vowel sounds in one-syllable and multi-syllable words;

(iii) recognizing the change in spoken word when a specified phoneme is added, changed, or removed; and

(iv) manipulating phonemes within base words;

(B) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) decoding words with short, long, or variant vowels, trigraphs, and blends;

(ii) decoding words with silent letters such as knife and gnat;

(iii) decoding multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(iv) decoding compound words, contractions, and common abbreviations;

(v) decoding words using knowledge of syllable division patterns such as VCCV, VCV, and VCCCV;

(vi) decoding words with prefixes, including un-, re-, and dis-, and inflectional endings, including -s, -es, -ed, -ing, -er, and -est; and

(vii) identifying and reading high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(C) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling one-syllable and multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(ii) spelling words with silent letters such as knife and gnat;

(iii) spelling compound words, contractions, and common abbreviations;

(iv) spelling multisyllabic words with multiple sound-spelling patterns;

(v) spelling words using knowledge of syllable division patterns, including words with double consonants in the middle of the word; and

(vi) spelling words with prefixes, including un-, re-, and dis-, and inflectional endings, including -s, -es, -ed, -ing, -er, and -est;

(D) alphabetize a series of words and use a dictionary or glossary to find words; and

(E) develop handwriting by accurately forming all cursive letters using appropriate strokes when connecting letters.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking --vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine meaning and pronunciation of unknown words;

(B) use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words;

(C) identify the meaning of and use words with affixes un-, re-, -ly, -er, and -est (comparative and superlative), and -ion/tion/sion; and

(D) identify, use, and explain the meaning of antonyms, synonyms, idioms, and homographs in context.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking --fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking --self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make and correct or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, checking for visual cues, and asking questions when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources;

(B) write brief comments on literary or informational texts that demonstrate an understanding of the text ;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell and paraphrase texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as illustrating or writing; and

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss topics and determine theme using text evidence with adult assistance;

(B) describe the main character's (characters') internal and external traits;

(C) describe and understand plot elements, including the main events, the conflict , and the resolution, for texts read aloud and independently; and

(D) describe the importance of the setting.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, and fairy tales;

(B) explain visual patterns and structures in a variety of poems;

(C) discuss elements of drama such as characters, dialogue, and setting;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea and supporting evidence with adult assistance;

(ii) features and graphics to locate and gain information; and

(iii) organizational patterns such as chronological order and cause and effect stated explicitly;

(E) recognize characteristics of persuasive text, including:

(i) stating what the author is trying to persuade the reader to think or do; and

(ii) distinguishing facts from opinion; and

(F) recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss the author's purpose for writing text;

(B) discuss how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) discuss the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) discuss the use of descriptive, literal, and figurative language;

(E) identify the use of first or third person in a text; and

(F) identify and explain the use of repetition.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by generating ideas for writing such as drawing and brainstorming;

(B) develop drafts into a focused piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with structure; and

(ii) developing an idea with specific and relevant details;

(C) revise drafts by adding, deleting, or rearranging words, phrases, or sentences;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii) past, present, and future verb tense ;

(iii) singular, plural, common, and proper nouns;

(iv) adjectives, including articles;

(v) adverbs that convey time and adverbs that convey place ;

(vi) prepositions and prepositional phrases;

(vii) pronouns, including subjective, objective, and possessive cases ;

(viii) coordinating conjunctions to form compound subjects and predicates;

(ix) capitalization of months, days of the week, and the salutation and conclusion of a letter;

(x) end punctuation, apostrophes in contractions, and commas with items in a series and in dates; and

(xi) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words; and

(E) publish and share writing.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts, including personal narratives and poetry;

(B) compose informational texts, including procedural texts and reports; and

(C) compose correspondence such as thank you notes or letters .

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate questions for formal and informal inquiry with adult assistance;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant sources and information to answer the questions;

(D) identify primary and secondary sources;

(E) demonstrate understanding of information gathered;

(F) cite sources appropriately; and

(G) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

Source: The provisions of this 110.4 adopted to be effective September 25, 2017, 42 TexReg 4999; amended to be effective August 1, 2019, 44 TexReg 3835.


§110.5. English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 3, Adopted 2017.

110.5. English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 3, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking -- oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and make pertinent comments;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a series of related sequences of action;

(C) speak coherently about the topic under discussion, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, and the conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively;

(D) work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules, norms, and protocols; and

(E) develop social communication such as conversing politely in all situations.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking --beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) decoding multisyllabic words with multiple sound-spelling patterns such as eigh, ough, and en;

(ii) decoding multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(iii) decoding compound words, contractions, and abbreviations;

(iv) decoding words using knowledge of syllable division patterns such as VCCV, VCV, and VCCCV with accent shifts;

(v) decoding words using knowledge of prefixes;

(vi) decoding words using knowledge of suffixes, including how they can change base words such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants; and

(vii) identifying and reading high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(B) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(ii) spelling homophones;

(iii) spelling compound words, contractions, and abbreviations;

(iv) spelling multisyllabic words with multiple sound-spelling patterns;

(v) spelling words using knowledge of syllable division patterns such as VCCV, VCV, and VCCCV;

(vi) spelling words using knowledge of prefixes; and

(vii) spelling words using knowledge of suffixes, including how they can change base words such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants;

(C) alphabetize a series of words to the third letter; and

(D) write complete words, thoughts, and answers legibly in cursive leaving appropriate spaces between words.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking --vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine meaning, syllabication, and pronunciation;

(B) use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words and multiple-meaning words;

(C) identify the meaning of and use words with affixes such as im- (into), non-, dis-, in- (not, non), pre-, -ness, -y, and -ful; and

(D) identify, use, and explain the meaning of antonyms, synonyms, idioms, homophones, and homographs in a text.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking --fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking --self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make and correct or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write a response to a literary or informational text that demonstrates an understanding of a text;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell and paraphrase texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate; and

(G) discuss specific ideas in the text that are important to the meaning.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) infer the theme of a work, distinguishing theme from topic;

(B) explain the relationships among the major and minor characters;

(C) analyze plot elements, including the sequence of events, the conflict , and the resolution; and

(D) explain the influence of the setting on the plot.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, fairy tales, legends, and myths;

(B) explain rhyme scheme, sound devices, and structural elements such as stanzas in a variety of poems;

(C) discuss elements of drama such as characters, dialogue, setting, and acts;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea with supporting evidence;

(ii) features such as sections, tables, graphs, timelines, bullets, numbers, and bold and italicized font to support understanding; and

(iii) organizational patterns such as cause and effect and problem and solution;

(E) recognize characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim;

(ii) distinguishing facts from opinion; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader; and

(F) recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) explain how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) explain the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of imagery, literal and figurative language such as simile, and sound devices such as onomatopoeia achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify the use of literary devices, including first- or third-person point of view;

(F) discuss how the author's use of language contributes to voice; and

(G) identify and explain the use of hyperbole .

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as brainstorming, freewriting, and mapping;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea with relevant details;

(C) revise drafts to improve sentence structure and word choice by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging ideas for coherence and clarity;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete simple and compound sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii) past, present, and future verb tense ;

(iii) singular, plural, common, and proper nouns;

(iv) adjectives, including their comparative and superlative forms;

(v) adverbs that convey time and adverbs that convey manner;

(vi) prepositions and prepositional phrases;

(vii) pronouns, including subjective, objective, and possessive cases ;

(viii) coordinating conjunctions to form compound subjects, predicates, and sentences;

(ix) capitalization of official titles of people, holidays, and geographical names and places;

(x) punctuation marks, including apostrophes in contractions and possessives and commas in compound sentences and items in a series ; and

(xi) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts, including personal narratives and poetry, using genre characteristics and craft ;

(B) compose informational texts, including brief compositions that convey information about a topic, using a clear central idea and genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose argumentative texts, including opinion essays, using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence such as thank you notes or letters.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate questions on a topic for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(D) identify primary and secondary sources;

(E) demonstrate understanding of information gathered;

(F) recognize the difference between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(G) create a works cited page; and

(H) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

Source: The provisions of this 110.5 adopted to be effective September 25, 2017, 42 TexReg 4999; amended to be effective August 1, 2019, 44 TexReg 3835.


§110.6. English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 4, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking --oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and make pertinent comments;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a series of related sequences of action;

(C) express an opinion supported by accurate information, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, and the conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) work collaboratively with others to develop a plan of shared responsibilities.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking --beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) decoding words with specific orthographic patterns and rules, including regular and irregular plurals;

(ii) decoding multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(iii) decoding words using advanced knowledge of syllable division patterns such as VV;

(iv) decoding words using knowledge of prefixes;

(v) decoding words using knowledge of suffixes, including how they can change base words such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants; and

(vi) identifying and reading high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(B) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(ii) spelling homophones;

(iii) spelling multisyllabic words with multiple sound-spelling patterns;

(iv) spelling words using advanced knowledge of syllable division patterns;

(v) spelling words using knowledge of prefixes; and

(vi) spelling words using knowledge of suffixes, including how they can change base words such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants; and

(C) write legibly in cursive to complete assignments.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking --vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine meaning, syllabication, and pronunciation;

(B) use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the relevant meaning of unfamiliar words or multiple-meaning words;

(C) determine the meaning of and use words with affixes such as mis-, sub-, -ment, and -ity/ty and roots such as auto, graph, and meter; and

(D) identify, use, and explain the meaning of homophones such as reign/rain.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking --fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking --self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make and correct or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing and contrasting ideas across a variety of sources;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell, paraphrase, or summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate; and

(G) discuss specific ideas in the text that are important to the meaning.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) infer basic themes supported by text evidence;

(B) explain the interactions of the characters and the changes they undergo;

(C) analyze plot elements, including the rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution; and

(D) explain the influence of the setting, including historical and cultural settings, on the plot.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, legends, myths, and tall tales;

(B) explain figurative language such as simile, metaphor, and personification that the poet uses to create images;

(C) explain structure in drama such as character tags, acts, scenes, and stage directions;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea with supporting evidence;

(ii) features such as pronunciation guides and diagrams to support understanding; and

(iii) organizational patterns such as compare and contrast;

(E) recognize characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim;

(ii) explaining how the author has used facts for an argument; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader; and

(F) recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) explain how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of imagery, literal and figurative language such as simile and metaphor, and sound devices such as alliteration and assonance achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify and understand the use of literary devices, including first- or third-person point of view;

(F) discuss how the author's use of language contributes to voice; and

(G) identify and explain the use of anecdote .

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as brainstorming, freewriting, and mapping;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea with relevant details;

(C) revise drafts to improve sentence structure and word choice by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging ideas for coherence and clarity;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete simple and compound sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments ;

(ii) past tense of irregular verbs;

(iii) singular, plural, common, and proper nouns;

(iv) adjectives, including their comparative and superlative forms;

(v) adverbs that convey frequency and adverbs that convey degree ;

(vi) prepositions and prepositional phrases;

(vii) pronouns, including reflexive ;

(viii) coordinating conjunctions to form compound subjects, predicates, and sentences;

(ix) capitalization of historical periods, events, and documents; titles of books; stories and essays; and languages, races, and nationalities;

(x) punctuation marks, including apostrophes in possessives, commas in compound sentences, and quotation marks in dialogue; and

(xi) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as personal narratives and poetry using genre characteristics and craft ;

(B) compose informational texts, including brief compositions that convey information about a topic, using a clear central idea and genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose argumentative texts, including opinion essays, using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence that requests information.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate and clarify questions on a topic for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(D) identify primary and secondary sources;

(E) demonstrate understanding of information gathered;

(F) recognize the difference between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(G) develop a bibliography; and

(H) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

Source: The provisions of this 110.6 adopted to be effective September 25, 2017, 42 TexReg 4999; amended to be effective August 1, 2019, 44 TexReg 3835.


§110.7. English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 5, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking --oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively to interpret verbal and non-verbal messages, ask relevant questions, and make pertinent comments;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that include multiple action steps;

(C) give an organized presentation employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) work collaboratively with others to develop a plan of shared responsibilities.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking --beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) decoding words with consonant changes, including/t/ to/sh/ such as in select and selection and/k/ to/sh/ such as music and musician;

(ii) decoding multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllable; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(iii) decoding words using advanced knowledge of syllable division patterns;

(iv) decoding words using advanced knowledge of the influence of prefixes and suffixes on base words; and

(v) identifying and reading high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(B) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(ii) spelling words with consonant changes, including/t/ to/sh/ such as in select and selection and/k/ to/sh/ such as music and musician;

(iii) spelling multisyllabic words with multiple sound-spelling patterns;

(iv) spelling words using advanced knowledge of syllable division patterns;

(v) spelling words using knowledge of prefixes; and

(vi) spelling words using knowledge of suffixes, including how they can change base words such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants; and

(C) write legibly in cursive.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking --vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, and word origin;

(B) use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the relevant meaning of unfamiliar words or multiple-meaning words;

(C) identify the meaning of and use words with affixes such as trans-, super-, -ive, and -logy and roots such as geo and photo; and

(D) identify, use, and explain the meaning of adages and puns.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking --fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking --self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make and correct or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing and contrasting ideas across a variety of sources;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell, paraphrase, or summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate; and

(G) discuss specific ideas in the text that are important to the meaning.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) infer multiple themes within a text using text evidence;

(B) analyze the relationships of and conflicts among the characters;

(C) analyze plot elements, including rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution; and

(D) analyze the influence of the setting, including historical and cultural settings, on the plot.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, legends, myths, and tall tales;

(B) explain the use of sound devices and figurative language and distinguish between the poet and the speaker in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C) explain structure in drama such as character tags, acts, scenes, and stage directions;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea with supporting evidence;

(ii) features such as insets, timelines, and sidebars to support understanding; and

(iii) organizational patterns such as logical order and order of importance;

(E) recognize characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim;

(ii) explaining how the author has used facts for or against an argument; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader; and

(F) recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of imagery, literal and figurative language such as simile and metaphor, and sound devices achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify and understand the use of literary devices, including first- or third-person point of view;

(F) examine how the author's use of language contributes to voice; and

(G) explain the purpose of hyperbole, stereotyping, and anecdote .

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as brainstorming, freewriting, and mapping;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts and details;

(C) revise drafts to improve sentence structure and word choice by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging ideas for coherence and clarity;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete simple and compound sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments ;

(ii) past tense of irregular verbs;

(iii) collective nouns;

(iv) adjectives, including their comparative and superlative forms;

(v) conjunctive adverbs;

(vi) prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

(vii) pronouns, including indefinite ;

(viii) subordinating conjunctions to form complex sentences ;

(ix) capitalization of abbreviations, initials, acronyms, and organizations;

(x) italics and underlining for titles and emphasis and punctuation marks, including quotation marks in dialogue and commas in compound and complex sentences; and

(xi) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft ;

(B) compose informational texts, including brief compositions that convey information about a topic, using a clear central idea and genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose argumentative texts, including opinion essays, using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence that requests information.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate and clarify questions on a topic for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(D) understand credibility of primary and secondary sources;

(E) demonstrate understanding of information gathered;

(F) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(G) develop a bibliography; and

(H) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

Source: The provisions of this 110.7 adopted to be effective September 25, 2017, 42 TexReg 4999; amended to be effective August 1, 2019, 44 TexReg 3835.


For more information, email rules@tea.texas.gov.