Chapter 110. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading
Subchapter B. Middle School


Statutory Authority: The provisions of this Subchapter B issued under the Texas Education Code, 7.102(c)(4) and §28.002, unless otherwise noted.


§110.21. Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading, Middle School, Adopted 2017.

(a) The provisions of this section and 110.22-110.24 of this title shall be implemented by school districts.

(b) No later than August 31, 2018, the commissioner of education shall determine whether instructional materials funding has been made available to Texas public schools for materials that cover the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading as adopted in 110.22-110.24 of this title.

(c) If the commissioner makes the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under subsection (b) of this section, 110.22-110.24 of this title shall be implemented beginning with the 2019-2020 school year and apply to the 2019-2020 and subsequent school years.

(d) If the commissioner does not make the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under subsection (b) of this section, the commissioner shall determine no later than August 31 of each subsequent school year whether instructional materials funding has been made available. If the commissioner determines that instructional materials funding has been made available, the commissioner shall notify the State Board of Education and school districts that 110.22-110.24 of this title shall be implemented for the following school year.

Source: The provisions of this 110.21 adopted to be effective September 25, 2017, 42 TexReg 4999; amended to be effective August 1, 2019, 44 TexReg 3835.


§110.22. English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 6, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively to interpret a message, ask clarifying questions, and respond appropriately;

(B) follow and give oral instructions that include multiple action steps;

(C) give an organized presentation with a specific stance and position, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) participate in student-led discussions by eliciting and considering suggestions from other group members, taking notes, and identifying points of agreement and disagreement.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine the meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, word origin, and part of speech;

(B) use context such as definition, analogy, and examples to clarify the meaning of words; and

(C) determine the meaning and usage of grade-level academic English words derived from Greek and Latin roots such as mis/mit, bene, man, vac, scrib/script, and jur/jus.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to adjust fluency when reading grade-level text based on the reading purpose.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(5) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected text;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make and correct or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(6) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing sources within and across genres;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate;

(G) discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H) respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice; and

(I) reflect on and adjust responses as new evidence is presented.

(7) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) infer multiple themes within and across texts using text evidence;

(B) analyze how the characters' internal and external responses develop the plot;

(C) analyze plot elements, including rising action, climax, falling action, resolution, and non-linear elements such as flashback; and

(D) analyze how the setting, including historical and cultural settings, influences character and plot development.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of literary genres such as realistic fiction, adventure stories, historical fiction, mysteries, humor, and myths;

(B) analyze the effect of meter and structural elements such as line breaks in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C) analyze how playwrights develop characters through dialogue and staging;

(D) analyze characteristics and structural elements of informational text, including:

(i) the controlling idea or thesis with supporting evidence;

(ii) features such as introduction, foreword, preface, references, or acknowledgements to gain background information; and

(iii) organizational patterns such as definition, classification, advantage, and disadvantage;

(E) analyze characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim;

(ii) explaining how the author uses various types of evidence to support the argument; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader; and

(F) analyze characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.; and

(9) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of figurative language such as metaphor and personification achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify the use of literary devices, including omniscient and limited point of view, to achieve a specific purpose;

(F) analyze how the author's use of language contributes to mood and voice; and

(G) explain the differences between rhetorical devices and logical fallacies.

(10) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as discussion, background reading, and personal interests;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, coherence within and across paragraphs, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts and details;

(C) revise drafts for clarity, development, organization, style, word choice, and sentence variety;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete complex sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments;

(ii) consistent, appropriate use of verb tenses;

(iii) conjunctive adverbs;

(iv) prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

(v) pronouns, including relative;

(vi) subordinating conjunctions to form complex sentences and correlative conjunctions such as either/or and neither/nor;

(vii) capitalization of proper nouns, including abbreviations, initials, acronyms, and organizations;

(viii) punctuation marks, including commas in complex sentences, transitions, and introductory elements; and

(ix) correct spelling, including commonly confused terms such as its/it's, affect/effect, there/their/they're, and to/two/too; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts, including multi-paragraph essays that convey information about a topic, using a clear controlling idea or thesis statement and genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose multi-paragraph argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence that reflects an opinion, registers a complaint, or requests information in a business or friendly structure.

(12) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate student-selected and teacher-guided questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and revise a plan;

(C) refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions;

(D) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(E) differentiate between primary and secondary sources;

(F) synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(G) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(H) examine sources for:

(i) reliability, credibility, and bias; and

(ii) faulty reasoning such as hyperbole, emotional appeals, and stereotype;

(I) display academic citations and use source materials ethically; and

(J) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

Source: The provisions of this 110.22 adopted to be effective September 25, 2017, 42 TexReg 4999; amended to be effective August 1, 2019, 44 TexReg 3835.


§110.23. English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 7, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively to interpret a message and ask clarifying questions that build on others' ideas;

(B) follow and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, or solve problems;

(C) present a critique of a literary work, film, or dramatic production, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, a variety of natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) engage in meaningful discourse and provide and accept constructive feedback from others.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine the meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, word origin, and part of speech;

(B) use context such as contrast or cause and effect to clarify the meaning of words; and

(C) determine the meaning and usage of grade-level academic English words derived from Greek and Latin roots such as omni, log/logue, gen, vid/vis, phil, luc, and sens/sent.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to adjust fluency when reading grade-level text based on the reading purpose.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(5) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make and correct or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(6) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing sources within and across genres;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate;

(G) discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H) respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice; and

(I) reflect on and adjust responses as new evidence is presented.

(7) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) infer multiple themes within and across texts using text evidence;

(B) analyze how characters' qualities influence events and resolution of the conflict;

(C) analyze plot elements, including the use of foreshadowing and suspense, to advance the plot; and

(D) analyze how the setting influences character and plot development.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of literary genres such as realistic fiction, adventure stories, historical fiction, mysteries, humor, myths, fantasy, and science fiction;

(B) analyze the effect of rhyme scheme, meter, and graphical elements such as punctuation and capitalization in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C) analyze how playwrights develop characters through dialogue and staging;

(D) analyze characteristics and structural elements of informational text, including:

(i) the controlling idea or thesis with supporting evidence;

(ii) features such as references or acknowledgements; and

(iii) organizational patterns that support multiple topics, categories, and subcategories;

(E) analyze characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim;

(ii) explaining how the author uses various types of evidence and consideration of alternatives to support the argument; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader; and

(F) analyze characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.; and

(9) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of figurative language such as metaphor and personification achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify the use of literary devices, including subjective and objective point of view;

(F) analyze how the author's use of language contributes to mood, voice, and tone; and

(G) explain the purpose of rhetorical devices such as direct address and rhetorical questions and logical fallacies such as loaded language and sweeping generalizations.

(10) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as discussion, background reading, and personal interests;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, coherence within and across paragraphs, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts, details, and examples;

(C) revise drafts for clarity, development, organization, style, word choice, and sentence variety;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete complex sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments;

(ii) consistent, appropriate use of verb tenses;

(iii) conjunctive adverbs;

(iv) prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

(v) pronoun-antecedent agreement;

(vi) subordinating conjunctions to form complex sentences and correlative conjunctions such as either/or and neither/nor;

(vii) correct capitalization;

(viii) punctuation, including commas to set off words, phrases, and clauses, and semicolons; and

(ix) correct spelling, including commonly confused terms such as its/it's, affect/effect, there/their/they're, and to/two/too; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts, including multi-paragraph essays that convey information about a topic, using a clear controlling idea or thesis statement and genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose multi-paragraph argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence that reflects an opinion, registers a complaint, or requests information in a business or friendly structure.

(12) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate student-selected and teacher-guided questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and revise a plan;

(C) refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions;

(D) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(E) differentiate between primary and secondary sources;

(F) synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(G) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(H) examine sources for:

(i) reliability, credibility, and bias; and

(ii) faulty reasoning such as hyperbole, emotional appeals, and stereotype;

(I) display academic citations and use source materials ethically; and

(J) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

Source: The provisions of this 110.23 adopted to be effective September 25, 2017, 42 TexReg 4999, amended to be effective August 1, 2019, 44 TexReg 3835.


§110.24. English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 8, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively to interpret a message by summarizing, asking questions, and making comments;

(B) follow and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, or solve problems;

(C) advocate a position using anecdotes, analogies, and/or illustrations employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, a variety of natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) participate collaboratively in discussions, plan agendas with clear goals and deadlines, set time limits for speakers, take notes, and vote on key issues.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine the meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, word origin, and part of speech;

(B) use context within or beyond a paragraph to clarify the meaning of unfamiliar or ambiguous words; and

(C) determine the meaning and usage of grade-level academic English words derived from Greek and Latin roots such as ast, qui, path, mand/mend, and duc.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to adjust fluency when reading grade-level text based on the reading purpose.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(5) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make and correct or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(6) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing sources within and across genres;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate;

(G) discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H) respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice;

(I) reflect on and adjust responses as new evidence is presented; and

(J) defend or challenge the authors' claims using relevant text evidence.

(7) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze how themes are developed through the interaction of characters and events;

(B) analyze how characters' motivations and behaviors influence events and resolution of the conflict;

(C) analyze non-linear plot development such as flashbacks, foreshadowing, subplots, and parallel plot structures and compare it to linear plot development; and

(D) explain how the setting influences the values and beliefs of characters.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of literary genres such as realistic fiction, adventure stories, historical fiction, mysteries, humor, fantasy, science fiction, and short stories;

(B) analyze the effect of graphical elements such as punctuation and line length in poems across a variety of poetic forms such as epic, lyric, and humorous poetry;

(C) analyze how playwrights develop dramatic action through the use of acts and scenes;

(D) analyze characteristics and structural elements of informational text, including:

(i) the controlling idea or thesis with supporting evidence;

(ii) features such as footnotes, endnotes, and citations; and

(iii) multiple organizational patterns within a text to develop the thesis;

(E) analyze characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim and analyzing the argument;

(ii) identifying and explaining the counter argument; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader; and

(F) analyze characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(9) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of figurative language such as extended metaphor achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify and analyze the use of literary devices, including multiple points of view and irony;

(F) analyze how the author's use of language contributes to the mood, voice, and tone; and

(G) explain the purpose of rhetorical devices such as analogy and juxtaposition and of logical fallacies such as bandwagon appeals and circular reasoning.

(10) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as discussion, background reading, and personal interests;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, coherence within and across paragraphs, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts, details, and examples;

(C) revise drafts for clarity, development, organization, style, word choice, and sentence variety;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete complex sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments;

(ii) consistent, appropriate use of verb tenses and active and passive voice;

(iii) prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

(iv) pronoun-antecedent agreement;

(v) correct capitalization;

(vi) punctuation, including commas in nonrestrictive phrases and clauses, semicolons, colons, and parentheses; and

(vii) correct spelling, including commonly confused terms such as its/it's, affect/effect, there/their/they're, and to/two/too; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts, including multi-paragraph essays that convey information about a topic, using a clear controlling idea or thesis statement and genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose multi-paragraph argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence that reflects an opinion, registers a complaint, or requests information in a business or friendly structure.

(12) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate student-selected and teacher-guided questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and revise a plan;

(C) refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions;

(D) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(E) differentiate between primary and secondary sources;

(F) synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(G) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(H) examine sources for:

(i) reliability, credibility, and bias, including omission; and

(ii) faulty reasoning such as bandwagon appeals, repetition, and loaded language;

(I) display academic citations and use source materials ethically; and

(J) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

Source: The provisions of this 110.24 adopted to be effective September 25, 2017, 42 TexReg 4999; amended to be effective, August 1, 2019, 44 TexReg 3835.


§110.25. English Language Arts and Reading, Reading (Elective Credit).

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  Reading offers students an opportunity to read with competence, confidence, and understanding through instruction in comprehension strategies, word recognition, and vocabulary. Middle school students read, write, listen, speak, and view to learn more about the world around them and to create, clarify, critique, and appreciate ideas and responses. Middle school students complete research projects or locate answers to questions using multiple texts and resources. In addition, middle school students continue to read on their own or listen to texts read aloud for the purpose of enjoyment. Middle school students read both printed texts and electronic media independently, bringing with them various strategies to aid in comprehension. Significant blocks of time are provided for reading both independent and instructional-level material for varied purposes such as collecting information, learning about and appreciating the writer's craft, and discovering models for their own writing. Middle school students respond to texts through various avenues such as talk, print and electronic formats, connecting their knowledge of the world with the text being read. For middle school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(2)  The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Reading, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student uses a variety of word recognition strategies. The student is expected to:

(A)  apply knowledge of letter-sound correspondences, language structure, and context to recognize words; and

(B)  use dictionaries, glossaries, and other sources to confirm pronunciations and meanings of unfamiliar words.

(2)  The student acquires vocabulary through reading and systematic word study. The student is expected to:

(A)  expand vocabulary by reading, viewing, listening, and discussing;

(B)  determine word meaning by using context;

(C)  use spelling, prefixes and suffixes, roots, and word origins to understand meanings;

(D)  use reference aids such as a glossary, dictionary, thesaurus, and available technology to determine meanings and pronunciations; and

(E)  identify analogies, homonyms, synonyms/antonyms, and connotation/denotation.

(3)  The student reads with fluency and understanding in increasingly demanding texts. The student is expected to:

(A)  read silently for a variety of purposes with comprehension for sustained periods of time;

(B)  adjust reading rate based on purposes for reading; and

(C)  read orally at a rate that enables comprehension.

(4)  The student comprehends selections using a variety of strategies. The student is expected to:

(A)  use prior knowledge and experience to comprehend;

(B)  determine purpose for reading;

(C)  self-monitor reading and adjust when confusion occurs by rereading, using resources, and questioning;

(D)  summarize texts by identifying main ideas and relevant details;

(E)  make inferences such as drawing conclusions and making generalizations or predictions, supporting them with prior experiences and textual evidence;

(F)  analyze and use both narrative and expository text structures: sequence, description, problem/solution, compare/contrast, and cause/effect;

(G)  make connections and find patterns, similarities, and differences across texts;

(H)  construct visual images based on text descriptions;

(I)  determine important ideas from texts and oral presentations;

(J)  manage text by using practices such as previewing, highlighting, making marginal notes, notetaking, outlining, and journaling; and

(K)  use questioning to enhance comprehension before, during, and after reading.

(5)  The student reads texts to find information on self-selected and assigned topics. The student is expected to:

(A)  generate relevant, interesting, and researchable questions;

(B)  locate appropriate print and non-print information using text and technical resources;

(C)  organize and record new information in systematic ways to develop notes, charts, and graphic organizers;

(D)  communicate information gained from reading;

(E)  use compiled information and knowledge to raise additional unanswered questions; and

(F)  use text organizers such as overviews, headings, and graphic features to locate and categorize information.

(6)  The student reads for different purposes in varied sources, both narrative and expository. The student is expected to:

(A)  read to enjoy, to complete a task, to gather information, to be informed, to solve problems, to answer questions, to analyze, to interpret, and to evaluate;

(B)  read sources such as literature, diaries, journals, textbooks, maps, newspapers, letters, speeches, memoranda, electronic texts, and technical documents; and

(C)  understand and interpret visual representations.

(7)  The student formulates and supports responses to various types of texts. The student is expected to:

(A)  respond actively to texts in both aesthetic and critical ways;

(B)  respond to text through discussion, journal writing, performance, and visual representation; and

(C)  support responses by using prior knowledge and experience and/or citing textual evidence which may consist of a direct quotation, paraphrase, or specific synopsis.

(8)  The student reads critically to evaluate texts in order to determine the credibility of sources. The student is expected to:

(A)  evaluate the credibility of informational sources and their relevance for assigned and self-selected topics;

(B)  evaluate how a writer's motivation, stance, or position may affect text credibility, structure, or tone;

(C)  analyze aspects of text, such as patterns of organization and choice of language, for persuasive effect;

(D)  recognize modes of reasoning, such as induction and deduction; and

(E)  recognize logical and illogical arguments in text.

(9)  The student reads to increase knowledge of own culture, the culture of others, and the common elements of cultures. The student is expected to:

(A)  compare text events with personal and other readers' experiences; and

(B)  recognize and discuss literary themes and connections that cross cultures.

Source: The provisions of this §110.25 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective September 4, 2008, 33 TexReg 7162.


§110.26. English Language Arts and Reading, Speech (Elective Credit).

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  Communication is an integral part of our social, cultural, and academic lives; therefore, middle school students should develop effective communication skills to further their academic pursuits and to prepare for interaction in social, civic, and professional roles. Competent communicators develop skills focused on five identifiable functions of expressing and responding appropriately to feelings, participating in social traditions, informing, persuading, creating, and imagining. To become competent communicators, students will develop and apply skills in using oral language, nonverbal communication, and listening in interpersonal, group, academic, and public contexts. For middle school students whose first language is not English, the students' experiences with oral communication serve as a foundation for English language acquisition.

(2)  The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Speech, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  Understanding the communication process. The student demonstrates a knowledge of communication. The student is expected to:

(A)  recognize and explain the importance of communication in social, academic, civic, and professional roles;

(B)  identify the related components of the communication process;

(C)  identify standards of making communication choices considering appropriateness for self, listener, occasion, and task;

(D)  identify characteristics of oral language and analyze standards for using oral language appropriately;

(E)  identify the importance of using appropriate nonverbal communication;

(F)  identify and explain the components of listening process;

(G)  identify the kinds of listening and analyze skills related to each type;

(H)  analyze how perception of self and others affects communication;

(I)  analyze and develop techniques and strategies for building self-confidence and reducing communication apprehension;

(J)  identify and explain factors that influence communication decisions such as knowledge, attitudes, and culture; and

(K)  explain the importance of assuming responsibility for communication decisions.

(2)  Expressing and responding. The student develops skills for expressing and responding appropriately in a variety of situations. The student is expected to:

(A)  use appropriate verbal and nonverbal communication skills in interpersonal situations;

(B)  use reflective empathic listening skills to respond appropriately in interpersonal situations;

(C)  explain the importance of using tact, courtesy, and assertiveness appropriately in interpersonal situations;

(D)  identify kinds of groups and analyze basic principles of group dynamics;

(E)  use appropriate communication skills in groups to make plans or accomplish goals;

(F)  use appropriate strategies for agreeing or disagreeing in interpersonal and group situations; and

(G)  prepare and present an oral statement on a topic of interest or concern.

(3)  Participating in social traditions. The student develops an understanding of social traditions. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the importance of social traditions and ceremonies in various contexts and cultures;

(B)  communicate appropriately in a variety of interpersonal social traditions, including making and acknowledging introductions and giving and accepting praise and criticism;

(C)  employ parliamentary procedure in a group meeting;

(D)  use effective techniques to prepare, organize, and present a speech for a special occasion; and

(E)  use appreciative and critical-listening skills to analyze, evaluate, and respond appropriately to class, public, or media.

(4)  Informing. The student expresses and responds appropriately to informative messages. The student is expected to:

(A)  research ideas and topics to acquire accurate information from a variety of primary, secondary, and technological sources;

(B)  use appropriate communication skills to request, provide, and respond to information in interpersonal conversations;

(C)  use appropriate verbal, nonverbal, and listening skills in interviews;

(D)  use appropriate information and effective critical-thinking skills in group decision-making and problem-solving processes;

(E)  plan and present an informative group discussion for an audience;

(F)  plan, research, organize, prepare, and present an informative speech;

(G)  rehearse speeches to gain command of ideas and information, reduce communication apprehension, develop confidence, and practice presentation skills;

(H)  use notes, manuscripts, rostrum, and visual and auditory aids appropriately in speeches;

(I)  use effective verbal and nonverbal communication in presenting informative speeches;

(J)  apply critical-listening skills to analyze, evaluate, and respond appropriately to informative group discussions and speeches; and

(K)  develop and use communication skills needed for academic achievement such as participating appropriately in class discussions, using active and critical-listening skills, and taking accurate notes.

(5)  Persuading. The student expresses and responds appropriately to persuasive messages. The student is expected to:

(A)  recognize and develop skills for analyzing persuasive strategies such as propaganda devices and emotional appeals;

(B)  respond appropriately to persuasive messages in situations such as accepting or rejecting peer pressure and making or responding to requests;

(C)  plan, research, organize, prepare, and present a persuasive speech;

(D)  demonstrate persuasive skills in informal or formal argumentation, discussions, or debates; and

(E)  develop and use critical listening skills to analyze, evaluate, and respond appropriately to class, public, or media presentations.

(6)  Creating and imagining. The student uses imagination and creativity to prepare and perform various types of literature. The student is expected to:

(A)  use imagination to plan, organize, and tell stories;

(B)  use appropriate verbal and nonverbal skills to share stories;

(C)  select, analyze, adapt, interpret, and rehearse a variety of literary selections;

(D)  use effective group decision-making skills in group performances;

(E)  use appropriate verbal and nonverbal skills in individual or group interpretations of literature; and

(F)  use appreciative and critical-listening skills to respond appropriately to class, public, or media performances.

Source: The provisions of this §110.26 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective September 4, 2008, 33 TexReg 7162.


For more information, email rules@tea.texas.gov.