Chapter 110. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading
Subchapter B. Middle School


Statutory Authority: The provisions of this Subchapter B issued under the Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4) and §28.002, unless otherwise noted.


§110.17. Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading, Middle School, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010.

(a)  The provisions of §§110.18-110.20 of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2009-2010 school year.

(b)  Students must develop the ability to comprehend and process material from a wide range of texts. Student expectations for Reading/Comprehension Skills as provided in this subsection are described for the appropriate grade level.

Figure: 19 TAC §110.17(b)

Source: The provisions of this §110.17 adopted to be effective September 4, 2008, 33 TexReg 7162; amended to be effective February 22, 2010, 35 TexReg 1462.


§110.18. English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 6, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010.

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  The English Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the English language in speaking and writing. The standards are cumulative--students will continue to address earlier standards as needed while they attend to standards for their grade. In sixth grade, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should read and write on a daily basis.

(2)  For students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition.

(A)  English language learners (ELLs) are acquiring English, learning content in English, and learning to read simultaneously. For this reason, it is imperative that reading instruction should be comprehensive and that students receive instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, decoding, and word attack skills while simultaneously being taught academic vocabulary and comprehension skills and strategies. Reading instruction that enhances ELL's ability to decode unfamiliar words and to make sense of those words in context will expedite their ability to make sense of what they read and learn from reading. Additionally, developing fluency, spelling, and grammatical conventions of academic language must be done in meaningful contexts and not in isolation.

(B)  For ELLs, comprehension of texts requires additional scaffolds to support comprehensible input. ELL students should use the knowledge of their first language (e.g., cognates) to further vocabulary development. Vocabulary needs to be taught in the context of connected discourse so that language is meaningful. ELLs must learn how rhetorical devices in English differ from those in their native language. At the same time English learners are learning in English, the focus is on academic English, concepts, and the language structures specific to the content.

(C)  During initial stages of English development, ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language that many monolingual English speakers find difficult to meet in their native language. However, English language learners' abilities to meet these standards will be influenced by their proficiency in English. While English language learners can analyze, synthesize, and evaluate, their level of English proficiency may impede their ability to demonstrate this knowledge during the initial stages of English language acquisition. It is also critical to understand that ELLs with no previous or with interrupted schooling will require explicit and strategic support as they acquire English and learn to learn in English simultaneously.

(3)  To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations at Grade 6 as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(4)  To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  Reading/Fluency. Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are expected to adjust fluency when reading aloud grade-level text based on the reading purpose and the nature of the text.

(2)  Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A)  determine the meaning of grade-level academic English words derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes;

(B)  use context (e.g., cause and effect or compare and contrast organizational text structures) to determine or clarify the meaning of unfamiliar or multiple meaning words;

(C)  complete analogies that describe part to whole or whole to part (e.g., ink:pen as page: ____ or pen:ink as book: _____);

(D)  explain the meaning of foreign words and phrases commonly used in written English (e.g., RSVP, que sera sera); and

(E)  use a dictionary, a glossary, or a thesaurus (printed or electronic) to determine the meanings, syllabication, pronunciations, alternate word choices, and parts of speech of words.

(3)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  infer the implicit theme of a work of fiction, distinguishing theme from the topic;

(B)  analyze the function of stylistic elements (e.g., magic helper, rule of three) in traditional and classical literature from various cultures; and

(C)  compare and contrast the historical and cultural settings of two literary works.

(4)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain how figurative language (e.g., personification, metaphors, similes, hyperbole) contributes to the meaning of a poem.

(5)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the similarities and differences in the setting, characters, and plot of a play and those in a film based upon the same story line.

(6)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  summarize the elements of plot development (e.g., rising action, turning point, climax, falling action, denouement) in various works of fiction;

(B)  recognize dialect and conversational voice and explain how authors use dialect to convey character; and

(C)  describe different forms of point-of-view, including first- and third-person.

(7)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the literary language and devices used in memoirs and personal narratives and compare their characteristics with those of an autobiography.

(8)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain how authors create meaning through stylistic elements and figurative language emphasizing the use of personification, hyperbole, and refrains.

(9)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to compare and contrast the stated or implied purposes of different authors writing on the same topic.

(10)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  summarize the main ideas and supporting details in text, demonstrating an understanding that a summary does not include opinions;

(B)  explain whether facts included in an argument are used for or against an issue;

(C)  explain how different organizational patterns (e.g., proposition-and-support, problem-and-solution) develop the main idea and the author's viewpoint; and

(D)  synthesize and make logical connections between ideas within a text and across two or three texts representing similar or different genres.

(11)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to:

(A)  compare and contrast the structure and viewpoints of two different authors writing for the same purpose, noting the stated claim and supporting evidence; and

(B)  identify simply faulty reasoning used in persuasive texts.

(12)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A)  follow multi-tasked instructions to complete a task, solve a problem, or perform procedures; and

(B)  interpret factual, quantitative, or technical information presented in maps, charts, illustrations, graphs, timelines, tables, and diagrams.

(13)  Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A)  explain messages conveyed in various forms of media;

(B)  recognize how various techniques influence viewers' emotions;

(C)  critique persuasive techniques (e.g., testimonials, bandwagon appeal) used in media messages; and

(D)  analyze various digital media venues for levels of formality and informality.

(14)  Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A)  plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for conveying the intended meaning to an audience, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea;

(B)  develop drafts by choosing an appropriate organizational strategy (e.g., sequence of events, cause-effect, compare-contrast) and building on ideas to create a focused, organized, and coherent piece of writing;

(C)  revise drafts to clarify meaning, enhance style, include simple and compound sentences, and improve transitions by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging sentences or larger units of text after rethinking how well questions of purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed;

(D)  edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and

(E)  revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(15)  Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:

(A)  write imaginative stories that include:

(i)  a clearly defined focus, plot, and point of view;

(ii)  a specific, believable setting created through the use of sensory details; and

(iii)  dialogue that develops the story; and

(B)  write poems using:

(i)  poetic techniques (e.g., alliteration, onomatopoeia);

(ii)  figurative language (e.g., similes, metaphors); and

(iii)  graphic elements (e.g., capital letters, line length).

(16)  Writing. Students write about their own experiences. Students are expected to write a personal narrative that has a clearly defined focus and communicates the importance of or reasons for actions and/or consequences.

(17)  Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A)  create multi-paragraph essays to convey information about a topic that:

(i)  present effective introductions and concluding paragraphs;

(ii)  guide and inform the reader's understanding of key ideas and evidence;

(iii)  include specific facts, details, and examples in an appropriately organized structure; and

(iv)  use a variety of sentence structures and transitions to link paragraphs;

(B)  write informal letters that convey ideas, include important information, demonstrate a sense of closure, and use appropriate conventions (e.g., date, salutation, closing);

(C)  write responses to literary or expository texts and provide evidence from the text to demonstrate understanding; and

(D)  produce a multimedia presentation involving text and graphics using available technology.

(18)  Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write persuasive essays for appropriate audiences that establish a position and include sound reasoning, detailed and relevant evidence, and consideration of alternatives.

(19)  Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:

(i)  verbs (irregular verbs and active and passive voice);

(ii)  non-count nouns (e.g., rice, paper);

(iii)  predicate adjectives (She is intelligent.) and their comparative and superlative forms (e.g., many, more, most);

(iv)  conjunctive adverbs (e.g., consequently, furthermore, indeed);

(v)  prepositions and prepositional phrases to convey location, time, direction, or to provide details;

(vi)  indefinite pronouns (e.g., all, both, nothing, anything);

(vii)  subordinating conjunctions (e.g., while, because, although, if); and

(viii)  transitional words and phrases that demonstrate an understanding of the function of the transition related to the organization of the writing (e.g., on the contrary, in addition to);

(B)  differentiate between the active and passive voice and know how to use them both; and

(C)  use complete simple and compound sentences with correct subject-verb agreement.

(20)  Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

(A)  use capitalization for:

(i)  abbreviations;

(ii)  initials and acronyms; and

(iii)  organizations;

(B)  recognize and use punctuation marks including:

(i)  commas in compound sentences;

(ii)  proper punctuation and spacing for quotations; and

(iii)  parentheses, brackets, and ellipses (to indicate omissions and interruptions or incomplete statements); and

(C)  use proper mechanics including italics and underlining for titles of books.

(21)  Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to:

(A)  differentiate between commonly confused terms (e.g., its, it's; affect, effect);

(B)  use spelling patterns and rules and print and electronic resources to determine and check correct spellings; and

(C)  know how to use the spell-check function in word processing while understanding its limitations.

(22)  Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

(A)  brainstorm, consult with others, decide upon a topic, and formulate open-ended questions to address the major research topic; and

(B)  generate a research plan for gathering relevant information about the major research question.

(23)  Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

(A)  follow the research plan to collect data from a range of print and electronic resources (e.g., reference texts, periodicals, web pages, online sources) and data from experts;

(B)  differentiate between primary and secondary sources;

(C)  record data, utilizing available technology (e.g., word processors) in order to see the relationships between ideas, and convert graphic/visual data (e.g., charts, diagrams, timelines) into written notes;

(D)  identify the source of notes (e.g., author, title, page number) and record bibliographic information concerning those sources according to a standard format; and

(E)  differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism and identify the importance of citing valid and reliable sources.

(24)  Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to:

(A)  refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions; and

(B)  evaluate the relevance and reliability of sources for the research.

(25)  Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into a written or an oral presentation that:

(A)  compiles important information from multiple sources;

(B)  develops a topic sentence, summarizes findings, and uses evidence to support conclusions;

(C)  presents the findings in a consistent format; and

(D)  uses quotations to support ideas and an appropriate form of documentation to acknowledge sources (e.g., bibliography, works cited).

(26)  Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students will use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  listen to and interpret a speaker's messages (both verbal and nonverbal) and ask questions to clarify the speaker's purpose and perspective;

(B)  follow and give oral instructions that include multiple action steps; and

(C)  paraphrase the major ideas and supporting evidence in formal and informal presentations.

(27)  Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to give an organized presentation with a specific point of view, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

(28)  Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate in student-led discussions by eliciting and considering suggestions from other group members and by identifying points of agreement and disagreement.

Source: The provisions of this §110.18 adopted to be effective September 4, 2008, 33 TexReg 7162.


§110.19. English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 7, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010.

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  The English Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the English language in speaking and writing. The standards are cumulative--students will continue to address earlier standards as needed while they attend to standards for their grade. In seventh grade, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should read and write on a daily basis.

(2)  For students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition.

(A)  English language learners (ELLs) are acquiring English, learning content in English, and learning to read simultaneously. For this reason, it is imperative that reading instruction should be comprehensive and that students receive instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, decoding, and word attack skills while simultaneously being taught academic vocabulary and comprehension skills and strategies. Reading instruction that enhances ELL's ability to decode unfamiliar words and to make sense of those words in context will expedite their ability to make sense of what they read and learn from reading. Additionally, developing fluency, spelling, and grammatical conventions of academic language must be done in meaningful contexts and not in isolation.

(B)  For ELLs, comprehension of texts requires additional scaffolds to support comprehensible input. ELL students should use the knowledge of their first language (e.g., cognates) to further vocabulary development. Vocabulary needs to be taught in the context of connected discourse so that language is meaningful. ELLs must learn how rhetorical devices in English differ from those in their native language. At the same time English learners are learning in English, the focus is on academic English, concepts, and the language structures specific to the content.

(C)  During initial stages of English development, ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language that many monolingual English speakers find difficult to meet in their native language. However, English language learners' abilities to meet these standards will be influenced by their proficiency in English. While English language learners can analyze, synthesize, and evaluate, their level of English proficiency may impede their ability to demonstrate this knowledge during the initial stages of English language acquisition. It is also critical to understand that ELLs with no previous or with interrupted schooling will require explicit and strategic support as they acquire English and learn to learn in English simultaneously.

(3)  To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations at Grade 7 as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(4)  To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  Reading/Fluency. Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are expected to adjust fluency when reading aloud grade-level text based on the reading purpose and the nature of the text.

(2)  Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A)  determine the meaning of grade-level academic English words derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes;

(B)  use context (within a sentence and in larger sections of text) to determine or clarify the meaning of unfamiliar or ambiguous words;

(C)  complete analogies that describe part to whole or whole to part;

(D)  identify the meaning of foreign words commonly used in written English with emphasis on Latin and Greek words (e.g., habeus corpus, e pluribus unum, bona fide, nemesis); and

(E)  use a dictionary, a glossary, or a thesaurus (printed or electronic) to determine the meanings, syllabication, pronunciations, alternate word choices, and parts of speech of words.

(3)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  describe multiple themes in a work of fiction;

(B)  describe conventions in myths and epic tales (e.g., extended simile, the quest, the hero's tasks, circle stories); and

(C)  analyze how place and time influence the theme or message of a literary work.

(4)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the importance of graphical elements (e.g., capital letters, line length, word position) on the meaning of a poem.

(5)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain a playwright's use of dialogue and stage directions.

(6)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  explain the influence of the setting on plot development;

(B)  analyze the development of the plot through the internal and external responses of the characters, including their motivations and conflicts; and

(C)  analyze different forms of point of view, including first-person, third-person omniscient, and third-person limited.

(7)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to describe the structural and substantive differences between an autobiography or a diary and a fictional adaptation of it.

(8)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to determine the figurative meaning of phrases and analyze how an author's use of language creates imagery, appeals to the senses, and suggests mood.

(9)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the difference between the theme of a literary work and the author's purpose in an expository text.

(10)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  evaluate a summary of the original text for accuracy of the main ideas, supporting details, and overall meaning;

(B)  distinguish factual claims from commonplace assertions and opinions;

(C)  use different organizational patterns as guides for summarizing and forming an overview of different kinds of expository text; and

(D)  synthesize and make logical connections between ideas within a text and across two or three texts representing similar or different genres, and support those findings with textual evidence.

(11)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to:

(A)  analyze the structure of the central argument in contemporary policy speeches (e.g., argument by cause and effect, analogy, authority) and identify the different types of evidence used to support the argument; and

(B)  identify such rhetorical fallacies as ad hominem, exaggeration, stereotyping, or categorical claims in persuasive texts.

(12)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A)  follow multi-dimensional instructions from text to complete a task, solve a problem, or perform procedures; and

(B)  explain the function of the graphical components of a text.

(13)  Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A)  interpret both explicit and implicit messages in various forms of media;

(B)  interpret how visual and sound techniques (e.g., special effects, camera angles, lighting, music) influence the message;

(C)  evaluate various ways media influences and informs audiences; and

(D)  assess the correct level of formality and tone for successful participation in various digital media.

(14)  Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A)  plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for conveying the intended meaning to an audience, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea;

(B)  develop drafts by choosing an appropriate organizational strategy (e.g., sequence of events, cause-effect, compare-contrast) and building on ideas to create a focused, organized, and coherent piece of writing;

(C)  revise drafts to ensure precise word choice and vivid images; consistent point of view; use of simple, compound, and complex sentences; internal and external coherence; and the use of effective transitions after rethinking how well questions of purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed;

(D)  edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and

(E)  revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(15)  Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:

(A)  write an imaginative story that:

(i)  sustains reader interest;

(ii)  includes well-paced action and an engaging story line;

(iii)  creates a specific, believable setting through the use of sensory details;

(iv)  develops interesting characters; and

(v)  uses a range of literary strategies and devices to enhance the style and tone; and

(B)  write a poem using:

(i)  poetic techniques (e.g., rhyme scheme, meter);

(ii)  figurative language (e.g., personification, idioms, hyperbole); and

(iii)  graphic elements (e.g., word position).

(16)  Writing. Students write about their own experiences. Students are expected to write a personal narrative that has a clearly defined focus and communicates the importance of or reasons for actions and/or consequences.

(17)  Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A)  write a multi-paragraph essay to convey information about a topic that:

(i)  presents effective introductions and concluding paragraphs;

(ii)  contains a clearly stated purpose or controlling idea;

(iii)  is logically organized with appropriate facts and details and includes no extraneous information or inconsistencies;

(iv)  accurately synthesizes ideas from several sources; and

(v)  uses a variety of sentence structures, rhetorical devices, and transitions to link paragraphs;

(B)  write a letter that reflects an opinion, registers a complaint, or requests information in a business or friendly context;

(C)  write responses to literary or expository texts that demonstrate the writing skills for multi-paragraph essays and provide sustained evidence from the text using quotations when appropriate; and

(D)  produce a multimedia presentation involving text and graphics using available technology.

(18)  Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write a persuasive essay to the appropriate audience that:

(A)  establishes a clear thesis or position;

(B)  considers and responds to the views of others and anticipates and answers reader concerns and counter-arguments; and

(C)  includes evidence that is logically organized to support the author's viewpoint and that differentiates between fact and opinion.

(19)  Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  identify, use, and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:

(i)  verbs (perfect and progressive tenses) and participles;

(ii)  appositive phrases;

(iii)  adverbial and adjectival phrases and clauses;

(iv)  conjunctive adverbs (e.g., consequently, furthermore, indeed);

(v)  prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

(vi)  relative pronouns (e.g., whose, that, which);

(vii)  subordinating conjunctions (e.g., because, since); and

(viii)  transitions for sentence to sentence or paragraph to paragraph coherence;

(B)  write complex sentences and differentiate between main versus subordinate clauses; and

(C)  use a variety of complete sentences (e.g., simple, compound, complex) that include properly placed modifiers, correctly identified antecedents, parallel structures, and consistent tenses.

(20)  Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

(A)  use conventions of capitalization; and

(B)  recognize and use punctuation marks including:

(i)  commas after introductory words, phrases, and clauses; and

(ii)  semicolons, colons, and hyphens.

(21)  Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to spell correctly, including using various resources to determine and check correct spellings.

(22)  Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

(A)  brainstorm, consult with others, decide upon a topic, and formulate a major research question to address the major research topic; and

(B)  apply steps for obtaining and evaluating information from a wide variety of sources and create a written plan after preliminary research in reference works and additional text searches.

(23)  Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

(A)  follow the research plan to gather information from a range of relevant print and electronic sources using advanced search strategies;

(B)  categorize information thematically in order to see the larger constructs inherent in the information;

(C)  record bibliographic information (e.g., author, title, page number) for all notes and sources according to a standard format; and

(D)  differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism and identify the importance of citing valid and reliable sources.

(24)  Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to:

(A)  narrow or broaden the major research question, if necessary, based on further research and investigation; and

(B)  utilize elements that demonstrate the reliability and validity of the sources used (e.g., publication date, coverage, language, point of view) and explain why one source is more useful than another.

(25)  Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into a written or an oral presentation that:

(A)  draws conclusions and summarizes or paraphrases the findings in a systematic way;

(B)  marshals evidence to explain the topic and gives relevant reasons for conclusions;

(C)  presents the findings in a meaningful format; and

(D)  follows accepted formats for integrating quotations and citations into the written text to maintain a flow of ideas.

(26)  Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students will use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  listen to and interpret a speaker's purpose by explaining the content, evaluating the delivery of the presentation, and asking questions or making comments about the evidence that supports a speaker's claims;

(B)  follow and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, or solve problems; and

(C)  draw conclusions about the speaker's message by considering verbal communication (e.g., word choice, tone) and nonverbal cues (e.g., posture, gestures, facial expressions).

(27)  Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to present a critique of a literary work, film, or dramatic production, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, a variety of natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

(28)  Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate productively in discussions, plan agendas with clear goals and deadlines, set time limits for speakers, take notes, and vote on key issues.

Source: The provisions of this §110.19 adopted to be effective September 4, 2008, 33 TexReg 7162.


§110.20. English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 8, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010.

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  The English Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the English language in speaking and writing. The standards are cumulative--students will continue to address earlier standards as needed while they attend to standards for their grade. In eighth grade, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should read and write on a daily basis.

(2)  For students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition.

(A)  English language learners (ELLs) are acquiring English, learning content in English, and learning to read simultaneously. For this reason, it is imperative that reading instruction should be comprehensive and that students receive instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, decoding, and word attack skills while simultaneously being taught academic vocabulary and comprehension skills and strategies. Reading instruction that enhances ELL's ability to decode unfamiliar words and to make sense of those words in context will expedite their ability to make sense of what they read and learn from reading. Additionally, developing fluency, spelling, and grammatical conventions of academic language must be done in meaningful contexts and not in isolation.

(B)  For ELLs, comprehension of texts requires additional scaffolds to support comprehensible input. ELL students should use the knowledge of their first language (e.g., cognates) to further vocabulary development. Vocabulary needs to be taught in the context of connected discourse so that language is meaningful. ELLs must learn how rhetorical devices in English differ from those in their native language. At the same time English learners are learning in English, the focus is on academic English, concepts, and the language structures specific to the content.

(C)  During initial stages of English development, ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language that many monolingual English speakers find difficult to meet in their native language. However, English language learners' abilities to meet these standards will be influenced by their proficiency in English. While English language learners can analyze, synthesize, and evaluate, their level of English proficiency may impede their ability to demonstrate this knowledge during the initial stages of English language acquisition. It is also critical to understand that ELLs with no previous or with interrupted schooling will require explicit and strategic support as they acquire English and learn to learn in English simultaneously.

(3)  To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations at Grade 8 as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(4)  To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  Reading/Fluency. Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are expected to adjust fluency when reading aloud grade-level text based on the reading purpose and the nature of the text.

(2)  Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A)  determine the meaning of grade-level academic English words derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes;

(B)  use context (within a sentence and in larger sections of text) to determine or clarify the meaning of unfamiliar or ambiguous words or words with novel meanings;

(C)  complete analogies that describe a function or its description (e.g., pen:paper as chalk: ______ or soft:kitten as hard: ______);

(D)  identify common words or word parts from other languages that are used in written English (e.g., phenomenon, charisma, chorus, passé, flora, fauna); and

(E)  use a dictionary, a glossary, or a thesaurus (printed or electronic) to determine the meanings, syllabication, pronunciations, alternate word choices, and parts of speech of words.

(3)  Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  analyze literary works that share similar themes across cultures;

(B)  compare and contrast the similarities and differences in mythologies from various cultures (e.g., ideas of afterlife, roles and characteristics of deities, purposes of myths); and

(C)  explain how the values and beliefs of particular characters are affected by the historical and cultural setting of the literary work.

(4)  Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to compare and contrast the relationship between the purpose and characteristics of different poetic forms (e.g., epic poetry, lyric poetry).

(5)  Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze how different playwrights characterize their protagonists and antagonists through the dialogue and staging of their plays.

(6)  Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  analyze linear plot developments (e.g., conflict, rising action, falling action, resolution, subplots) to determine whether and how conflicts are resolved;

(B)  analyze how the central characters' qualities influence the theme of a fictional work and resolution of the central conflict; and

(C)  analyze different forms of point of view, including limited versus omniscient, subjective versus objective.

(7)  Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze passages in well-known speeches for the author's use of literary devices and word and phrase choice (e.g., aphorisms, epigraphs) to appeal to the audience.

(8)  Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the effect of similes and extended metaphors in literary text.

(9)  Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze works written on the same topic and compare how the authors achieved similar or different purposes.

(10)  Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  summarize the main ideas, supporting details, and relationships among ideas in text succinctly in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(B)  distinguish factual claims from commonplace assertions and opinions and evaluate inferences from their logic in text;

(C)  make subtle inferences and draw complex conclusions about the ideas in text and their organizational patterns; and

(D)  synthesize and make logical connections between ideas within a text and across two or three texts representing similar or different genres and support those findings with textual evidence.

(11)  Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to:

(A)  compare and contrast persuasive texts that reached different conclusions about the same issue and explain how the authors reached their conclusions through analyzing the evidence each presents; and

(B)  analyze the use of such rhetorical and logical fallacies as loaded terms, caricatures, leading questions, false assumptions, and incorrect premises in persuasive texts.

(12)  Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A)  analyze text for missing or extraneous information in multi-step directions or legends for diagrams; and

(B)  evaluate graphics for their clarity in communicating meaning or achieving a specific purpose.

(13)  Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A)  evaluate the role of media in focusing attention on events and informing opinion on issues;

(B)  interpret how visual and sound techniques (e.g., special effects, camera angles, lighting, music) influence the message;

(C)  evaluate various techniques used to create a point of view in media and the impact on audience; and

(D)  assess the correct level of formality and tone for successful participation in various digital media.

(14)  Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A)  plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for conveying the intended meaning to an audience, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea;

(B)  develop drafts by choosing an appropriate organizational strategy (e.g., sequence of events, cause-effect, compare-contrast) and building on ideas to create a focused, organized, and coherent piece of writing;

(C)  revise drafts to ensure precise word choice and vivid images; consistent point of view; use of simple, compound, and complex sentences; internal and external coherence; and the use of effective transitions after rethinking how well questions of purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed;

(D)  edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and

(E)  revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(15)  Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:

(A)  write an imaginative story that:

(i)  sustains reader interest;

(ii)  includes well-paced action and an engaging story line;

(iii)  creates a specific, believable setting through the use of sensory details;

(iv)  develops interesting characters; and

(v)  uses a range of literary strategies and devices to enhance the style and tone; and

(B)  write a poem using:

(i)  poetic techniques (e.g., rhyme scheme, meter);

(ii)  figurative language (e.g., personification, idioms, hyperbole); and

(iii)  graphic elements (e.g., word position).

(16)  Writing. Students write about their own experiences. Students are expected to write a personal narrative that has a clearly defined focus and includes reflections on decisions, actions, and/or consequences.

(17)  Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A)  write a multi-paragraph essay to convey information about a topic that:

(i)  presents effective introductions and concluding paragraphs;

(ii)  contains a clearly stated purpose or controlling idea;

(iii)  is logically organized with appropriate facts and details and includes no extraneous information or inconsistencies;

(iv)  accurately synthesizes ideas from several sources; and

(v)  uses a variety of sentence structures, rhetorical devices, and transitions to link paragraphs;

(B)  write a letter that reflects an opinion, registers a complaint, or requests information in a business or friendly context;

(C)  write responses to literary or expository texts that demonstrate the use of writing skills for a multi-paragraph essay and provide sustained evidence from the text using quotations when appropriate; and

(D)  produce a multimedia presentation involving text, graphics, images, and sound using available technology.

(18)  Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write a persuasive essay to the appropriate audience that:

(A)  establishes a clear thesis or position;

(B)  considers and responds to the views of others and anticipates and answers reader concerns and counter-arguments; and

(C)  includes evidence that is logically organized to support the author's viewpoint and that differentiates between fact and opinion.

(19)  Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:

(i)  verbs (perfect and progressive tenses) and participles;

(ii)  appositive phrases;

(iii)  adverbial and adjectival phrases and clauses;

(iv)  relative pronouns (e.g., whose, that, which); and

(v)  subordinating conjunctions (e.g., because, since);

(B)  write complex sentences and differentiate between main versus subordinate clauses; and

(C)  use a variety of complete sentences (e.g., simple, compound, complex) that include properly placed modifiers, correctly identified antecedents, parallel structures, and consistent tenses.

(20)  Writing/Conventions of Language/Handwriting. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  use conventions of capitalization; and

(B)  use correct punctuation marks, including:

(i)  commas after introductory structures and dependent adverbial clauses, and correct punctuation of complex sentences; and

(ii)  semicolons, colons, hyphens, parentheses, brackets, and ellipses.

(21)  Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to spell correctly, including using various resources to determine and check correct spellings.

(22)  Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

(A)  brainstorm, consult with others, decide upon a topic, and formulate a major research question to address the major research topic; and

(B)  apply steps for obtaining and evaluating information from a wide variety of sources and create a written plan after preliminary research in reference works and additional text searches.

(23)  Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

(A)  follow the research plan to gather information from a range of relevant print and electronic sources using advanced search strategies;

(B)  categorize information thematically in order to see the larger constructs inherent in the information;

(C)  record bibliographic information (e.g., author, title, page number) for all notes and sources according to a standard format; and

(D)  differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism and identify the importance of using valid and reliable sources.

(24)  Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to:

(A)  narrow or broaden the major research question, if necessary, based on further research and investigation; and

(B)  utilize elements that demonstrate the reliability and validity of the sources used (e.g., publication date, coverage, language, point of view) and explain why one source is more useful and relevant than another.

(25)  Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into a written or an oral presentation that:

(A)  draws conclusions and summarizes or paraphrases the findings in a systematic way;

(B)  marshals evidence to explain the topic and gives relevant reasons for conclusions;

(C)  presents the findings in a meaningful format; and

(D)  follows accepted formats for integrating quotations and citations into the written text to maintain a flow of ideas.

(26)  Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students will use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  listen to and interpret a speaker's purpose by explaining the content, evaluating the delivery of the presentation, and asking questions or making comments about the evidence that supports a speaker's claims;

(B)  follow and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, or solve problems; and

(C)  summarize formal and informal presentations, distinguish between facts and opinions, and determine the effectiveness of rhetorical devices.

(27)  Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to advocate a position using anecdotes, analogies, and/or illustrations, and use eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, a variety of natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

(28)  Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate productively in discussions, plan agendas with clear goals and deadlines, set time limits for speakers, take notes, and vote on key issues.

Source: The provisions of this §110.20 adopted to be effective September 4, 2008, 33 TexReg 7162.


§110.25. English Language Arts and Reading, Reading (Elective Credit).

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  Reading offers students an opportunity to read with competence, confidence, and understanding through instruction in comprehension strategies, word recognition, and vocabulary. Middle school students read, write, listen, speak, and view to learn more about the world around them and to create, clarify, critique, and appreciate ideas and responses. Middle school students complete research projects or locate answers to questions using multiple texts and resources. In addition, middle school students continue to read on their own or listen to texts read aloud for the purpose of enjoyment. Middle school students read both printed texts and electronic media independently, bringing with them various strategies to aid in comprehension. Significant blocks of time are provided for reading both independent and instructional-level material for varied purposes such as collecting information, learning about and appreciating the writer's craft, and discovering models for their own writing. Middle school students respond to texts through various avenues such as talk, print and electronic formats, connecting their knowledge of the world with the text being read. For middle school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(2)  The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Reading, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student uses a variety of word recognition strategies. The student is expected to:

(A)  apply knowledge of letter-sound correspondences, language structure, and context to recognize words; and

(B)  use dictionaries, glossaries, and other sources to confirm pronunciations and meanings of unfamiliar words.

(2)  The student acquires vocabulary through reading and systematic word study. The student is expected to:

(A)  expand vocabulary by reading, viewing, listening, and discussing;

(B)  determine word meaning by using context;

(C)  use spelling, prefixes and suffixes, roots, and word origins to understand meanings;

(D)  use reference aids such as a glossary, dictionary, thesaurus, and available technology to determine meanings and pronunciations; and

(E)  identify analogies, homonyms, synonyms/antonyms, and connotation/denotation.

(3)  The student reads with fluency and understanding in increasingly demanding texts. The student is expected to:

(A)  read silently for a variety of purposes with comprehension for sustained periods of time;

(B)  adjust reading rate based on purposes for reading; and

(C)  read orally at a rate that enables comprehension.

(4)  The student comprehends selections using a variety of strategies. The student is expected to:

(A)  use prior knowledge and experience to comprehend;

(B)  determine purpose for reading;

(C)  self-monitor reading and adjust when confusion occurs by rereading, using resources, and questioning;

(D)  summarize texts by identifying main ideas and relevant details;

(E)  make inferences such as drawing conclusions and making generalizations or predictions, supporting them with prior experiences and textual evidence;

(F)  analyze and use both narrative and expository text structures: sequence, description, problem/solution, compare/contrast, and cause/effect;

(G)  make connections and find patterns, similarities, and differences across texts;

(H)  construct visual images based on text descriptions;

(I)  determine important ideas from texts and oral presentations;

(J)  manage text by using practices such as previewing, highlighting, making marginal notes, notetaking, outlining, and journaling; and

(K)  use questioning to enhance comprehension before, during, and after reading.

(5)  The student reads texts to find information on self-selected and assigned topics. The student is expected to:

(A)  generate relevant, interesting, and researchable questions;

(B)  locate appropriate print and non-print information using text and technical resources;

(C)  organize and record new information in systematic ways to develop notes, charts, and graphic organizers;

(D)  communicate information gained from reading;

(E)  use compiled information and knowledge to raise additional unanswered questions; and

(F)  use text organizers such as overviews, headings, and graphic features to locate and categorize information.

(6)  The student reads for different purposes in varied sources, both narrative and expository. The student is expected to:

(A)  read to enjoy, to complete a task, to gather information, to be informed, to solve problems, to answer questions, to analyze, to interpret, and to evaluate;

(B)  read sources such as literature, diaries, journals, textbooks, maps, newspapers, letters, speeches, memoranda, electronic texts, and technical documents; and

(C)  understand and interpret visual representations.

(7)  The student formulates and supports responses to various types of texts. The student is expected to:

(A)  respond actively to texts in both aesthetic and critical ways;

(B)  respond to text through discussion, journal writing, performance, and visual representation; and

(C)  support responses by using prior knowledge and experience and/or citing textual evidence which may consist of a direct quotation, paraphrase, or specific synopsis.

(8)  The student reads critically to evaluate texts in order to determine the credibility of sources. The student is expected to:

(A)  evaluate the credibility of informational sources and their relevance for assigned and self-selected topics;

(B)  evaluate how a writer's motivation, stance, or position may affect text credibility, structure, or tone;

(C)  analyze aspects of text, such as patterns of organization and choice of language, for persuasive effect;

(D)  recognize modes of reasoning, such as induction and deduction; and

(E)  recognize logical and illogical arguments in text.

(9)  The student reads to increase knowledge of own culture, the culture of others, and the common elements of cultures. The student is expected to:

(A)  compare text events with personal and other readers' experiences; and

(B)  recognize and discuss literary themes and connections that cross cultures.

Source: The provisions of this §110.25 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective September 4, 2008, 33 TexReg 7162.


§110.26. English Language Arts and Reading, Speech (Elective Credit).

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  Communication is an integral part of our social, cultural, and academic lives; therefore, middle school students should develop effective communication skills to further their academic pursuits and to prepare for interaction in social, civic, and professional roles. Competent communicators develop skills focused on five identifiable functions of expressing and responding appropriately to feelings, participating in social traditions, informing, persuading, creating, and imagining. To become competent communicators, students will develop and apply skills in using oral language, nonverbal communication, and listening in interpersonal, group, academic, and public contexts. For middle school students whose first language is not English, the students' experiences with oral communication serve as a foundation for English language acquisition.

(2)  The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Speech, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  Understanding the communication process. The student demonstrates a knowledge of communication. The student is expected to:

(A)  recognize and explain the importance of communication in social, academic, civic, and professional roles;

(B)  identify the related components of the communication process;

(C)  identify standards of making communication choices considering appropriateness for self, listener, occasion, and task;

(D)  identify characteristics of oral language and analyze standards for using oral language appropriately;

(E)  identify the importance of using appropriate nonverbal communication;

(F)  identify and explain the components of listening process;

(G)  identify the kinds of listening and analyze skills related to each type;

(H)  analyze how perception of self and others affects communication;

(I)  analyze and develop techniques and strategies for building self-confidence and reducing communication apprehension;

(J)  identify and explain factors that influence communication decisions such as knowledge, attitudes, and culture; and

(K)  explain the importance of assuming responsibility for communication decisions.

(2)  Expressing and responding. The student develops skills for expressing and responding appropriately in a variety of situations. The student is expected to:

(A)  use appropriate verbal and nonverbal communication skills in interpersonal situations;

(B)  use reflective empathic listening skills to respond appropriately in interpersonal situations;

(C)  explain the importance of using tact, courtesy, and assertiveness appropriately in interpersonal situations;

(D)  identify kinds of groups and analyze basic principles of group dynamics;

(E)  use appropriate communication skills in groups to make plans or accomplish goals;

(F)  use appropriate strategies for agreeing or disagreeing in interpersonal and group situations; and

(G)  prepare and present an oral statement on a topic of interest or concern.

(3)  Participating in social traditions. The student develops an understanding of social traditions. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the importance of social traditions and ceremonies in various contexts and cultures;

(B)  communicate appropriately in a variety of interpersonal social traditions, including making and acknowledging introductions and giving and accepting praise and criticism;

(C)  employ parliamentary procedure in a group meeting;

(D)  use effective techniques to prepare, organize, and present a speech for a special occasion; and

(E)  use appreciative and critical-listening skills to analyze, evaluate, and respond appropriately to class, public, or media.

(4)  Informing. The student expresses and responds appropriately to informative messages. The student is expected to:

(A)  research ideas and topics to acquire accurate information from a variety of primary, secondary, and technological sources;

(B)  use appropriate communication skills to request, provide, and respond to information in interpersonal conversations;

(C)  use appropriate verbal, nonverbal, and listening skills in interviews;

(D)  use appropriate information and effective critical-thinking skills in group decision-making and problem-solving processes;

(E)  plan and present an informative group discussion for an audience;

(F)  plan, research, organize, prepare, and present an informative speech;

(G)  rehearse speeches to gain command of ideas and information, reduce communication apprehension, develop confidence, and practice presentation skills;

(H)  use notes, manuscripts, rostrum, and visual and auditory aids appropriately in speeches;

(I)  use effective verbal and nonverbal communication in presenting informative speeches;

(J)  apply critical-listening skills to analyze, evaluate, and respond appropriately to informative group discussions and speeches; and

(K)  develop and use communication skills needed for academic achievement such as participating appropriately in class discussions, using active and critical-listening skills, and taking accurate notes.

(5)  Persuading. The student expresses and responds appropriately to persuasive messages. The student is expected to:

(A)  recognize and develop skills for analyzing persuasive strategies such as propaganda devices and emotional appeals;

(B)  respond appropriately to persuasive messages in situations such as accepting or rejecting peer pressure and making or responding to requests;

(C)  plan, research, organize, prepare, and present a persuasive speech;

(D)  demonstrate persuasive skills in informal or formal argumentation, discussions, or debates; and

(E)  develop and use critical listening skills to analyze, evaluate, and respond appropriately to class, public, or media presentations.

(6)  Creating and imagining. The student uses imagination and creativity to prepare and perform various types of literature. The student is expected to:

(A)  use imagination to plan, organize, and tell stories;

(B)  use appropriate verbal and nonverbal skills to share stories;

(C)  select, analyze, adapt, interpret, and rehearse a variety of literary selections;

(D)  use effective group decision-making skills in group performances;

(E)  use appropriate verbal and nonverbal skills in individual or group interpretations of literature; and

(F)  use appreciative and critical-listening skills to respond appropriately to class, public, or media performances.

Source: The provisions of this §110.26 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective September 4, 2008, 33 TexReg 7162.


Last updated: February 23, 2010

For additional information, email rules@tea.state.tx.us.