Chapter 110. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading
Subchapter C. High School


Statutory Authority: The provisions of this Subchapter C issued under the Texas Education Code, §§7.102(c)(4), 28.002, and 28.025, unless otherwise noted.


§110.30. Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading, High School, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010.

(a)  The provisions of §§110.31-110.34 of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2009-2010 school year.

(b)  Students must develop the ability to comprehend and process material from a wide range of texts. Student expectations for Reading/Comprehension Skills as provided in this subsection are described for the appropriate grade level.

Figure: 19 TAC §110.30(b)

Source: The provisions of this §110.30 adopted to be effective September 4, 2008, 33 TexReg 7162; amended to be effective February 22, 2010, 35 TexReg 1462.


§110.31. English Language Arts and Reading, English I (One Credit), Beginning with School Year 2009-2010.

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  The English Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the English language in speaking and writing. The standards are cumulative--students will continue to address earlier standards as needed while they attend to standards for their grade. In English I, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should read and write on a daily basis.

(2)  For students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition.

(A)  English language learners (ELLs) are acquiring English, learning content in English, and learning to read simultaneously. For this reason, it is imperative that reading instruction should be comprehensive and that students receive instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, decoding, and word attack skills while simultaneously being taught academic vocabulary and comprehension skills and strategies. Reading instruction that enhances ELL's ability to decode unfamiliar words and to make sense of those words in context will expedite their ability to make sense of what they read and learn from reading. Additionally, developing fluency, spelling, and grammatical conventions of academic language must be done in meaningful contexts and not in isolation.

(B)  For ELLs, comprehension of texts requires additional scaffolds to support comprehensible input. ELL students should use the knowledge of their first language (e.g., cognates) to further vocabulary development. Vocabulary needs to be taught in the context of connected discourse so that language is meaningful. ELLs must learn how rhetorical devices in English differ from those in their native language. At the same time English learners are learning in English, the focus is on academic English, concepts, and the language structures specific to the content.

(C)  During initial stages of English development, ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language that many monolingual English speakers find difficult to meet in their native language. However, English language learners' abilities to meet these standards will be influenced by their proficiency in English. While English language learners can analyze, synthesize, and evaluate, their level of English proficiency may impede their ability to demonstrate this knowledge during the initial stages of English language acquisition. It is also critical to understand that ELLs with no previous or with interrupted schooling will require explicit and strategic support as they acquire English and learn to learn in English simultaneously.

(3)  To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations in English I as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(4)  To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A)  determine the meaning of grade-level technical academic English words in multiple content areas (e.g., science, mathematics, social studies, the arts) derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes;

(B)  analyze textual context (within a sentence and in larger sections of text) to distinguish between the denotative and connotative meanings of words;

(C)  produce analogies that describe a function of an object or its description;

(D)  describe the origins and meanings of foreign words or phrases used frequently in written English (e.g., caveat emptor, carte blanche, tete a tete, pas de deux, bon appetit, quid pro quo); and

(E)  use a dictionary, a glossary, or a thesaurus (printed or electronic) to determine or confirm the meanings of words and phrases, including their connotations and denotations, and their etymology.

(2)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  analyze how the genre of texts with similar themes shapes meaning;

(B)  analyze the influence of mythic, classical and traditional literature on 20th and 21st century literature; and

(C)  relate the figurative language of a literary work to its historical and cultural setting.

(3)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the effects of diction and imagery (e.g., controlling images, figurative language, understatement, overstatement, irony, paradox) in poetry.

(4)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain how dramatic conventions (e.g., monologues, soliloquies, dramatic irony) enhance dramatic text.

(5)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  analyze non-linear plot development (e.g., flashbacks, foreshadowing, sub-plots, parallel plot structures) and compare it to linear plot development;

(B)  analyze how authors develop complex yet believable characters in works of fiction through a range of literary devices, including character foils;

(C)  analyze the way in which a work of fiction is shaped by the narrator's point of view; and

(D)  demonstrate familiarity with works by authors from non-English-speaking literary traditions with emphasis on classical literature.

(6)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze how literary essays interweave personal examples and ideas with factual information to explain, present a perspective, or describe a situation or event.

(7)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the role of irony, sarcasm, and paradox in literary works.

(8)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the controlling idea and specific purpose of an expository text and distinguish the most important from the less important details that support the author's purpose.

(9)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  summarize text and distinguish between a summary that captures the main ideas and elements of a text and a critique that takes a position and expresses an opinion;

(B)  differentiate between opinions that are substantiated and unsubstantiated in the text;

(C)  make subtle inferences and draw complex conclusions about the ideas in text and their organizational patterns; and

(D)  synthesize and make logical connections between ideas and details in several texts selected to reflect a range of viewpoints on the same topic and support those findings with textual evidence.

(10)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to:

(A)  analyze the relevance, quality, and credibility of evidence given to support or oppose an argument for a specific audience; and

(B)  analyze famous speeches for the rhetorical structures and devices used to convince the reader of the authors' propositions.

(11)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A)  analyze the clarity of the objective(s) of procedural text (e.g., consider reading instructions for software, warranties, consumer publications); and

(B)  analyze factual, quantitative, or technical data presented in multiple graphical sources.

(12)  Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A)  compare and contrast how events are presented and information is communicated by visual images (e.g., graphic art, illustrations, news photographs) versus non-visual texts;

(B)  analyze how messages in media are conveyed through visual and sound techniques (e.g., editing, reaction shots, sequencing, background music);

(C)  compare and contrast coverage of the same event in various media (e.g., newspapers, television, documentaries, blogs, Internet); and

(D)  evaluate changes in formality and tone within the same medium for specific audiences and purposes.

(13)  Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A)  plan a first draft by selecting the correct genre for conveying the intended meaning to multiple audiences, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea;

(B)  structure ideas in a sustained and persuasive way (e.g., using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, lists) and develop drafts in timed and open-ended situations that include transitions and the rhetorical devices used to convey meaning;

(C)  revise drafts to improve style, word choice, figurative language, sentence variety, and subtlety of meaning after rethinking how well questions of purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed;

(D)  edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and

(E)  revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(14)  Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are responsible for at least two forms of literary writing. Students are expected to:

(A)  write an engaging story with a well-developed conflict and resolution, interesting and believable characters, and a range of literary strategies (e.g., dialogue, suspense) and devices to enhance the plot;

(B)  write a poem using a variety of poetic techniques (e.g., structural elements, figurative language) and a variety of poetic forms (e.g., sonnets, ballads); and

(C)  write a script with an explicit or implicit theme and details that contribute to a definite mood or tone.

(15)  Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A)  write an analytical essay of sufficient length that includes:

(i)  effective introductory and concluding paragraphs and a variety of sentence structures;

(ii)  rhetorical devices, and transitions between paragraphs;

(iii)  a controlling idea or thesis;

(iv)  an organizing structure appropriate to purpose, audience, and context; and

(v)  relevant information and valid inferences;

(B)  write procedural or work-related documents (e.g., instructions, e-mails, correspondence, memos, project plans) that include:

(i)  organized and accurately conveyed information; and

(ii)  reader-friendly formatting techniques;

(C)  write an interpretative response to an expository or a literary text (e.g., essay or review) that:

(i)  extends beyond a summary and literal analysis;

(ii)  addresses the writing skills for an analytical essay and provides evidence from the text using embedded quotations; and

(iii)  analyzes the aesthetic effects of an author's use of stylistic or rhetorical devices; and

(D)  produce a multimedia presentation (e.g., documentary, class newspaper, docudrama, infomercial, visual or textual parodies, theatrical production) with graphics, images, and sound that conveys a distinctive point of view and appeals to a specific audience.

(16)  Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write an argumentative essay to the appropriate audience that includes:

(A)  a clear thesis or position based on logical reasons supported by precise and relevant evidence;

(B)  consideration of the whole range of information and views on the topic and accurate and honest representation of these views;

(C)  counter-arguments based on evidence to anticipate and address objections;

(D)  an organizing structure appropriate to the purpose, audience, and context; and

(E)  an analysis of the relative value of specific data, facts, and ideas.

(17)  Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:

(i)  more complex active and passive tenses and verbals (gerunds, infinitives, participles);

(ii)  restrictive and nonrestrictive relative clauses; and

(iii)  reciprocal pronouns (e.g., each other, one another);

(B)  identify and use the subjunctive mood to express doubts, wishes, and possibilities; and

(C)  use a variety of correctly structured sentences (e.g., compound, complex, compound-complex).

(18)  Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

(A)  use conventions of capitalization; and

(B)  use correct punctuation marks including:

(i)  quotation marks to indicate sarcasm or irony;

(ii)  comma placement in nonrestrictive phrases, clauses, and contrasting expressions; and

(iii)  dashes to emphasize parenthetical information.

(19)  Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to spell correctly, including using various resources to determine and check correct spellings.

(20)  Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

(A)  brainstorm, consult with others, decide upon a topic, and formulate a major research question to address the major research topic; and

(B)  formulate a plan for engaging in research on a complex, multi-faceted topic.

(21)  Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

(A)  follow the research plan to compile data from authoritative sources in a manner that identifies the major issues and debates within the field of inquiry;

(B)  organize information gathered from multiple sources to create a variety of graphics and forms (e.g., notes, learning logs); and

(C)  paraphrase, summarize, quote, and accurately cite all researched information according to a standard format (e.g., author, title, page number).

(22)  Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to:

(A)  modify the major research question as necessary to refocus the research plan;

(B)  evaluate the relevance of information to the topic and determine the reliability, validity, and accuracy of sources (including Internet sources) by examining their authority and objectivity; and

(C)  critique the research process at each step to implement changes as the need occurs and is identified.

(23)  Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into a written or an oral presentation that:

(A)  marshals evidence in support of a clear thesis statement and related claims;

(B)  provides an analysis for the audience that reflects a logical progression of ideas and a clearly stated point of view;

(C)  uses graphics and illustrations to help explain concepts where appropriate;

(D)  uses a variety of evaluative tools (e.g., self-made rubrics, peer reviews, teacher and expert evaluations) to examine the quality of the research; and

(E)  uses a style manual (e.g., Modern Language Association, Chicago Manual of Style) to document sources and format written materials.

(24)  Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students will use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  listen responsively to a speaker by taking notes that summarize, synthesize, or highlight the speaker's ideas for critical reflection and by asking questions related to the content for clarification and elaboration;

(B)  follow and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, solve problems, and complete processes; and

(C)  evaluate the effectiveness of a speaker's main and supporting ideas.

(25)  Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to give presentations using informal, formal, and technical language effectively to meet the needs of audience, purpose, and occasion, employing eye contact, speaking rate (e.g., pauses for effect), volume, enunciation, purposeful gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

(26)  Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate productively in teams, building on the ideas of others, contributing relevant information, developing a plan for consensus-building, and setting ground rules for decision-making.

Source: The provisions of this §110.31 adopted to be effective September 4, 2008, 33 TexReg 7162.


§110.32. English Language Arts and Reading, English II (One Credit), Beginning with School Year 2009-2010.

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  The English Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the English language in speaking and writing. The standards are cumulative--students will continue to address earlier standards as needed while they attend to standards for their grade. In English II, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should read and write on a daily basis.

(2)  For students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition.

(A)  English language learners (ELLs) are acquiring English, learning content in English, and learning to read simultaneously. For this reason, it is imperative that reading instruction should be comprehensive and that students receive instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, decoding, and word attack skills while simultaneously being taught academic vocabulary and comprehension skills and strategies. Reading instruction that enhances ELL's ability to decode unfamiliar words and to make sense of those words in context will expedite their ability to make sense of what they read and learn from reading. Additionally, developing fluency, spelling, and grammatical conventions of academic language must be done in meaningful contexts and not in isolation.

(B)  For ELLs, comprehension of texts requires additional scaffolds to support comprehensible input. ELL students should use the knowledge of their first language (e.g., cognates) to further vocabulary development. Vocabulary needs to be taught in the context of connected discourse so that language is meaningful. ELLs must learn how rhetorical devices in English differ from those in their native language. At the same time English learners are learning in English, the focus is on academic English, concepts, and the language structures specific to the content.

(C)  During initial stages of English development, ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language that many monolingual English speakers find difficult to meet in their native language. However, English language learners' abilities to meet these standards will be influenced by their proficiency in English. While English language learners can analyze, synthesize, and evaluate, their level of English proficiency may impede their ability to demonstrate this knowledge during the initial stages of English language acquisition. It is also critical to understand that ELLs with no previous or with interrupted schooling will require explicit and strategic support as they acquire English and learn to learn in English simultaneously.

(3)  To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations in English II as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(4)  To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A)  determine the meaning of grade-level technical academic English words in multiple content areas (e.g., science, mathematics, social studies, the arts) derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes;

(B)  analyze textual context (within a sentence and in larger sections of text) to distinguish between the denotative and connotative meanings of words;

(C)  infer word meaning through the identification and analysis of analogies and other word relationships;

(D)  show the relationship between the origins and meaning of foreign words or phrases used frequently in written English and historical events or developments (e.g., glasnost, avant-garde, coup d'état); and

(E)  use a dictionary, a glossary, or a thesaurus (printed or electronic) to determine or confirm the meanings of words and phrases, including their connotations and denotations, and their etymology.

(2)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  compare and contrast differences in similar themes expressed in different time periods;

(B)  analyze archetypes (e.g., journey of a hero, tragic flaw) in mythic, traditional and classical literature; and

(C)  relate the figurative language of a literary work to its historical and cultural setting.

(3)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the structure or prosody (e.g., meter, rhyme scheme) and graphic elements (e.g., line length, punctuation, word position) in poetry.

(4)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze how archetypes and motifs in drama affect the plot of plays.

(5)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  analyze isolated scenes and their contribution to the success of the plot as a whole in a variety of works of fiction;

(B)  analyze differences in the characters' moral dilemmas in works of fiction across different countries or cultures;

(C)  evaluate the connection between forms of narration (e.g., unreliable, omniscient) and tone in works of fiction; and

(D)  demonstrate familiarity with works by authors from non-English-speaking literary traditions with emphasis on 20th century world literature.

(6)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to evaluate the role of syntax and diction and the effect of voice, tone, and imagery on a speech, literary essay, or other forms of literary nonfiction.

(7)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the function of symbolism, allegory, and allusions in literary works.

(8)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the controlling idea and specific purpose of a passage and the textual elements that support and elaborate it, including both the most important details and the less important details.

(9)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  summarize text and distinguish between a summary and a critique and identify non-essential information in a summary and unsubstantiated opinions in a critique;

(B)  distinguish among different kinds of evidence (e.g., logical, empirical, anecdotal) used to support conclusions and arguments in texts;

(C)  make and defend subtle inferences and complex conclusions about the ideas in text and their organizational patterns; and

(D)  synthesize and make logical connections between ideas and details in several texts selected to reflect a range of viewpoints on the same topic and support those findings with textual evidence.

(10)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to:

(A)  explain shifts in perspective in arguments about the same topic and evaluate the accuracy of the evidence used to support the different viewpoints within those arguments; and

(B)  analyze contemporary political debates for such rhetorical and logical fallacies as appeals to commonly held opinions, false dilemmas, appeals to pity, and personal attacks.

(11)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A)  evaluate text for the clarity of its graphics and its visual appeal; and

(B)  synthesize information from multiple graphical sources to draw conclusions about the ideas presented (e.g., maps, charts, schematics).

(12)  Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A)  evaluate how messages presented in media reflect social and cultural views in ways different from traditional texts;

(B)  analyze how messages in media are conveyed through visual and sound techniques (e.g., editing, reaction shots, sequencing, background music);

(C)  examine how individual perception or bias in coverage of the same event influences the audience; and

(D)  evaluate changes in formality and tone within the same medium for specific audiences and purposes.

(13)  Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A)  plan a first draft by selecting the correct genre for conveying the intended meaning to multiple audiences, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea;

(B)  structure ideas in a sustained and persuasive way (e.g., using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, lists) and develop drafts in timed and open-ended situations that include transitions and rhetorical devices used to convey meaning;

(C)  revise drafts to improve style, word choice, figurative language, sentence variety, and subtlety of meaning after rethinking how well questions of purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed;

(D)  edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and

(E)  revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(14)  Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are responsible for at least two forms of literary writing. Students are expected to:

(A)  write an engaging story with a well-developed conflict and resolution, interesting and believable characters, a range of literary strategies (e.g., dialogue, suspense) and devices to enhance the plot, and sensory details that define the mood or tone;

(B)  write a poem using a variety of poetic techniques (e.g., structural elements, figurative language) and a variety of poetic forms (e.g., sonnets, ballads); and

(C)  write a script with an explicit or implicit theme and details that contribute to a definite mood or tone.

(15)  Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A)  write an analytical essay of sufficient length that includes:

(i)  effective introductory and concluding paragraphs and a variety of sentence structures;

(ii)  rhetorical devices, and transitions between paragraphs;

(iii)  a thesis or controlling idea;

(iv)  an organizing structure appropriate to purpose, audience, and context;

(v)  relevant evidence and well-chosen details; and

(vi)  distinctions about the relative value of specific data, facts, and ideas that support the thesis statement;

(B)  write procedural or work-related documents (e.g., instructions, e-mails, correspondence, memos, project plans) that include:

(i)  organized and accurately conveyed information;

(ii)  reader-friendly formatting techniques; and

(iii)  anticipation of readers' questions;

(C)  write an interpretative response to an expository or a literary text (e.g., essay or review) that:

(i)  extends beyond a summary and literal analysis;

(ii)  addresses the writing skills for an analytical essay and provides evidence from the text using embedded quotations; and

(iii)  analyzes the aesthetic effects of an author's use of stylistic and rhetorical devices; and

(D)  produce a multimedia presentation (e.g., documentary, class newspaper, docudrama, infomercial, visual or textual parodies, theatrical production) with graphics, images, and sound that conveys a distinctive point of view and appeals to a specific audience.

(16)  Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write an argumentative essay to the appropriate audience that includes:

(A)  a clear thesis or position based on logical reasons supported by precise and relevant evidence;

(B)  consideration of the whole range of information and views on the topic and accurate and honest representation of these views (i.e., in the author's own words and not out of context);

(C)  counter-arguments based on evidence to anticipate and address objections;

(D)  an organizing structure appropriate to the purpose, audience, and context;

(E)  an analysis of the relative value of specific data, facts, and ideas; and

(F)  a range of appropriate appeals (e.g., descriptions, anecdotes, case studies, analogies, illustrations).

(17)  Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:

(i)  more complex active and passive tenses and verbals (gerunds, infinitives, participles);

(ii)  restrictive and nonrestrictive relative clauses; and

(iii)  reciprocal pronouns (e.g., each other, one another);

(B)  identify and use the subjunctive mood to express doubts, wishes, and possibilities; and

(C)  use a variety of correctly structured sentences (e.g., compound, complex, compound-complex).

(18)  Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

(A)  use conventions of capitalization; and

(B)  use correct punctuation marks including:

(i)  comma placement in nonrestrictive phrases, clauses, and contrasting expressions;

(ii)  quotation marks to indicate sarcasm or irony; and

(iii)  dashes to emphasize parenthetical information.

(19)  Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to spell correctly, including using various resources to determine and check correct spellings.

(20)  Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

(A)  brainstorm, consult with others, decide upon a topic, and formulate a major research question to address the major research topic; and

(B)  formulate a plan for engaging in research on a complex, multi-faceted topic.

(21)  Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

(A)  follow the research plan to compile data from authoritative sources in a manner that identifies the major issues and debates within the field of inquiry;

(B)  organize information gathered from multiple sources to create a variety of graphics and forms (e.g., notes, learning logs); and

(C)  paraphrase, summarize, quote, and accurately cite all researched information according to a standard format (e.g., author, title, page number).

(22)  Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to:

(A)  modify the major research question as necessary to refocus the research plan;

(B)  evaluate the relevance of information to the topic and determine the reliability, validity, and accuracy of sources (including Internet sources) by examining their authority and objectivity; and

(C)  critique the research process at each step to implement changes as the need occurs and is identified.

(23)  Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into a written or an oral presentation that:

(A)  marshals evidence in support of a clear thesis statement and related claims;

(B)  provides an analysis for the audience that reflects a logical progression of ideas and a clearly stated point of view;

(C)  uses graphics and illustrations to help explain concepts where appropriate;

(D)  uses a variety of evaluative tools (e.g., self-made rubrics, peer reviews, teacher and expert evaluations) to examine the quality of the research; and

(E)  uses a style manual (e.g., Modern Language Association, Chicago Manual of Style) to document sources and format written materials.

(24)  Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students will use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  listen responsively to a speaker by taking notes that summarize, synthesize, or highlight the speaker's ideas for critical reflection and by asking questions related to the content for clarification and elaboration;

(B)  follow and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, solve problems, and complete processes; and

(C)  evaluate how the style and structure of a speech support or undermine its purpose or meaning.

(25)  Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to advance a coherent argument that incorporates a clear thesis and a logical progression of valid evidence from reliable sources and that employs eye contact, speaking rate (e.g., pauses for effect), volume, enunciation, purposeful gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

(26)  Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate productively in teams, building on the ideas of others, contributing relevant information, developing a plan for consensus-building, and setting ground rules for decision-making.

Source: The provisions of this §110.32 adopted to be effective September 4, 2008, 33 TexReg 7162.


§110.33. English Language Arts and Reading, English III (One Credit), Beginning with School Year 2009-2010.

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  The English Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the English language in speaking and writing. The standards are cumulative--students will continue to address earlier standards as needed while they attend to standards for their grade. In English III, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should read and write on a daily basis.

(2)  For students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition.

(A)  English language learners (ELLs) are acquiring English, learning content in English, and learning to read simultaneously. For this reason, it is imperative that reading instruction should be comprehensive and that students receive instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, decoding, and word attack skills while simultaneously being taught academic vocabulary and comprehension skills and strategies. Reading instruction that enhances ELL's ability to decode unfamiliar words and to make sense of those words in context will expedite their ability to make sense of what they read and learn from reading. Additionally, developing fluency, spelling, and grammatical conventions of academic language must be done in meaningful contexts and not in isolation.

(B)  For ELLs, comprehension of texts requires additional scaffolds to support comprehensible input. ELL students should use the knowledge of their first language (e.g., cognates) to further vocabulary development. Vocabulary needs to be taught in the context of connected discourse so that language is meaningful. ELLs must learn how rhetorical devices in English differ from those in their native language. At the same time English learners are learning in English, the focus is on academic English, concepts, and the language structures specific to the content.

(C)  During initial stages of English development, ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language that many monolingual English speakers find difficult to meet in their native language. However, English language learners' abilities to meet these standards will be influenced by their proficiency in English. While English language learners can analyze, synthesize, and evaluate, their level of English proficiency may impede their ability to demonstrate this knowledge during the initial stages of English language acquisition. It is also critical to understand that ELLs with no previous or with interrupted schooling will require explicit and strategic support as they acquire English and learn to learn in English simultaneously.

(3)  To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations in English III as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(4)  To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A)  determine the meaning of grade-level technical academic English words in multiple content areas (e.g., science, mathematics, social studies, the arts) derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes;

(B)  analyze textual context (within a sentence and in larger sections of text) to draw conclusions about the nuance in word meanings;

(C)  infer word meaning through the identification and analysis of analogies and other word relationships;

(D)  recognize and use knowledge of cognates in different languages and of word origins to determine the meaning of words; and

(E)  use general and specialized dictionaries, thesauri, glossaries, histories of language, books of quotations, and other related references (printed or electronic) as needed.

(2)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  analyze the way in which the theme or meaning of a selection represents a view or comment on the human condition;

(B)  relate the characters and text structures of mythic, traditional, and classical literature to 20th and 21st century American novels, plays, or films; and

(C)  relate the main ideas found in a literary work to primary source documents from its historical and cultural setting.

(3)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the effects of metrics, rhyme schemes (e.g., end, internal, slant, eye), and other conventions in American poetry.

(4)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the themes and characteristics in different periods of modern American drama.

(5)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  evaluate how different literary elements (e.g., figurative language, point of view) shape the author's portrayal of the plot and setting in works of fiction;

(B)  analyze the internal and external development of characters through a range of literary devices;

(C)  analyze the impact of narration when the narrator's point of view shifts from one character to another; and

(D)  demonstrate familiarity with works by authors in American fiction from each major literary period.

(6)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze how rhetorical techniques (e.g., repetition, parallel structure, understatement, overstatement) in literary essays, true life adventures, and historically important speeches influence the reader, evoke emotions, and create meaning.

(7)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the meaning of classical, mythological, and biblical allusions in words, phrases, passages, and literary works.

(8)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze how the style, tone, and diction of a text advance the author's purpose and perspective or stance.

(9)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  summarize a text in a manner that captures the author's viewpoint, its main ideas, and its elements without taking a position or expressing an opinion;

(B)  distinguish between inductive and deductive reasoning and analyze the elements of deductively and inductively reasoned texts and the different ways conclusions are supported;

(C)  make and defend subtle inferences and complex conclusions about the ideas in text and their organizational patterns; and

(D)  synthesize ideas and make logical connections (e.g., thematic links, author analyses) between and among multiple texts representing similar or different genres and technical sources and support those findings with textual evidence.

(10)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to:

(A)  evaluate how the author's purpose and stated or perceived audience affect the tone of persuasive texts; and

(B)  analyze historical and contemporary political debates for such logical fallacies as non-sequiturs, circular logic, and hasty generalizations.

(11)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A)  evaluate the logic of the sequence of information presented in text (e.g., product support material, contracts); and

(B)  translate (from text to graphic or from graphic to text) complex, factual, quantitative, or technical information presented in maps, charts, illustrations, graphs, timelines, tables, and diagrams.

(12)  Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A)  evaluate how messages presented in media reflect social and cultural views in ways different from traditional texts;

(B)  evaluate the interactions of different techniques (e.g., layout, pictures, typeface in print media, images, text, sound in electronic journalism) used in multi-layered media;

(C)  evaluate the objectivity of coverage of the same event in various types of media; and

(D)  evaluate changes in formality and tone across various media for different audiences and purposes.

(13)  Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A)  plan a first draft by selecting the correct genre for conveying the intended meaning to multiple audiences, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea;

(B)  structure ideas in a sustained and persuasive way (e.g., using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, lists) and develop drafts in timed and open-ended situations that include transitions and rhetorical devices to convey meaning;

(C)  revise drafts to clarify meaning and achieve specific rhetorical purposes, consistency of tone, and logical organization by rearranging the words, sentences, and paragraphs to employ tropes (e.g., metaphors, similes, analogies, hyperbole, understatement, rhetorical questions, irony), schemes (e.g., parallelism, antithesis, inverted word order, repetition, reversed structures), and by adding transitional words and phrases;

(D)  edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and

(E)  revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(14)  Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are responsible for at least two forms of literary writing. Students are expected to:

(A)  write an engaging story with a well-developed conflict and resolution, complex and non-stereotypical characters, a range of literary strategies (e.g., dialogue, suspense) and devices to enhance the plot, and sensory details that define the mood or tone;

(B)  write a poem that reflects an awareness of poetic conventions and traditions within different forms (e.g., sonnets, ballads, free verse); and

(C)  write a script with an explicit or implicit theme, using a variety of literary techniques.

(15)  Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A)  write an analytical essay of sufficient length that includes:

(i)  effective introductory and concluding paragraphs and a variety of sentence structures;

(ii)  rhetorical devices, and transitions between paragraphs;

(iii)  a clear thesis statement or controlling idea;

(iv)  a clear organizational schema for conveying ideas;

(v)  relevant and substantial evidence and well-chosen details; and

(vi)  information on multiple relevant perspectives and a consideration of the validity, reliability, and relevance of primary and secondary sources;

(B)  write procedural or work-related documents (e.g., résumés, proposals, college applications, operation manuals) that include:

(i)  a clearly stated purpose combined with a well-supported viewpoint on the topic;

(ii)  appropriate formatting structures (e.g., headings, graphics, white space);

(iii)  relevant questions that engage readers and consider their needs;

(iv)  accurate technical information in accessible language; and

(v)  appropriate organizational structures supported by facts and details (documented if appropriate);

(C)  write an interpretation of an expository or a literary text that:

(i)  advances a clear thesis statement;

(ii)  addresses the writing skills for an analytical essay, including references to and commentary on quotations from the text;

(iii)  analyzes the aesthetic effects of an author's use of stylistic or rhetorical devices;

(iv)  identifies and analyzes the ambiguities, nuances, and complexities within the text; and

(v)  anticipates and responds to readers' questions or contradictory information; and

(D)  produce a multimedia presentation (e.g., documentary, class newspaper, docudrama, infomercial, visual or textual parodies, theatrical production) with graphics, images, and sound that appeals to a specific audience and synthesizes information from multiple points of view.

(16)  Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write an argumentative essay (e.g., evaluative essays, proposals) to the appropriate audience that includes:

(A)  a clear thesis or position based on logical reasons supported by precise and relevant evidence, including facts, expert opinions, quotations, and/or expressions of commonly accepted beliefs;

(B)  accurate and honest representation of divergent views (i.e., in the author's own words and not out of context);

(C)  an organizing structure appropriate to the purpose, audience, and context;

(D)  information on the complete range of relevant perspectives;

(E)  demonstrated consideration of the validity and reliability of all primary and secondary sources used; and

(F)  language attentively crafted to move a disinterested or opposed audience, using specific rhetorical devices to back up assertions (e.g., appeals to logic, emotions, ethical beliefs).

(17)  Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  use and understand the function of different types of clauses and phrases (e.g., adjectival, noun, adverbial clauses and phrases); and

(B)  use a variety of correctly structured sentences (e.g., compound, complex, compound-complex).

(18)  Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to correctly and consistently use conventions of punctuation and capitalization.

(19)  Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to spell correctly, including using various resources to determine and check correct spellings.

(20)  Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

(A)  brainstorm, consult with others, decide upon a topic, and formulate a major research question to address the major research topic; and

(B)  formulate a plan for engaging in in-depth research on a complex, multi-faceted topic.

(21)  Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

(A)  follow the research plan to gather evidence from experts on the topic and texts written for informed audiences in the field, distinguishing between reliable and unreliable sources and avoiding over-reliance on one source;

(B)  systematically organize relevant and accurate information to support central ideas, concepts, and themes, outline ideas into conceptual maps/timelines, and separate factual data from complex inferences; and

(C)  paraphrase, summarize, quote, and accurately cite all researched information according to a standard format (e.g., author, title, page number), differentiating among primary, secondary, and other sources.

(22)  Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to:

(A)  modify the major research question as necessary to refocus the research plan;

(B)  differentiate between theories and the evidence that supports them and determine whether the evidence found is weak or strong and how that evidence helps create a cogent argument; and

(C)  critique the research process at each step to implement changes as the need occurs and is identified.

(23)  Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into an extended written or oral presentation that:

(A)  provides an analysis that supports and develops personal opinions, as opposed to simply restating existing information;

(B)  uses a variety of formats and rhetorical strategies to argue for the thesis;

(C)  develops an argument that incorporates the complexities of and discrepancies in information from multiple sources and perspectives while anticipating and refuting counter-arguments;

(D)  uses a style manual (e.g., Modern Language Association, Chicago Manual of Style) to document sources and format written materials; and

(E)  is of sufficient length and complexity to address the topic.

(24)  Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students will use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  listen responsively to a speaker by framing inquiries that reflect an understanding of the content and by identifying the positions taken and the evidence in support of those positions; and

(B)  evaluate the clarity and coherence of a speaker's message and critique the impact of a speaker's diction and syntax on an audience.

(25)  Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to give a formal presentation that exhibits a logical structure, smooth transitions, accurate evidence, well-chosen details, and rhetorical devices, and that employs eye contact, speaking rate (e.g., pauses for effect), volume, enunciation, purposeful gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

(26)  Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate productively in teams, offering ideas or judgments that are purposeful in moving the team towards goals, asking relevant and insightful questions, tolerating a range of positions and ambiguity in decision-making, and evaluating the work of the group based on agreed-upon criteria.

Source: The provisions of this §110.33 adopted to be effective September 4, 2008, 33 TexReg 7162.


§110.34. English Language Arts and Reading, English IV (One Credit), Beginning with School Year 2009-2010.

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  The English Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the English language in speaking and writing. The standards are cumulative--students will continue to address earlier standards as needed while they attend to standards for their grade. In English IV, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should read and write on a daily basis.

(2)  For students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition.

(A)  English language learners (ELLs) are acquiring English, learning content in English, and learning to read simultaneously. For this reason, it is imperative that reading instruction should be comprehensive and that students receive instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, decoding, and word attack skills while simultaneously being taught academic vocabulary and comprehension skills and strategies. Reading instruction that enhances ELL's ability to decode unfamiliar words and to make sense of those words in context will expedite their ability to make sense of what they read and learn from reading. Additionally, developing fluency, spelling, and grammatical conventions of academic language must be done in meaningful contexts and not in isolation.

(B)  For ELLs, comprehension of texts requires additional scaffolds to support comprehensible input. ELL students should use the knowledge of their first language (e.g., cognates) to further vocabulary development. Vocabulary needs to be taught in the context of connected discourse so that language is meaningful. ELLs must learn how rhetorical devices in English differ from those in their native language. At the same time English learners are learning in English, the focus is on academic English, concepts, and the language structures specific to the content.

(C)  During initial stages of English development, ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language that many monolingual English speakers find difficult to meet in their native language. However, English language learners' abilities to meet these standards will be influenced by their proficiency in English. While English language learners can analyze, synthesize, and evaluate, their level of English proficiency may impede their ability to demonstrate this knowledge during the initial stages of English language acquisition. It is also critical to understand that ELLs with no previous or with interrupted schooling will require explicit and strategic support as they acquire English and learn to learn in English simultaneously.

(3)  To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations in English IV as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(4)  To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A)  determine the meaning of technical academic English words in multiple content areas (e.g., science, mathematics, social studies, the arts) derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes;

(B)  analyze textual context (within a sentence and in larger sections of text) to draw conclusions about the nuance in word meanings;

(C)  use the relationship between words encountered in analogies to determine their meanings (e.g., synonyms/antonyms, connotation/denotation);

(D)  analyze and explain how the English language has developed and been influenced by other languages; and

(E)  use general and specialized dictionaries, thesauri, histories of language, books of quotations, and other related references (printed or electronic) as needed.

(2)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  compare and contrast works of literature that express a universal theme;

(B)  compare and contrast the similarities and differences in classical plays with their modern day novel, play, or film versions; and

(C)  relate the characters, setting, and theme of a literary work to the historical, social, and economic ideas of its time.

(3)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to evaluate the changes in sound, form, figurative language, graphics, and dramatic structure in poetry across literary time periods.

(4)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to evaluate how the structure and elements of drama change in the works of British dramatists across literary periods.

(5)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  analyze how complex plot structures (e.g., subplots) and devices (e.g., foreshadowing, flashbacks, suspense) function and advance the action in a work of fiction;

(B)  analyze the moral dilemmas and quandaries presented in works of fiction as revealed by the underlying motivations and behaviors of the characters;

(C)  compare and contrast the effects of different forms of narration across various genres of fiction; and

(D)  demonstrate familiarity with works of fiction by British authors from each major literary period.

(6)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the effect of ambiguity, contradiction, subtlety, paradox, irony, sarcasm, and overstatement in literary essays, speeches, and other forms of literary nonfiction.

(7)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze how the author's patterns of imagery, literary allusions, and conceits reveal theme, set tone, and create meaning in metaphors, passages, and literary works.

(8)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the consistency and clarity of the expression of the controlling idea and the ways in which the organizational and rhetorical patterns of text support or confound the author's meaning or purpose.

(9)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  summarize a text in a manner that captures the author's viewpoint, its main ideas, and its elements without taking a position or expressing an opinion;

(B)  explain how authors writing on the same issue reached different conclusions because of differences in assumptions, evidence, reasoning, and viewpoints;

(C)  make and defend subtle inferences and complex conclusions about the ideas in text and their organizational patterns; and

(D)  synthesize ideas and make logical connections (e.g., thematic links, author analysis) among multiple texts representing similar or different genres and technical sources and support those findings with textual evidence.

(10)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to:

(A)  evaluate the merits of an argument, action, or policy by analyzing the relationships (e.g., implication, necessity, sufficiency) among evidence, inferences, assumptions, and claims in text; and

(B)  draw conclusions about the credibility of persuasive text by examining its implicit and stated assumptions about an issue as conveyed by the specific use of language.

(11)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A)  draw conclusions about how the patterns of organization and hierarchic structures support the understandability of text; and

(B)  evaluate the structures of text (e.g., format, headers) for their clarity and organizational coherence and for the effectiveness of their graphic representations.

(12)  Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A)  evaluate how messages presented in media reflect social and cultural views in ways different from traditional texts;

(B)  evaluate the interactions of different techniques (e.g., layout, pictures, typeface in print media, images, text, sound in electronic journalism) used in multi-layered media;

(C)  evaluate how one issue or event is represented across various media to understand the notions of bias, audience, and purpose; and

(D)  evaluate changes in formality and tone across various media for different audiences and purposes.

(13)  Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A)  plan a first draft by selecting the correct genre for conveying the intended meaning to multiple audiences, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea;

(B)  structure ideas in a sustained and persuasive way (e.g., using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, lists) and develop drafts in timed and open-ended situations that include transitions and the rhetorical devices to convey meaning;

(C)  revise drafts to clarify meaning and achieve specific rhetorical purposes, consistency of tone, and logical organization by rearranging the words, sentences, and paragraphs to employ tropes (e.g., metaphors, similes, analogies, hyperbole, understatement, rhetorical questions, irony), schemes (e.g., parallelism, antithesis, inverted word order, repetition, reversed structures), and by adding transitional words and phrases;

(D)  edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and

(E)  revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(14)  Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are responsible for at least two forms of literary writing. Students are expected to:

(A)  write an engaging story with a well-developed conflict and resolution, a clear theme, complex and non-stereotypical characters, a range of literary strategies (e.g., dialogue, suspense), devices to enhance the plot, and sensory details that define the mood or tone;

(B)  write a poem that reflects an awareness of poetic conventions and traditions within different forms (e.g., sonnets, ballads, free verse); and

(C)  write a script with an explicit or implicit theme, using a variety of literary techniques.

(15)  Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A)  write an analytical essay of sufficient length that includes:

(i)  effective introductory and concluding paragraphs and a variety of sentence structures;

(ii)  rhetorical devices, and transitions between paragraphs;

(iii)  a clear thesis statement or controlling idea;

(iv)  a clear organizational schema for conveying ideas;

(v)  relevant and substantial evidence and well-chosen details;

(vi)  information on all relevant perspectives and consideration of the validity, reliability, and relevance of primary and secondary sources; and

(vii)  an analysis of views and information that contradict the thesis statement and the evidence presented for it;

(B)  write procedural and work-related documents (e.g., résumés, proposals, college applications, operation manuals) that include:

(i)  a clearly stated purpose combined with a well-supported viewpoint on the topic;

(ii)  appropriate formatting structures (e.g., headings, graphics, white space);

(iii)  relevant questions that engage readers and address their potential problems and misunderstandings;

(iv)  accurate technical information in accessible language; and

(v)  appropriate organizational structures supported by facts and details (documented if appropriate);

(C)  write an interpretation of an expository or a literary text that:

(i)  advances a clear thesis statement;

(ii)  addresses the writing skills for an analytical essay including references to and commentary on quotations from the text;

(iii)  analyzes the aesthetic effects of an author's use of stylistic or rhetorical devices;

(iv)  identifies and analyzes ambiguities, nuances, and complexities within the text; and

(v)  anticipates and responds to readers' questions and contradictory information; and

(D)  produce a multimedia presentation (e.g., documentary, class newspaper, docudrama, infomercial, visual or textual parodies, theatrical production) with graphics, images, and sound that appeals to a specific audience and synthesizes information from multiple points of view.

(16)  Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write an argumentative essay (e.g., evaluative essays, proposals) to the appropriate audience that includes:

(A)  a clear thesis or position based on logical reasons with various forms of support (e.g., hard evidence, reason, common sense, cultural assumptions);

(B)  accurate and honest representation of divergent views (i.e., in the author's own words and not out of context);

(C)  an organizing structure appropriate to the purpose, audience, and context;

(D)  information on the complete range of relevant perspectives;

(E)  demonstrated consideration of the validity and reliability of all primary and secondary sources used;

(F)  language attentively crafted to move a disinterested or opposed audience, using specific rhetorical devices to back up assertions (e.g., appeals to logic, emotions, ethical beliefs); and

(G)  an awareness and anticipation of audience response that is reflected in different levels of formality, style, and tone.

(17)  Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  use and understand the function of different types of clauses and phrases (e.g., adjectival, noun, adverbial clauses and phrases); and

(B)  use a variety of correctly structured sentences (e.g., compound, complex, compound-complex).

(18)  Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to correctly and consistently use conventions of punctuation and capitalization.

(19)  Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to spell correctly, including using various resources to determine and check correct spellings.

(20)  Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

(A)  brainstorm, consult with others, decide upon a topic, and formulate a major research question to address the major research topic; and

(B)  formulate a plan for engaging in in-depth research on a complex, multi-faceted topic.

(21)  Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

(A)  follow the research plan to gather evidence from experts on the topic and texts written for informed audiences in the field, distinguishing between reliable and unreliable sources and avoiding over-reliance on one source;

(B)  systematically organize relevant and accurate information to support central ideas, concepts, and themes, outline ideas into conceptual maps/timelines, and separate factual data from complex inferences; and

(C)  paraphrase, summarize, quote, and accurately cite all researched information according to a standard format (e.g., author, title, page number), differentiating among primary, secondary, and other sources.

(22)  Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to:

(A)  modify the major research question as necessary to refocus the research plan;

(B)  differentiate between theories and the evidence that supports them and determine whether the evidence found is weak or strong and how that evidence helps create a cogent argument; and

(C)  critique the research process at each step to implement changes as the need occurs and is identified.

(23)  Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into an extended written or oral presentation that:

(A)  provides an analysis that supports and develops personal opinions, as opposed to simply restating existing information;

(B)  uses a variety of formats and rhetorical strategies to argue for the thesis;

(C)  develops an argument that incorporates the complexities of and discrepancies in information from multiple sources and perspectives while anticipating and refuting counter-arguments;

(D)  uses a style manual (e.g., Modern Language Association, Chicago Manual of Style) to document sources and format written materials; and

(E)  is of sufficient length and complexity to address the topic.

(24)  Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students will use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  listen responsively to a speaker by framing inquiries that reflect an understanding of the content and by identifying the positions taken and the evidence in support of those positions; and

(B)  assess the persuasiveness of a presentation based on content, diction, rhetorical strategies, and delivery.

(25)  Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to formulate sound arguments by using elements of classical speeches (e.g., introduction, first and second transitions, body, and conclusion), the art of persuasion, rhetorical devices, eye contact, speaking rate (e.g., pauses for effect), volume, enunciation, purposeful gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

(26)  Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate productively in teams, offering ideas or judgments that are purposeful in moving the team towards goals, asking relevant and insightful questions, tolerating a range of positions and ambiguity in decision-making, and evaluating the work of the group based on agreed-upon criteria.

Source: The provisions of this §110.34 adopted to be effective September 4, 2008, 33 TexReg 7162.


§110.46. Independent Study in English (One-Half to One Credit).

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  Students enrolled in Independent Study in English will focus on a specialized area of study such as the work of a particular author or genre. Students will read and write in multiple forms for a variety of audiences and purposes. High school students are expected to plan, draft, and complete written compositions on a regular basis and carefully examine their papers for clarity, engaging language, and the correct use of the conventions and mechanics of written English.

(2)  If this course is being used to satisfy requirements for the Distinguished Achievement Program, a student research/product must be presented before a panel of professionals or approved by the student's mentor.

(3)  For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(4)  Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(5)  The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Independent Study in English are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student inquires through reading literature and researching self-selected and assigned topics. The student is expected to:

(A)  read widely for further study;

(B)  generate relevant, interesting, and researchable questions with instructor guidance and approval; and

(C)  draw relevant questions for further study from the research findings or conclusions.

(2)  The student uses writing as a tool for learning and research. The student produces visual representations that communicate with others. The student is expected to:

(A)  produce research projects and reports in multiple forms for a variety of audiences from primary and secondary sources using available technology;

(B)  conduct a research project(s), producing an original work in print or another medium with a demonstration of advanced skill;

(C)  use writing to organize and support what is known and needs to be learned about a topic, including discovering, recording, reviewing, and learning;

(D)  compile written ideas and representations; interpret information into reports, summaries, or other formats; and draw conclusions; and

(E)  use writing as a tool such as to reflect, explore, or problem solve.

Source: The provisions of this §110.46 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261.


§110.47. Reading I, II, III (One-Half to Three Credits).

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  Reading I, II, III offers students reading instruction to successfully navigate academic demands as well as attain life-long literacy skills. Specific instruction in word recognition, vocabulary, comprehension strategies, and fluency provides students an opportunity to read with competence, confidence, and understanding. Students learn how traditional and electronic texts are organized and how authors choose language for effect. All of these strategies are applied in instructional-level and independent-level texts that cross the content areas.

(2)  For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(3)  Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(4)  The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Reading I, II, III, elective courses, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student uses a variety of word recognition strategies. The student is expected to:

(A)  apply knowledge of letter-sound correspondences, language structure, and context to recognize words; and

(B)  use reference guides such as dictionaries, glossaries, and available technology to determine pronunciations of unfamiliar words.

(2)  The student acquires an extensive vocabulary through reading and systematic word study. The student is expected to:

(A)  expand vocabulary by reading, viewing, listening, and discussing;

(B)  determine word meanings through the study of their relationships to other words and concepts such as content, synonyms, antonyms, and analogies;

(C)  recognize the implied meanings of words such as idiomatic expressions, homonyms, puns, and connotations;

(D)  apply the knowledge of roots, affixes, and word origins to infer meanings; and

(E)  use available reference guides such as dictionary, glossary, thesaurus, and available technology to determine or confirm the meanings of new words and phrases.

(3)  The student reads for a variety of purposes with multiple sources, both narrative and expository. The student is expected to:

(A)  read functional texts to complete real-world tasks such as job applications, recipes, and product assembly instructions;

(B)  read to complete academic tasks;

(C)  read using test-taking skills such as highlighting, annotating, previewing questions, noticing key words, employing process of elimination, allotting time, and following directions;

(D)  read to gain content/background knowledge as well as insight about oneself, others, or the world; and

(E)  read for enjoyment.

(4)  The student comprehends texts using effective strategies. The student is expected to:

(A)  use prior knowledge and experience to comprehend;

(B)  determine and adjust purpose for reading;

(C)  self-monitor reading and adjust when confusion occurs by using appropriate strategies;

(D)  summarize texts by identifying main ideas and relevant details;

(E)  construct visual images based on text descriptions;

(F)  use study skills such as previewing, highlighting, annotating, note taking, and outlining; and

(G)  use questioning to enhance comprehension before, during, and after reading.

(5)  The student draws complex inferences and analyzes and evaluates information within and across texts of varying lengths. The student is expected to:

(A)  find similarities and differences across texts such as explanations, points of view, or themes;

(B)  identify explicit and implicit meanings of texts;

(C)  support inferences with text evidence and experience;

(D)  analyze text to draw conclusions, state generalizations, and make predictions supported by text evidence; and

(E)  distinguish facts from simple assertions and opinions.

(6)  The student reads critically to evaluate texts in order to determine the credibility of the sources. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify and analyze the audience, purpose, and message of the text;

(B)  evaluate the credibility and relevance of informational sources;

(C)  analyze the presentation of information and the strength of quality of the evidence used by the author; and

(D)  evaluate the author's motivation, stance, or position and its effect on the validity of the text.

(7)  The student reads with fluency and understanding in increasingly demanding and varied texts. The student is expected to:

(A)  read silently or orally such as paired reading or literature circles for sustained periods of time; and

(B)  adjust reading rate based on purposes for reading.

(8)  The student formulates and supports responses to a wide variety of texts. The student is expected to:

(A)  respond actively to texts in both aesthetic and critical ways;

(B)  respond to text in multiple ways such as discussion, journal writing, performance, and visual/symbolic representation;

(C)  support responses with prior knowledge and experience; and

(D)  support responses with explicit textual information.

(9)  The student reads and responds to informational texts. The student is expected to:

(A)  generate relevant and interesting questions;

(B)  use text features and graphics to form an overview to determine where to locate information;

(C)  analyze the use of common expository text structures such as sequence, description, compare/contrast, cause/effect, and problem/solution;

(D)  organize and record new information in systematic ways such as outlines, charts, and graphic organizers; and

(E)  communicate information gained from reading.

(10)  The student reads to increase knowledge of one's own culture, the culture of others, and the common elements of cultures. The student is expected to:

(A)  compare text events with personal and other readers' experiences; and

(B)  recognize literary themes and connections that cross cultures.

Source: The provisions of this §110.47 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261.


§110.48. College Readiness and Study Skills (One-Half Credit).

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  High school students that require or request additional honing of the study skills, especially as the students prepare for the demands of college, may enroll in the one semester course College Readiness and Study Skills. In this course, students acquire techniques for learning from texts, including studying word meanings, identifying and relating key ideas, drawing and supporting inferences, and reviewing study strategies. In all cases, interpretations and understandings will be presented through varying forms, including through use of available technology. Students accomplish many of the objectives through wide reading as well as use of content texts in preparation for post-secondary schooling.

(2)  For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(3)  Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(4)  The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for College Readiness and Study Skills, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student reads widely for a variety of purposes from numerous sources and cultures. The student is expected to:

(A)  read self-selected and assigned texts from varied sources such as literature, literary non-fiction, expository, electronic texts, and other media; and

(B)  read for various purposes such as to be entertained, to appreciate a writer's craft, to be informed, to take action, and to discover models for writing.

(2)  The student builds an extensive vocabulary through reading and systematic word study. The student is expected to:

(A)  expand vocabulary through wide reading, viewing, listening, and discussion;

(B)  apply knowledge of affixes and roots to comprehend;

(C)  investigate word origins to understand meanings, derivations, and spellings;

(D)  distinguish between the connotative and denotative meanings and interpret the connotative power of words;

(E)  use reference material to determine precise meaning and usage such as glossary, dictionary, thesaurus, and available technology; and

(F)  use context to determine meanings of words and phrases such as figurative language, idiomatic expressions, homonyms, and technical vocabulary.

(3)  The student comprehends texts using a variety of strategies. The student is expected to:

(A)  use self-monitoring reading strategies to make modifications when understanding breaks down;

(B)  activate and draw upon prior knowledge and experience;

(C)  establish purposes for reading such as to discover, to understand, to interpret, to enjoy, and to solve problems;

(D)  construct images based on text descriptions; and

(E)  create graphic organizers to represent textual information.

(4)  The student reads critically to evaluate texts and the authority of sources. The student is expected to:

(A)  analyze audience, purpose, and message of text;

(B)  evaluate the credibility and relevance of information sources;

(C)  evaluate the author's motivation, stance, or position and its effect on the validity of the text;

(D)  analyze aspects of texts such as organizational patterns, diction, format, and tone for their effect on audiences;

(E)  identify explicit and implicit textual information in text;

(F)  support complex inferences with text evidence and experience; and

(G)  recognize persuasive techniques in texts such as bandwagon, glittering generalities, and testimonials.

(5)  The student uses study strategies to learn from a variety of texts. The student is expected to:

(A)  use effective reading strategies to recall material from text such as previewing, skimming, scanning, rereading, and asking relevant questions;

(B)  summarize information from text such as outlines, study guides, annotating, and two-columned note taking;

(C)  use text features and graphics such as headings, tables, sidebars, photographs, and captions to form an overview of informational texts and to determine where to locate information; and

(D)  use effective test-taking strategies for different types of tests.

(6)  The student expresses and supports responses to various types of texts. The student is expected to:

(A)  respond to literary and informational texts through various modes of communication such as discussions, further reading, presentations, journals, written responses, or visual arts;

(B)  formulate and defend a position with support synthesized from multiple texts; and

(C)  evaluate personal responses to reading for evidence of growth.

Source: The provisions of this §110.48 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261.


§110.49. Visual Media Analysis and Production (One-Half Credit).

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  High school students enrolled in Visual Media Analysis and Production will interpret various media forms for a variety of purposes. In addition, students will critique and analyze the significance of visual representations and learn to produce media messages that communicate with others.

(2)  For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(3)  Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(4)  The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Visual Media Analysis and Production, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student recognizes/interprets visual representations as they apply to visual media. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the historical development of visual media;

(B)  distinguish the purposes of various media forms such as information, entertainment, and persuasion; and

(C)  recognize strategies used by media to inform, persuade, entertain, and transform culture such as advertising, perpetuation of stereotypes, use of visual representations, special effects, and language.

(2)  The student analyzes and critiques the significance of visual representations. The student is expected to:

(A)  evaluate the persuasive techniques of media messages such as glittering generalities, associations with personalities, logical fallacies, and use of symbols;

(B)  compare and contrast media with other art forms;

(C)  analyze techniques used in visual media;

(D)  explore the emotional and intellectual effects of visual media on viewers; and

(E)  recognize how visual and sound techniques convey messages in media such as special effects, editing, camera angles, reaction shots, sequencing, and music.

(3)  The student produces visual representations that communicate with others. The student is expected to:

(A)  use a variety of forms and technologies to communicate specific messages;

(B)  use a range of techniques to create a media text and reflect critically on the work produced; and

(C)  study the relationship between subject matter and choice of media for presenting that subject.

Source: The provisions of this §110.49 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261.


§110.50. Contemporary Media (One Credit).

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  Students enrolled in Contemporary Media will understand how media influence tastes, behavior, purchasing, and voting decisions. Students who are media literate understand television, radio, film, and other visual images and auditory messages.

(2)  For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(3)  Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(4)  The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Contemporary Media, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student identifies the history and evolution of media used for mass communication. The student is expected to:

(A)  examine the development of the technologies that influence each medium; and

(B)  analyze the historical contributions made by various media personnel.

(2)  The student recognizes the types and functions of mass media. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the types of mass media such as television, radio, Internet, podcast, YouTube, newspaper, periodicals, blogs, social networking, emailing, texting, search engines, and music; and

(B)  analyze the roles of media as sources of information, entertainment, persuasion, and education.

(3)  The student identifies and analyzes regulations that govern media. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the appropriate government agencies that regulate media; and

(B)  analyze government regulatory issues regarding censorship, political campaigns, news, ethics, and responsibilities.

(4)  The student analyzes the influence of media. The student is expected to:

(A)  analyze the influence of viewing and listening habits on individuals;

(B)  analyze the influence of media in shaping governmental decisions, social choices, and cultural norms;

(C)  evaluate standards for "quality programming"; and

(D)  analyze possible ways to improve mass media.

(5)  The student analyzes, creates, and evaluates visual and auditory messages. The student is expected to:

(A)  develop skills for organizing, writing, and designing media messages for specific purposes and effects;

(B)  develop technical and communication skills needed by various media personnel; and

(C)  plan, organize, produce, and present media messages.

Source: The provisions of this §110.50 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261.


§110.51. Literary Genres (One-Half to One Credit).

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  Students enrolled in Literary Genres will spend time analyzing the fictional and poetic elements of literary texts and read to appreciate the writer's craft. High school students will discover how well written literary text can serve as models for their own writing. High school students respond to oral, written, and electronic text to connect their knowledge of the world.

(2)  For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(3)  Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(4)  The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Literary Genres, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student builds an extensive vocabulary through reading and systematic word study. The student is expected to:

(A)  expand vocabulary through wide reading, listening, and discussion;

(B)  investigate word origins as an aid to understanding meanings, derivations, and spellings as well as influences on the English language; and

(C)  discriminate between connotative and denotative meanings and interpret the connotative power of words.

(2)  The student analyzes fictional and poetic elements focusing on how they combine to contribute meaning in literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A)  compare and contrast varying aspects of texts such as themes, conflicts, and allusions;

(B)  propose and provide examples of themes that cross texts;

(C)  connect literature to historical context, current events, and his/her own experiences;

(D)  analyze relevance of setting and time frame to text's meaning;

(E)  identify basic conflicts;

(F)  describe the development of plot and how conflicts are addressed and resolved;

(G)  analyze characters' traits, motivations, changes, and stereotypical features;

(H)  describe how irony, tone, mood, style, and sound of language contribute to the effect of the text;

(I)  determine and explain purposes and effects of figurative language, particularly symbolic and metaphoric;

(J)  identify and analyze text structures;

(K)  recognize archetypes, motifs, and symbols across texts;

(L)  analyze distinctive features of text genre such as biography, historical fiction, science fiction, political writing, fantasy fiction, short story, dramatic literature, or poetry;

(M)  identify how authors create suspense; and

(N)  tell how points of view affect tone, characterization, and credibility.

(3)  The student reads critically to evaluate texts and the authority of sources. The student is expected to:

(A)  analyze the characteristics of well-constructed texts;

(B)  describe how a writer's point of view may affect text credibility, structure, or tone;

(C)  analyze aspects of texts such as patterns of organization and choice of language for their effect on audiences; and

(D)  examine strategies that writers in different fields use to compose.

(4)  The student reads to increase knowledge of his/her own culture, the culture of others, and the common elements of cultures. The student is expected to:

(A)  compare text events with personal and other readers' experiences;

(B)  recognize and discuss themes and connections that cross cultures; and

(C)  recognize how writers represent and reveal their cultures and traditions in texts.

(5)  The student uses writing as a tool for learning and researching literary genres. The student is expected to:

(A)  use writing to discover, record, review, and learn; and

(B)  link related information and ideas from a variety of sources.

Source: The provisions of this §110.51 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261.


§110.52. Creative Writing (One-Half to One Credit).

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  The study of creative writing allows high school students to earn one-half to one credit while developing versatility as a writer. Creative Writing, a rigorous composition course, asks high school students to demonstrate their skill in such forms of writing as fictional writing, short stories, poetry, and drama. All students are expected to demonstrate an understanding of the recursive nature of the writing process, effectively applying the conventions of usage and the mechanics of written English. The students' evaluation of their own writing as well as the writing of others ensures that students completing this course are able to analyze and discuss published and unpublished pieces of writing, develop peer and self-assessments for effective writing, and set their own goals as writers.

(2)  For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(3)  Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(4)  The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Creative Writing, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student writes for a variety of audiences and purposes to develop versatility as a writer. The student is expected to:

(A)  write expressive, informative, and persuasive literary texts effectively;

(B)  demonstrate the distinguishing characteristics of various written forms such as fictional writing, short stories, poetry, and drama in his/her own writing;

(C)  elaborate writing when appropriate such as using concrete images, figurative language, sensory observation, dialogue, and other rhetorical devices to enhance meaning;

(D)  employ various points of view to communicate effectively;

(E)  choose topics and forms to develop fluency and voice;

(F)  use word choice, sentence structure, and repetition to create tone; and

(G)  organize ideas in writing to ensure coherence, logical progression, and support for ideas.

(2)  The student selects and uses recursive writing processes for self-initiated and assigned writing. The student is expected to:

(A)  select and apply prewriting strategies to generate ideas, develop voice, and plan;

(B)  develop drafts by organizing ideas such as paragraphing, outlining, adding, and deleting;

(C)  use vocabulary, sentence structure, organization, and rhetorical devices appropriate to audience and purpose;

(D)  use effective sequence and transitions to achieve coherence and meaning;

(E)  revise drafts by rethinking content, organization, and style;

(F)  frequently refine selected pieces to publish for general and specific audiences; and

(G)  write both independently and collaboratively.

(3)  The student applies the conventions of usage and the mechanics of written English to communicate clearly and effectively. The student is expected to:

(A)  use correct capitalization and punctuation;

(B)  spell with accuracy in the final draft; and

(C)  demonstrate control over grammatical elements such as subject-verb agreement, pronoun-antecedent agreement, and verb forms in the final draft.

(4)  The student evaluates his/her own writing and the writings of others. The student is expected to:

(A)  analyze and discuss published pieces as writing models such as use of suspense, repetition for emphasis, various points of view, literary devices, and figurative language;

(B)  generate and apply peer and self-assessment; and

(C)  accumulate, review, and evaluate his/her own written work to determine its strengths and weaknesses and to set goals as a writer.

Source: The provisions of this §110.52 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261.


§110.53. Research and Technical Writing (One-Half to One Credit).

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  The study of technical writing allows high school students to earn one-half to one credit while developing skills necessary for writing persuasive and informative texts. This rigorous composition course asks high school students to skillfully research a topic or a variety of topics and present that information through a variety of media. All students are expected to demonstrate an understanding of the recursive nature of the writing process, effectively applying the conventions of usage and the mechanics of written English. The students' evaluation of their own writing as well as the writing of others ensures that students completing this course are able to analyze and discuss published and unpublished pieces of writing, develop and apply criteria for effective writing, and set their own goals as writers.

(2)  For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(3)  Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(4)  The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Research and Technical Writing, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student writes for a variety of purposes and audiences. The student is expected to:

(A)  write informative and persuasive texts, including essays, reports, and proposals;

(B)  use the distinguishing characteristics of various written forms, including essays, scientific reports, speeches, and memoranda;

(C)  write in voice and style appropriate to audience and purpose; and

(D)  organize ideas in writing to ensure coherence, logical progression, and support for ideas.

(2)  The student selects and uses recursive writing processes for self-initiated and assigned writing. The student is expected to:

(A)  apply prewriting strategies to generate ideas and plan;

(B)  employ precise language and technical vocabulary to communicate ideas clearly and concisely;

(C)  use sentence structure, organization, and rhetorical devices appropriate to audience and purpose;

(D)  use effective sequence and transitions to achieve coherence and meaning;

(E)  revise drafts by rethinking content, organization, and style to better accomplish the task;

(F)  edit as appropriate for the conventions of standard written English;

(G)  use resources such as texts and other people for editing;

(H)  use available technology for aspects of creating, revising, editing, and publishing texts; and

(I)  write both independently and collaboratively.

(3)  The student writes to investigate self-selected and assigned topics. The student is expected to:

(A)  use writing to formulate questions, refine topics, and clarify ideas; and

(B)  organize all types of information from multiple sources, including primary and secondary resources, using available technology such as audio, video, print, non-print, graphics, maps, and charts.

(4)  The student applies the conventions of usage and mechanics of written English. The student is expected to:

(A)  use correct capitalization and punctuation;

(B)  use correct spelling in the final draft;

(C)  demonstrate control over grammatical elements such as subject-verb agreement, pronoun-antecedent agreement, and verb forms in final drafts;

(D)  use appropriate technical vocabulary; and

(E)  consistently use a documentation manual or form consistent with the student's field of study such as Modern Language Association (MLA), American Psychological Association (APA), and The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS).

(5)  The student evaluates his/her own writing and the writing of others. The student is expected to:

(A)  analyze and discuss published pieces as writing models;

(B)  apply criteria to evaluate writing; and

(C)  accumulate, review, and evaluate his/her own written work to determine its strengths and weaknesses and to set goals as a writer.

Source: The provisions of this §110.53 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261.


§110.54. Practical Writing Skills (One-Half to One Credit).

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  The study of writing allows high school students to earn one-half to one credit while developing skills necessary for practical writing. This course emphasizes skill in the use of conventions and mechanics of written English, the appropriate and effective application of English grammar, the reading comprehension of informational text, and the effective use of vocabulary. Students are expected to understand the recursive nature of reading and writing. Evaluation of students' own writing as well as the writing of others ensures that students completing this course are able to analyze and evaluate their writing.

(2)  For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(3)  Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(4)  The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Practical Writing Skills, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student uses the conventions and mechanics of written English to communicate clearly. The student is expected to:

(A)  employ written conventions appropriately such as capitalizing and punctuating for various forms;

(B)  use correct spelling;

(C)  produce error-free writing by demonstrating control over grammatical elements such as subject-verb agreement, pronoun-antecedent agreement, and appropriate verb forms;

(D)  use varied sentence structures to express meanings and achieve desired effect; and

(E)  use appropriate vocabulary.

(2)  The student uses recursive writing processes as appropriate for self-initiated and assigned writing. The student is expected to:

(A)  apply prewriting strategies to generate ideas and plan;

(B)  develop drafts by organizing ideas such as paragraphing, outlining, adding, and deleting;

(C)  use vocabulary, sentence structure, organization, and rhetorical devices appropriate to audience and purpose;

(D)  use effective sequence and transitions to achieve coherency;

(E)  revise drafts by rethinking content, organization, and style to better accomplish the task;

(F)  edit as appropriate for the conventions of standard written English such as grammar, spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and sentence structure in the final draft;

(G)  use resources such as texts and other people as needed for proofreading, editing, and revising; and

(H)  use available technology for creating, revising, editing, and publishing texts.

(3)  The student reads and writes for a variety of audiences and purposes. The student is expected to:

(A)  read a variety of informational text;

(B)  write informational text; and

(C)  practice effective, efficient note taking.

(4)  The student evaluates his/her own writing and the writing of others. The student is expected to:

(A)  evaluate how well writing achieves its purposes;

(B)  analyze and discuss published pieces as writing models; and

(C)  review written work to determine its strengths and weaknesses and to set goals as a writer.

(5)  The student analyzes informational text. The student is expected to:

(A)  use effective reading strategies to determine a written work's purpose and intended audience;

(B)  identify explicit and implicit textual information, including main ideas and author's purpose;

(C)  draw and support complex inferences from text to distinguish facts from opinions;

(D)  analyze the author's quality of evidence for an argument;

(E)  evaluate the use of both literal and figurative language;

(F)  analyze the audience and purpose of informational and persuasive text;

(G)  analyze how an author's use of language creates imagery and mood; and

(H)  analyze insights gained from text to text, text to self, and text to world.

(6)  The student understands new vocabulary and concepts and uses them accurately in reading, speaking, and writing. The student is expected to:

(A)  apply knowledge of roots and affixes to infer the meanings of new words; and

(B)  use reference guides to confirm the meanings of new words and concepts.

Source: The provisions of this §110.54 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261.


§110.55. Humanities (One-Half to Two Credits).

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  Humanities is an interdisciplinary course in which students recognize writing as an art form. Students read widely to understand how various authors craft compositions for various aesthetic purposes. This course includes the study of major historical and cultural movements and their relationship to literature and the other fine arts. Humanities is a rigorous course of study in which high school students respond to aesthetic elements in texts and other art forms through outlets such as discussions, journals, oral interpretations, and dramatizations. Students read widely to understand the commonalities that literature shares with the fine arts. In addition, students use written composition to show an in-depth understanding of creative achievements in the arts and literature and how these various art forms are a reflection of history. All students are expected to participate in classroom discussions and presentations that lead to an understanding, appreciation, and enjoyment of critical, creative achievements throughout history. Understanding is demonstrated through a variety of media.

(2)  For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(3)  Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(4)  The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Humanities, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student reads and views varied literary and art forms. The student is expected to:

(A)  recognize the major historical and cultural movements as reflected in various art forms; and

(B)  read widely to see connections (commonalities) that literature shares with fine arts and historical and/or philosophical writings.

(2)  The student expresses and supports responses to various types of texts and compositions. The student is expected to:

(A)  respond to aesthetic elements in texts and other art forms through various outlets such as discussions, journals, oral interpretations, and enactments;

(B)  use elements of text and other art forms to defend his/her own responses and interpretations;

(C)  compare reviews of literature, film performance, and other art forms with his/her own responses; and

(D)  develop and use assessments for evaluating literary work and other art forms as a reflection of history such as political, social, and philosophical movements.

(3)  The student uses writing as a tool for learning and research. The student speaks and writes clearly and presents effectively to audiences for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A)  show an in-depth understanding of creative achievements in literature and the arts through writing;

(B)  describe how personal creativity is expressed within the requirements of an art form; and

(C)  describe and analyze the relationship between form and expression.

(4)  The student understands and interprets creativity. The student is expected to participate in discussions that lead to understanding, appreciation, and enjoyment of creative achievements such as:

(A)  discuss how personal creativity is expressed within the requirements of an art form;

(B)  discuss conditions that encourage creativity;

(C)  discuss the relationship between form and expression; and

(D)  discuss the major historical and cultural movements as reflected in various art forms.

(5)  The student analyzes and critiques the significance of visual representations. The student is expected to:

(A)  recognize and evaluate how literature and various other art forms convey messages; and

(B)  examine the impact of literature and various other art forms.

Source: The provisions of this §110.55 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261.


§110.57. Public Speaking I, II, III (One-Half to One Credit).

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  In order to have full participation in the civic process, students must have a good understanding of public dialogue. Students must learn the concepts and skills related to preparing and presenting public messages and to analyzing and evaluating the messages of others. Within this process, students will gain skills in reading, writing, speaking, listening, and thinking and will examine areas such as invention, organization, style, memory, and delivery.

(2)  For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(3)  Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(4)  The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Public Speaking I, II, III, elective courses, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  Rhetoric. The student traces the development of the rhetorical perspective. The student is expected to:

(A)  recognize the influence of classical rhetoric in shaping Western thought;

(B)  explain and use the classical rhetorical canons of invention, organization, style, memory, and delivery;

(C)  analyze how modern public address influences public opinion and policy in a democratic republic;

(D)  analyze the ethical responsibilities that accompany freedom of speech;

(E)  develop and use critical, deliberative, empathic, and appreciative listening skills to analyze and evaluate speeches; and

(F)  apply knowledge and understanding of rhetoric to analyze and evaluate oral or written speeches.

(2)  Speech forms. The student recognizes and analyzes varied speech forms. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify and analyze the traditional elements of speech form, including introduction, body, and conclusion;

(B)  identify and analyze logical patterns of organization for specific speech forms;

(C)  identify and analyze the characteristics of a speech to inform;

(D)  identify and analyze the characteristics of a speech to persuade, including propositions of fact, value, problem, and/or policy;

(E)  identify and analyze characteristics of speeches for special occasions; and

(F)  analyze and evaluate the rhetorical elements in models of speeches that inform, persuade, or inspire.

(3)  Invention. The student plans speeches. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify and analyze the audience and occasion as a basis for choosing speech strategies;

(B)  select and limit topics for speeches considering his/her own interests, timeliness, and the importance of the topic;

(C)  select and limit purposes for speeches;

(D)  research topics using primary and secondary sources, including electronic technology; and

(E)  analyze oral and written speech models to evaluate the topic, purpose, audience, and occasion.

(4)  Organization. The student organizes speeches. The student is expected to:

(A)  apply knowledge of speech form to organize and design speeches;

(B)  organize speeches effectively for specific topics, purposes, audiences, and occasions;

(C)  choose logical patterns of organization for bodies of speech;

(D)  prepare outlines reflecting logical organization; and

(E)  analyze and evaluate the organization of oral or written speech models.

(5)  Proofs and appeals. The student uses valid proofs and appeals in speeches. The student is expected to:

(A)  analyze the implications of the audience, occasion, topic, and purpose as a basis for choosing proofs and appeals for speeches;

(B)  choose logical proofs and appeals that meet standard tests of evidence;

(C)  use logical, ethical, and emotional proofs and appeals to support and clarify claims in speeches;

(D)  choose proofs and appeals that enhance a specific topic, purpose, and tone;

(E)  choose and develop appropriate devices for introductions and conclusions;

(F)  choose or produce effective visual supports; and

(G)  analyze and evaluate the proofs and appeals used in oral or written speech models.

(6)  Style. The student develops skills in using oral language in public speeches. The student is expected to:

(A)  distinguish between oral and written language styles;

(B)  write manuscripts to facilitate language choices and enhance oral style;

(C)  use rhetorical and stylistic devices to achieve clarity, force, and aesthetic effect;

(D)  use informal, standard, and technical language appropriately;

(E)  employ previews, transitions, summaries, signposts, and other appropriate rhetorical strategies to enhance clarity; and

(F)  evaluate a speaker's style in oral or written speech models.

(7)  Delivery. The student uses appropriate strategies for rehearsing and presenting speeches. The student is expected to:

(A)  employ techniques and strategies to reduce communication apprehension, develop self-confidence, and facilitate command of information and ideas;

(B)  rehearse and employ a variety of delivery strategies;

(C)  develop verbal, vocal, and physical skills to enhance presentations;

(D)  use notes, manuscripts, rostrum, visual aids, and/or electronic devices; and

(E)  interact with audiences appropriately.

(8)  Evaluation. The student analyzes and evaluates speeches. The student is expected to:

(A)  use critical, deliberative, and appreciative listening skills to evaluate speeches; and

(B)  critique speeches using knowledge of rhetorical principles.

Source: The provisions of this §110.57 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261.


§110.58. Communication Applications (One-Half Credit).

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  Understanding and developing skills in communication are fundamental to all other learning and to all levels of human interaction. For successful participation in professional and social life, students must develop effective communication skills. Rapidly expanding technologies and changing social and corporate systems demand that students send clear verbal messages, choose effective nonverbal behaviors, listen for desired results, and apply valid critical-thinking and problem-solving processes. Students enrolled in Communication Applications will be expected to identify, analyze, develop, and evaluate communication skills needed for professional and social success in interpersonal situations, group interactions, and personal and professional presentations.

(2)  For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(3)  Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(4)  The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Communication Applications are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  Communication process. The student demonstrates knowledge of various communication processes in professional and social contexts. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the importance of effective communication skills in professional and social contexts;

(B)  identify the components of the communication process and their functions;

(C)  identify standards for making appropriate communication choices for self, listener, occasion, and task;

(D)  identify the characteristics of oral language and analyze standards for using informal, standard, and technical language appropriately;

(E)  identify types of nonverbal communication and their effects;

(F)  recognize the importance of effective nonverbal strategies such as appearance, a firm handshake, direct eye contact, and appropriate use of space and distance;

(G)  identify the components of the listening process;

(H)  identify specific kinds of listening such as critical, deliberative, and empathic;

(I)  recognize the importance of gathering and using accurate and complete information as a basis for making communication decisions;

(J)  identify and analyze ethical and social responsibilities of communicators; and

(K)  recognize and analyze appropriate channels of communication in organizations.

(2)  Interpersonal. The student uses appropriate interpersonal communication strategies in professional and social contexts. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify types of professional and social relationships, their importance, and the purposes they serve;

(B)  employ appropriate verbal, nonverbal, and listening skills to enhance interpersonal relationships;

(C)  use communication management skills to develop appropriate assertiveness, tact, and courtesy;

(D)  use professional etiquette and protocol in situations such as making introductions, speaking on the telephone, and offering and receiving criticism;

(E)  send clear and appropriate requests, provide clear and accurate directions, ask appropriate and purposeful questions, and respond appropriately to the requests, directions, and questions of others;

(F)  participate appropriately in conversations;

(G)  communicate effectively in interviews;

(H)  identify and use appropriate strategies for dealing with differences, including gender, ethnicity, and age; and

(I)  analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of one's own and others' communication.

(3)  Group communication. The student communicates effectively in groups in professional and social contexts. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify kinds of groups, their importance, and the purposes they serve;

(B)  analyze group dynamics and processes for participating effectively in groups;

(C)  identify and analyze the roles of group members and their influence on group dynamics;

(D)  demonstrate understanding of group roles and their impact on group effectiveness;

(E)  use appropriate verbal, nonverbal, and listening skills to promote group effectiveness;

(F)  identify and analyze leadership styles;

(G)  use effective communication strategies in leadership roles;

(H)  use effective communication strategies for solving problems, managing conflicts, and building consensus in groups; and

(I)  analyze the participation and contributions of group members and evaluate group effectiveness.

(4)  Presentations. The student makes and evaluates formal and informal professional presentations. The student is expected to:

(A)  analyze the audience, occasion, and purpose when designing presentations;

(B)  determine specific topics and purposes for presentations;

(C)  research topics using primary and secondary sources, including electronic technology;

(D)  use effective strategies to organize and outline presentations;

(E)  use information effectively to support and clarify points in presentations;

(F)  prepare scripts or notes for presentations;

(G)  prepare and use visual or auditory aids, including technology, to enhance presentations;

(H)  use appropriate techniques to manage communication apprehension, build self-confidence, and gain command of the information;

(I)  use effective verbal and nonverbal strategies in presentations;

(J)  make group presentations to inform, persuade, or motivate an audience;

(K)  make individual presentations to inform, persuade, or motivate an audience;

(L)  participate in question-and-answer sessions following presentations;

(M)  apply critical-listening strategies to evaluate presentations; and

(N)  evaluate effectiveness of his/her own presentation.

Source: The provisions of this §110.58 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261.


§110.59. Oral Interpretation I, II, III (One to Three Credits).

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  Literature and its presentation are integral to understanding the cultural aspects of a society. Students in Oral Interpretation I, II, III will select, research, analyze, adapt, interpret, and perform literary texts as a communication art. Students focus on intellectual, emotional, sensory, and aesthetic levels of texts to attempt to capture the entirety of the author's work. Individual or group performances of literature will be presented and evaluated.

(2)  For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(3)  Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(4)  The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Oral Interpretation I, II, III, elective courses, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  Definition and theory. The student recognizes oral interpretation as a communication art. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain definitions and theories of oral interpretation as a communication art;

(B)  analyze the role of the interpreter and the ethical responsibilities to the author, the literary text, and the audience; and

(C)  develop and use a workable theory of interpretation as a basis for performance choices.

(2)  Selection. The student selects literature for performance. The student is expected to:

(A)  select literature appropriate for the reader, the audience, and the occasion;

(B)  apply standards of literary merit when selecting literature for individual or group performance;

(C)  choose literature that can be appropriately adapted; and

(D)  select performance materials from a variety of literary genre.

(3)  Research. The student uses relevant research to promote understanding of literary works. The student is expected to:

(A)  read the text to grasp the author's meaning, theme, tone, and purpose; and

(B)  research the author, author's works, literary criticism, allusions in the text, and definitions and pronunciations of words to enhance understanding and appreciation of the chosen text.

(4)  Analysis. The student analyzes the chosen text to assess its implications for adaptation, interpretation, and performance. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify and analyze the literary form or genre;

(B)  identify and analyze structural elements in the chosen text;

(C)  identify and analyze the narrative voice and/or other speakers such as personae in the literature;

(D)  identify and analyze the time, place, and atmosphere;

(E)  analyze the shifts or transitions in speaker, time, and place to determine who is speaking, to whom they are speaking, where they are speaking, when they are speaking, and for what reason they are speaking;

(F)  analyze individual units such as paragraphs, verses, sentences, and lines for meaning and specificity;

(G)  identify descriptive phrases, figures of speech, stylistic devices, and word choices to analyze the imagery in the text;

(H)  trace the emotional progression of the text; and

(I)  recognize literal and symbolic meanings, universal themes, or unique aspects of the text.

(5)  Adaptation. The student adapts written text for individual or group performance based on appropriate research and analysis. The student is expected to:

(A)  maintain ethical responsibility to author, text, and audience when adapting literature;

(B)  apply appropriate criteria for lifting scenes and cutting literary selections;

(C)  use effective strategies for planning and organizing programs focused on a specific theme, author, or central comment; and

(D)  write appropriate introductions, transitions, and/or conclusions to supplement the text.

(6)  Interpretation. The student applies research and analysis to make appropriate performance choices. The student is expected to:

(A)  justify the use or nonuse of manuscript or other aids;

(B)  justify strategies for the use of focus, gesture, and movement;

(C)  justify the use of vocal strategies such as rate, pitch, inflection, volume, and pause;

(D)  justify the use of dialect, pronunciation, enunciation, or articulation; and

(E)  use research, analysis, personal experiences, and responses to the literature to justify performance choices.

(7)  Rehearsal and performance. The student uses insights gained from research and analysis to rehearse and perform literature for a variety of audiences and occasions. The student is expected to:

(A)  use effective rehearsal strategies to promote internalization and visualization of the text;

(B)  use appropriate rehearsal strategies to develop confidence and enhance effective communication of the text to an audience in individual and group performance;

(C)  participate in effective group decision-making processes to prepare and present group performances; and

(D)  present individual and group performances.

(8)  Evaluation. The student uses critical and appreciative listening to evaluate individual and group performances. The student is expected to:

(A)  listen critically and appreciatively and respond appropriately to the performances of others;

(B)  analyze and evaluate various performance styles;

(C)  use a variety of techniques to evaluate and critique one's own and others' performances; and

(D)  set goals for future performances based on evaluation.

Source: The provisions of this §110.59 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261.


§110.60. Debate I, II, III (One to Three Credits).

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  Controversial issues arise in aspects of personal, social public, and professional life in modern society. Debate and argumentation are widely used to make decisions and reduce conflict. Students who develop skills in argumentation and debate become interested in current issues, develop sound critical thinking, and sharpen communication skills. They acquire life-long skills for intelligently approaching controversial issues.

(2)  For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(3)  Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(4)  The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Debate I, II, III, elective courses, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  Role in society. The student examines the historical and contemporary contributions of debate in decision-making and democratic processes. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the historical and contemporary use of debate in social, political, and religious arenas;

(B)  examine the role of the forensic progression of discussion, persuasion, and debate in dealing with controversial issues; and

(C)  recognize the role of argumentation and debate as an effective means of analyzing issues, discovering truth, finding solutions to problems, and understanding opposing viewpoints.

(2)  Analysis of issues. The student analyzes controversial issues. The student is expected to:

(A)  use appropriate standards to analyze and interpret propositions of fact, value, problem, and policy;

(B)  accurately phrase and define debatable propositions;

(C)  analyze and evaluate propositions and related issues presented in academic and public settings; and

(D)  recognize, analyze, and use various debate formats to support propositions.

(3)  Propositions of value. The student develops and demonstrates skills for debating propositions of value. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the concept of a value as it applies to a debate;

(B)  analyze the role of value assumptions in formulating and evaluating argument;

(C)  analyze the works of classical and contemporary philosophers;

(D)  apply various standards for evaluating propositions of value;

(E)  apply value assumptions and/or classical and contemporary philosophies appropriately in formulating arguments;

(F)  develop and use valid approaches to construct affirmative and negative cases;

(G)  use valid proofs appropriately to support claims in propositions of value;

(H)  construct briefs for value propositions; and

(I)  apply voting criteria to value propositions.

(4)  Propositions of policy. The student develops and demonstrates skills for debating propositions of policy. The student is expected to:

(A)  evaluate implications of stock issues in affirmative and negative case construction and refutation;

(B)  use and evaluate a variety of valid strategies to construct affirmative and negative cases;

(C)  construct debate briefs for policy propositions; and

(D)  analyze and adapt approaches to accommodate a variety of judging paradigms.

(5)  Logic. The student applies critical thinking, logic, and reasoning in debate. The student is expected to:

(A)  analyze and create arguments using various forms of logic such as inductive and deductive reasoning, syllogisms, traditional models of logic, and cause-effect;

(B)  identify fallacies in reasoning and apply standards of validity and relevancy in analyzing and constructing argument; and

(C)  analyze the role of value assumptions in personal, social, and political conflicts.

(6)  Proof. The student utilizes research and proof in debate. The student is expected to:

(A)  locate and use a variety of reliable technological and print sources;

(B)  identify and apply standard tests of evidence for choosing appropriate logical proofs;

(C)  demonstrate skill in recording and organizing information; and

(D)  utilize ethical guidelines for debate research and use of evidence.

(7)  Case construction. The student identifies and applies the basic concepts of debate case construction. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the roles and responsibilities of the affirmative and negative positions;

(B)  explain and apply the distinctive approaches to prima facie case construction; and

(C)  use a variety of approaches to construct logical affirmative and negative cases.

(8)  Refutation. The student identifies and applies the basic concepts of argumentation and refutation. The student is expected to:

(A)  listen critically to formulate responses;

(B)  take accurate notes during argumentation such as flow a debate;

(C)  analyze and apply a variety of approaches for refuting and defending arguments;

(D)  recognize and use effective cross-examination strategies; and

(E)  extend cross-examination responses into refutation.

(9)  Delivery. The student uses effective communication skills in debating. The student is expected to:

(A)  use precise language and effective verbal skills in argumentation and debate;

(B)  use effective nonverbal communication in argumentation and debate;

(C)  use effective critical-listening strategies in argumentation and debate;

(D)  demonstrate ethical behavior and courtesy during debate; and

(E)  develop extemporaneous speaking skills.

(10)  Evaluation. The student evaluates and critiques debates. The student is expected to:

(A)  use a knowledge of debate principles to develop and apply evaluation standards for various debate formats; and

(B)  provide valid and constructive written and/or oral critiques of debates.

Source: The provisions of this §110.60 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261.


§110.61. Independent Study in Speech (One-Half to One Credit).

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  Communication skills are important in all aspects of life. Students who have mastered concepts and developed skills in introductory courses should be provided with opportunities to extend their knowledge and expand their skills in more advanced study. Independent Study in Speech provides opportunities for advanced students to plan, organize, produce, perform, and evaluate a project that enables them to develop advanced skills in communication, critical thinking, and problem solving.

(2)  For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(3)  Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(4)  The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Independent Study in Speech, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  Propose. The student plans and designs an independent study project. The student is expected to:

(A)  select a topic and define a purpose for an independent study project focused on a specific aspect of communication;

(B)  review the research related to the topics identified;

(C)  develop a formal proposal for the project; and

(D)  plan the format and develop the timelines for production and presentation.

(2)  Research. The student conducts research to support and develop the approved project. The student is expected to:

(A)  locate and gather information from a variety of primary and secondary sources, including electronic technology;

(B)  use systematic strategies to organize and record information; and

(C)  analyze the research data and develop conclusions to provide a basis for the project.

(3)  Produce. The student produces the final product for the project. The student is expected to:

(A)  limit the chosen topic, purpose, and format for the presentation;

(B)  develop systematic strategies to document the project;

(C)  develop appropriate evaluation strategies for each aspect of the production and presentation of the project;

(D)  organize and outline the text for the presentation;

(E)  choose appropriate proofs, literary texts, and/or scenes to develop and support the text;

(F)  produce a written text of superior quality; and

(G)  review and revise plans, outlines, and scripts with the teacher.

(4)  Rehearse and present. The student presents the final product. The student is expected to:

(A)  use rehearsal strategies to gain command of the text and enhance the communication and staging of the presentation;

(B)  demonstrate appropriate verbal and nonverbal communication skills to enhance and enliven the presentation;

(C)  use appropriate visual and auditory aids to support, create interest, and/or add aesthetic appeal to the final presentation; and

(D)  document the progress of the project and submit the final written text or script.

(5)  Evaluate. The student and designated individuals evaluate the project. The student is expected to:

(A)  use strategies to evaluate the project and the presentation; and

(B)  analyze problems related to the project and assess implications for future projects.

Source: The provisions of this §110.61 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261.


§110.62. Journalism (One-Half to One Credit).

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  Students enrolled in Journalism write in a variety of forms for a variety of audiences and purposes. High school students enrolled in this course are expected to plan, draft, and complete written compositions on a regular basis, carefully examining their papers for clarity, engaging language, and the correct use of the conventions and mechanics of written English. In Journalism, students are expected to write in a variety of forms and for a variety of audiences and purposes. Students will become analytical consumers of media and technology to enhance their communication skills. Published work of professional journalists, technology, and visual and electronic media are used as tools for learning as students create, clarify, critique, write, and produce effective communications. Students enrolled in Journalism will learn journalistic traditions, research self-selected topics, write journalistic texts, and learn the principles of publishing.

(2)  For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(3)  Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(4)  The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Journalism, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student demonstrates an understanding of media development, press law, and responsibility. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the history and development of American journalism through people and events;

(B)  identify the foundations of press law, including copyright law, the fair use exemption, and the ownership of intellectual property;

(C)  identify the foundations of journalistic ethics;

(D)  distinguish between responsible and irresponsible media action; and

(E)  understand the consequences of plagiarism.

(2)  The student demonstrates an understanding of the different forms of media and the different types of journalistic writing. The student is expected to:

(A)  distinguish the similarities and differences of print, broadcast, and online media; and

(B)  distinguish the similarities and differences of news, feature, and opinion writing.

(3)  The student reports and writes for a variety of audiences and purposes and researches self-selected topics to write journalistic texts. The student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate an understanding of the elements of news;

(B)  select the most appropriate journalistic format to present content;

(C)  locate information sources such as persons, databases, reports, and past interviews; gather background information; and research to prepare for an interview or investigate a topic;

(D)  plan and write relevant questions for an interview or in-depth research;

(E)  gather information through interviews (in person or telephone);

(F)  evaluate and confirm the validity of background information from a variety of sources such as other qualified persons, books, and reports;

(G)  write copy synthesizing direct and indirect quotes and other research;

(H)  use journalistic style to write copy;

(I)  revise and edit copy using appropriate copy editing symbols;

(J)  rewrite copy;

(K)  create different forms of journalistic writing such as reviews, ad copy, columns, news, features, and editorials to inform, entertain, and/or persuade;

(L)  write captions; and

(M)  demonstrate an understanding of the function of headlines through the writing of headlines.

(4)  The student demonstrates understanding of the principles of publishing through design using available technologies. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the appropriate form of journalistic publication to present content such as newspapers, newsmagazines, online media, broadcasts, and newsletters;

(B)  design elements into an acceptable presentation;

(C)  use illustrations or photographs that have been cropped to communicate and emphasize a topic;

(D)  use graphic devices such as lines, screens, and art to communicate and emphasize a topic; and

(E)  prepare a layout for publication.

(5)  The student demonstrates an understanding of the economics of publishing. The student is expected to:

(A)  understand general salesmanship in selling professional or student-produced publications;

(B)  differentiate between advertising appeals and propaganda;

(C)  differentiate between the various types of advertising such as classified, display, public service, and online advertising; and

(D)  design an advertisement for a particular audience.

Source: The provisions of this §110.62 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261.


§110.63. Independent Study in Journalism (One-Half to One Credit).

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  Students enrolled in Independent Study in Journalism write in a variety of forms for a variety of audiences and purposes. High school students enrolled in this course are expected to plan, draft, and complete written communications on a regular basis, carefully examining their copy for clarity, engaging language, and the correct use of the conventions and mechanics of written English. Students will become analytical consumers of media and technology to enhance their communication skills. Published work of professional journalists, technology, and visual and electronic media are used as tools for learning as students create, clarify, critique, write, and produce effective communications. Students enrolled in Independent Study in Journalism will refine and enhance their journalistic skills, research self-selected topics, plan, organize, and prepare a project(s).

(2)  For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(3)  Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(4)  The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Independent Study in Journalism, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student refines and enhances journalistic skills. The student is expected to:

(A)  formulate questions, refine topics, and clarify ideas;

(B)  organize and support what is known and what needs to be learned about a topic;

(C)  compile information from primary and secondary sources using available technology;

(D)  organize information from multiple sources, including primary and secondary sources;

(E)  link related information and ideas from a variety of sources;

(F)  evaluate product based on journalistic standards;

(G)  understand and apply press law and journalistic ethics, including copyright law, the fair use exemption, and the ownership of intellectual property; and

(H)  understand the consequences of plagiarism.

(2)  The student produces visual representations that communicate with others. The student is expected to:

(A)  conduct a research project(s) with instructor guidance and produce an original work in print or another medium demonstrating advanced skill; and

(B)  use a range of techniques in planning and creating projects.

Source: The provisions of this §110.63 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261.


§110.64. Advanced Broadcast Journalism I, II, III (One-Half Credit to One Credit).

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  Students need to be critical viewers, consumers, and producers of media. The ability to access, analyze, evaluate, and produce communication in a variety of forms is an important part of language development. High school students enrolled in this course will apply and use their journalistic skills for a variety of purposes. Students will learn the laws and ethical considerations that affect broadcast journalism; learn the role and function of broadcast journalism; critique and analyze the significance of visual representations; and learn to produce by creating a broadcast journalism product.

(2)  For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(3)  Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(4)  The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Advanced Broadcast Journalism I, II, III, elective courses, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student demonstrates an understanding of broadcast media development, law, and responsibility to cover subjects of interest and importance to the audience. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the historical development of broadcasting from early radio to present-day formats, including radio, television, and online media;

(B)  identify the function and role in society of broadcast media, including radio, television, and online broadcasts;

(C)  understand and apply the laws affecting broadcast journalism, including copyright law, the fair use exemption, and the ownership of intellectual property;

(D)  understand and apply ethical considerations affecting broadcast journalism;

(E)  understand the consequences of plagiarism;

(F)  explore the impact of broadcast formats on society;

(G)  seek viewer opinions on the broadcast to determine its impact on future programming; and

(H)  identify the strategies of broadcasting to reach certain audiences, including programming decisions.

(2)  The student understands how broadcast productions are created and disseminated. The student is expected to:

(A)  understand the role of various personnel, including producers, station managers, technical directors, camera operators, webmasters, and news anchors, in broadcast journalism;

(B)  understand the economics of broadcasting such as advertising and public funds;

(C)  consider finances in making decisions, including air time, length of program, and content;

(D)  create and execute a financial plan for programming; and

(E)  identify technical elements of broadcast production used to create and deliver broadcast programming such as school cable systems and live web streaming.

(3)  The student produces programming such as newscasts, interviews, and public service announcements. The student is expected to:

(A)  determine which events and issues are newsworthy for an audience and write appropriate copy for the content;

(B)  select the most appropriate journalistic format to present content such as school cable systems and websites;

(C)  apply pre-production skills such as storyboarding, scriptwriting, and scheduling;

(D)  apply skills in reporting and writing to produce programs required to meet entry-level professional expectations;

(E)  create programs that involve skills such as camera angles and movements, audio, lighting, and incorporation of graphics;

(F)  deliver content that addresses tone, facial expressions, appearance, emphasis on key ideas, fluency, and rate;

(G)  deliver content that demonstrates the development of a professional identity in the community;

(H)  apply post-production skills such as editing, voice-overs, and transitions;

(I)  demonstrate knowledge of new and emerging technologies that may affect the field; and

(J)  critique the broadcast to find its strengths and weaknesses to improve products based on those critiques.

(4)  The student demonstrates leadership and teamwork abilities. The student is expected to:

(A)  determine roles for which different team members will assume responsibility;

(B)  work cooperatively and collaboratively through a variety of staff assignments;

(C)  listen actively and critically and then respond appropriately to team members;

(D)  develop a deadline schedule and a regular means of monitoring progress;

(E)  submit work for editing and critiquing and make appropriate revisions; and

(F)  edit and critique work of others.

Source: The provisions of this §110.64 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261.


§110.65. Photojournalism (One-Half to One Credit).

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  Students enrolled in Photojournalism communicate in a variety of forms for a variety of audiences and purposes. High school students are expected to plan, interpret, and critique visual representation, carefully examining their product for publication. Students will become analytical consumers of media and technology to enhance their communication skills. High school students will study the laws and ethical considerations that impact photography. Published photos of professional photojournalists, technology, and visual and electronic media are used as tools for learning as students create, clarify, critique, and produce effective visual representations. Students enrolled in this course will refine and enhance their journalistic skills and plan, prepare, and produce photographs for a journalistic publication, whether print, digital, or online media.

(2)  For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(3)  Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(4)  The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Photojournalism, an elective course, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student interprets/critiques visual representations. The student is expected to:

(A)  recognize the major events in the development of modern-day photography;

(B)  recognize composition principles and their impact on photography;

(C)  recognize and apply ethical and legal standards to all aspects of photojournalism, including copyright law, the fair use exemption, and the ownership of intellectual property;

(D)  recognize the impact of electronic technology and future trends in digital imaging on the traditional field of photojournalism; and

(E)  understand the consequences of plagiarism.

(2)  The student produces visual representations that communicate with others. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the basic parts of a camera and their functions;

(B)  manipulate shutter speed, ISO, and aperture/F-stop to produce different effects in photos;

(C)  produce a properly exposed photo where the subject is sharply focused;

(D)  produce photos that apply the composition principles;

(E)  use lighting and be aware of its qualities such as direction, intensity, color, and the use of artificial light;

(F)  stop action by determining appropriate shutter speed or use panning or hand holding with slower shutter speeds;

(G)  evaluate technical qualities of photos;

(H)  use appropriate equipment to download images and make prints or upload images; and

(I)  improve photo quality by using appropriate technology.

(3)  The student incorporates photographs into journalistic publications. The student is expected to:

(A)  plan photo layouts;

(B)  illustrate events with appropriate photos and captions;

(C)  plan photographs in relation to assignments from an editor;

(D)  create a system for organizing deadlines and camera equipment and for filing photos for publication;

(E)  create and publish slideshow packages using available technology; and

(F)  publish photos in both print and online formats.

Source: The provisions of this §110.65 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261.


§110.66. Advanced Journalism: Yearbook I, II, III/Newspaper I, II, III/Literary Magazine (One-Half to One Credit).

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  Students enrolled in Advanced Journalism: Yearbook I, II, III/Newspaper I, II, III/Literary Magazine communicate in a variety of forms such as print, digital, or online media for a variety of audiences and purposes. High school students are expected to plan, draft, and complete written and/or visual communications on a regular basis, carefully examining their copy for clarity, engaging language, and the correct use of the conventions and mechanics of written English. In Advanced Journalism: Yearbook I, II, III/Newspaper I, II, III/Literary Magazine, students are expected to become analytical consumers of media and technology to enhance their communication skills. In addition, students will apply journalistic ethics and standards. Published works of professional journalists, technology, and visual and electronic media are used as tools for learning as students create, clarify, critique, write, and produce effective communications. Students enrolled in Advanced Journalism: Yearbook I, II, III/Newspaper I, II, III/Literary Magazine will refine and enhance their journalistic skills, research self-selected topics, and plan, organize, and prepare a project(s) in one or more forms of media.

(2)  For high school students whose first language is not English, the students' native language serves as a foundation for English language acquisition and language learning.

(3)  Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(4)  The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for Advanced Journalism: Yearbook I, II, III/Newspaper I, II, III/Literary Magazine, elective courses, are described in subsection (b) of this section.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student understands individual and staff responsibilities of coverage appropriate for the publication's audience. The student is expected to:

(A)  understand the role and responsibilities of each staff member and the purpose of the publication;

(B)  use the skills necessary to plan and produce a publication;

(C)  read both professional publications and other student-produced publications to generate story and design ideas for the local publication;

(D)  conduct research using a variety of sources such as interviews with primary sources, databases, or published reports; and

(E)  conceive coverage ideas for packaged presentations of material, including, but not limited to, copy, infographics, sidebars, photos, art, and multimedia components.

(2)  The student understands media law and journalistic ethics and standards and the responsibility to cover subjects of interest and importance to the audience. The student is expected to:

(A)  find a variety of credible sources to provide balanced coverage;

(B)  compose the story accurately keeping his/her own opinion out of non-editorial coverage;

(C)  provide editorial coverage to inform and encourage the reader to make intelligent decisions;

(D)  critique the publication to find its strengths and weaknesses to improve products based on those critiques;

(E)  seek non-staff opinion on the publication to determine its impact on future publications;

(F)  understand the consequences of plagiarism; and

(G)  understand and apply copyright law, the fair use exemption, and the ownership of intellectual property.

(3)  The student understands all aspects of a publication and the means by which that publication is created. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify elements used to create publications;

(B)  create and execute a financial plan for supporting publications such as sales and advertising; and

(C)  consider finances in making decisions, including number of pages and cost-incurring extras such as color, paper quality, and number of copies for print publications.

(4)  The student produces publications. The student is expected to:

(A)  determine which events and issues are newsworthy for the audience;

(B)  select the most appropriate journalistic format to present content;

(C)  apply skills in reporting and writing to produce publications;

(D)  design pages for publications;

(E)  plan and produce photographs for publications;

(F)  incorporate graphics into publications;

(G)  write and design headlines for publications;

(H)  research and write captions for publications;

(I)  produce publications using available technology; and

(J)  evaluate stories and coverage for balance and readability.

(5)  The student demonstrates leadership and teamwork abilities. The student is expected to:

(A)  determine roles for which different team members will assume responsibility;

(B)  work cooperatively and collaboratively through a variety of staff assignments;

(C)  determine coverage and concepts for publications;

(D)  develop a deadline schedule and a regular means of monitoring progress;

(E)  listen actively and critically and then respond appropriately to team members;

(F)  submit work for editing and critiquing and make appropriate revisions; and

(G)  edit and critique work of others.

Source: The provisions of this §110.66 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7549; amended to be effective August 22, 2011, 35 TexReg 3261.


Last updated: August 22, 2011

For additional information, email rules@tea.state.tx.us.