Chapter 112. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science
Subchapter D. Other Science Courses


Statutory Authority: The provisions of this Subchapter D issued under the Texas Education Code, 7.102(c)(4), 28.002, and 28.025, unless otherwise noted.


112.61. Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science, Other Science Courses.

The provisions of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts.

Source: The provisions of this 112.61 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647; amended to be effective October 23, 2016, 41 TexReg 8197.


112.62. Advanced Placement (AP) Biology (One Credit).

(a)  General Requirements. Students can be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Recommended prerequisites: Biology, Chemistry.

(b)  Content Requirements. Content requirements for Advanced Placement (AP) Biology are prescribed in the College Board Publication Advanced Placement Course Description: Biology, published by The College Board.

Source: The provisions of this 112.62 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647; amended to be effective October 23, 2016, 41 TexReg 8197.


112.63. Advanced Placement (AP) Chemistry (One Credit).

(a)  General Requirements. Students can be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Recommended prerequisites: Chemistry, Algebra II.

(b)  Content Requirements. Content requirements for Advanced Placement (AP) Chemistry are prescribed in the College Board Publication Advanced Placement Course Description: Chemistry, published by The College Board.

Source: The provisions of this 112.63 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647; amended to be effective October 23, 2016, 41 TexReg 8197.


112.64. Advanced Placement (AP) Physics 1: Algebra Based (One Credit).

(a)  General Requirements. Students can be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Recommended prerequisites: Algebra I, Geometry. Recommended corequisite: a mathematics course listed in 74.12(b)(2)(B) of this title (relating to Foundation High School Program).

(b)  Content Requirements. Content requirements for Advanced Placement (AP) Physics are prescribed in the College Board Publication Advanced Placement Course Description: Physics, published by The College Board.

Source: The provisions of this 112.64 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647; amended to be effective October 23, 2016, 41 TexReg 8197.


112.65. Advanced Placement (AP) Physics 2: Algebra Based (One Credit).

(a)  General Requirements. Students can be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Recommended prerequisites: Advanced Placement (AP) Physics 1 or a comparable physics introductory course. Recommended corequisite: precalculus or an equivalent course.

(b)  Content Requirements. Content requirements for AP Physics are prescribed in the College Board Publication Advanced Placement Course Description: Physics, published by The College Board.

Source: The provisions of this 112.65 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647; amended to be effective October 23, 2016, 41 TexReg 8197.


112.66. Advanced Placement (AP) Environmental Science (One Credit).

(a)  General Requirements. Students can be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Recommended prerequisites: Algebra I, two years of high school laboratory science, including one year of life science and one year of physical science.

(b)  Content Requirements. Content requirements for Advanced Placement (AP) Environmental Science are prescribed in the College Board Publication Advanced Placement Course Description: Environmental Science, published by The College Board.

Source: The provisions of this 112.66 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647; amended to be effective October 23, 2016, 41 TexReg 8197.


112.67. Advanced Placement (AP) Physics C: Electricity and Magnetism (One Credit).

(a)  General Requirements. Students can be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Prerequisite: students should have taken or be concurrently taking calculus.

(b)  Content Requirements. Content requirements for Advanced Placement (AP) Physics C: Electricity and Magnetism are prescribed in the College Board Publication Advanced Placement Course Description: Physics C: Electricity and Magnetism, published by The College Board.

Source: The provisions of this 112.67 adopted to be effective October 23, 2016, 41 TexReg 8197.


112.68. Advanced Placement (AP) Physics C: Mechanics (One Credit).

(a)  General Requirements. Students can be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Prerequisite: students should have taken or be concurrently taking calculus.

(b)  Content Requirements. Content requirements for Advanced Placement (AP) Physics C: Mechanics are prescribed in the College Board Publication Advanced Placement Course Description: Physics C: Mechanics, published by The College Board.

Source: The provisions of this 112.68 adopted to be effective October 23, 2016, 41 TexReg 8197.


112.70. International Baccalaureate Environmental Systems (IB) (One Credit).

(a)  General Requirements. Students can be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Recommended prerequisite: one year of high school science.

(b)  Content Requirements. Content requirements for International Baccalaureate (IB) Environmental Systems are prescribed by the International Baccalaureate Organization.

Source: The provisions of this 112.70 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7647.


112.71. Principles of Technology (One Physics Credit).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10-12. Prerequisites: one unit of high school science and Algebra I. To receive credit in science, students must meet the 40% laboratory and fieldwork requirement identified in 74.3(b)(2)(C) of this title (relating to Description of a Required Secondary Curriculum).

(b)  Introduction.

(1)  Principles of Technology. In Principles of Technology, students conduct laboratory and field investigations, use scientific methods during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. Various systems will be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Students will study a variety of topics that include laws of motion, conservation of energy, momentum, electricity, magnetism, thermodynamics, and characteristics and behavior of waves. Students will apply physics concepts and perform laboratory experimentations for at least 40% of instructional time using safe practices.

(2)  Nature of science. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

(3)  Scientific inquiry. Scientific inquiry is the planned and deliberate investigation of the natural world. Scientific methods of investigation can be experimental, descriptive, or comparative. The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked.

(4)  Science and social ethics. Scientific decision making is a way of answering questions about the natural world. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical and social decisions that involve the application of scientific information.

(5)  Scientific systems. A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems as patterns and can be observed, measured, and modeled. These patterns help to make predictions that can be scientifically tested. Students should analyze a system in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other, to the whole, and to the external environment.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. These investigations must involve actively obtaining and analyzing data with physical equipment, but may also involve experimentation in a simulated environment as well as field observations that extend beyond the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations; and

(B)  demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.

(2)  The student uses a systematic approach to answer scientific laboratory and field investigative questions. The student is expected to:

(A)  know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section;

(B)  know that scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories;

(C)  know that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly-reliable explanations, but may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed;

(D)  distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories;

(E)  design and implement investigative procedures, including making observations, asking well-defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, identifying variables, selecting appropriate equipment and technology, and evaluating numerical answers for reasonableness;

(F)  demonstrate the use of course apparatus, equipment, techniques, and procedures, including multimeters (current, voltage, resistance), triple beam balances, batteries, clamps, dynamics demonstration equipment, collision apparatus, data acquisition probes, discharge tubes with power supply (H, He, Ne, Ar), hand-held visual spectroscopes, hot plates, slotted and hooked lab masses, bar magnets, horseshoe magnets, plane mirrors, convex lenses, pendulum support, power supply, ring clamps, ring stands, stopwatches, trajectory apparatus, tuning forks, carbon paper, graph paper, magnetic compasses, polarized film, prisms, protractors, resistors, friction blocks, mini lamps (bulbs) and sockets, electrostatics kits, 90-degree rod clamps, metric rulers, spring scales, knife blade switches, Celsius thermometers, meter sticks, scientific calculators, graphing technology, computers, cathode ray tubes with horseshoe magnets, ballistic carts or equivalent, resonance tubes, spools of nylon thread or string, containers of iron filings, rolls of white craft paper, copper wire, Periodic Table, electromagnetic spectrum charts, slinky springs, wave motion ropes, and laser pointers;

(G)  use a wide variety of additional course apparatus, equipment, techniques, materials, and procedures as appropriate such as ripple tank with wave generator, wave motion rope, micrometer, caliper, radiation monitor, computer, ballistic pendulum, electroscope, inclined plane, optics bench, optics kit, pulley with table clamp, resonance tube, ring stand screen, four-inch ring, stroboscope, graduated cylinders, and ticker timer;

(H)  make measurements with accuracy and precision and record data using scientific notation and International System (SI) units;

(I)  identify and quantify causes and effects of uncertainties in measured data;

(J)  organize and evaluate data and make inferences from data, including the use of tables, charts, and graphs;

(K)  communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through various methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports; and

(L)  express and manipulate relationships among physical variables quantitatively, including the use of graphs, charts, and equations.

(3)  The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A)  in all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student;

(B)  communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, news reports, published journal articles, and marketing materials;

(C)  draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(D)  explain the impacts of the scientific contributions of a variety of historical and contemporary scientists on scientific thought and society;

(E)  research and describe the connections between physics and future careers; and

(F)  express and interpret relationships symbolically in accordance with accepted theories to make predictions and solve problems mathematically, including problems requiring proportional reasoning and graphical vector addition.

(4)  The student uses the scientific process to investigate physical concepts. The student is expected to:

(A)  understand that scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported by observational evidence;

(B)  understand that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers;

(C)  design and implement investigative procedures;

(D)  demonstrate the appropriate use and care of laboratory equipment;

(E)  demonstrate accurate measurement techniques using precision instruments;

(F)  record data using scientific notation and International System (SI) of units;

(G)  identify and quantify causes and effects of uncertainties in measured data;

(H)  organize and evaluate data, including the use of tables, charts, and graphs;

(I)  communicate conclusions supported through various methods such as laboratory reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, or technology-based reports; and

(J)  record, express, and manipulate data using graphs, charts, and equations.

(5)  The student demonstrates appropriate safety techniques in the field and laboratory environments. The student is expected to:

(A)  master relevant safety procedures;

(B)  follow safety guidelines as described in various manuals, instructions, and regulations;

(C)  identify and classify hazardous materials and wastes; and

(D)  make prudent choices in the conservation and use of resources and the disposal of hazardous materials and wastes appropriately.

(6)  The student uses critical-thinking, scientific-reasoning, and problem-solving skills. The student is expected to:

(A)  analyze and evaluate scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing;

(B)  communicate and apply scientific information;

(C)  explain the societal impacts of scientific contributions; and

(D)  research and describe the connections between technologies and future career opportunities.

(7)  The student describes and applies the laws governing motion in a variety of situations. The student is expected to:

(A)  generate and interpret relevant equations using graphs and charts for one- and two-dimensional motion, including:

(i)  using and describing one-dimensional equations for displacement, distance, speed, velocity, average velocity, acceleration, and average acceleration;

(ii)  using and describing two-dimensional equations for projectile and circular motion; and

(iii)  using and describing vector forces and resolution;

(B)  describe and calculate the effects of forces on objects, including law of inertia and impulse and conservation of momentum;

(C)  develop and interpret free-body force diagrams; and

(D)  identify and describe motion relative to different frames of reference.

(8)  The student describes the nature of forces in the physical world. The student is expected to:

(A)  research and describe the historical development of the concepts of gravitational, electromagnetic, weak nuclear, and strong nuclear forces;

(B)  describe and calculate the magnitude of gravitational forces between two objects;

(C)  describe and calculate the magnitude of electrical forces;

(D)  describe the nature and identify everyday examples of magnetic forces and fields;

(E)  describe the nature and identify everyday examples of electromagnetic forces and fields;

(F)  characterize materials as conductors or insulators based on their electrical properties;

(G)  design and construct both series and parallel circuits and calculate current, potential difference, resistance, and power of various circuits;

(H)  investigate and describe the relationship between electric and magnetic fields in applications such as generators, motors, and transformers; and

(I)  describe technological applications of the strong and weak nuclear forces in nature.

(9)  The student describes and applies the laws of the conservation of energy and momentum. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe the transformational process between work, potential energy, and kinetic energy (work-energy theorem);

(B)  use examples to analyze and calculate the relationships among work, kinetic energy, and potential energy;

(C)  describe and calculate the mechanical energy of, the power generated within, the impulse applied to, and the momentum of a physical system; and

(D)  describe and apply the laws of conservation of energy and conservation of momentum.

(10)  The student analyzes the concept of thermal energy. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe how the macroscopic properties of a thermodynamic system such as temperature, specific heat, and pressure are related to the molecular level of matter, including kinetic or potential energy of atoms;

(B)  contrast and give examples of different processes of thermal energy transfer, including conduction, convection, and radiation; and

(C)  analyze and explain technological examples such as solar and wind energy that illustrate the laws of thermodynamics, including the law of conservation of energy and the law of entropy.

(11)  The student analyzes the properties of wave motion and optics. The student is expected to:

(A)  examine and describe oscillatory motion and wave propagation in various types of media;

(B)  investigate and analyze characteristics of waves, including velocity, frequency, amplitude, and wavelength;

(C)  investigate and calculate the relationship between wavespeed, frequency, and wavelength;

(D)  compare and contrast the characteristics and behaviors of transverse waves, including electromagnetic waves and the electromagnetic spectrum, and longitudinal waves, including sound waves;

(E)  investigate behaviors of waves, including reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference, resonance, and the Doppler effect;

(F)  describe and predict image formation as a consequence of reflection from a plane mirror and refraction through a thin convex lens; and

(G)  describe the role of wave characteristics and behaviors in medical and industrial technology applications.

(12)  The student analyzes the concepts of atomic, nuclear, and quantum phenomena. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe the photoelectric effect and the dual nature of light;

(B)  compare and explain emission spectra produced by various atoms;

(C)  describe the significance of mass-energy equivalence and apply it in explanations of phenomena such as nuclear stability, fission, and fusion;

(D)  describe the role of mass-energy equivalence for areas such as nuclear stability, fission, and fusion; and

(E)  explore technology applications of atomic, nuclear, and quantum phenomena such as nanotechnology, radiation therapy, diagnostic imaging, and nuclear power.

Source: The provisions of this 112.71 adopted to be effective July 12, 2010, 35 TexReg 6070.


112.72. Other Courses for Which Students May Receive Science Credit.

(a)  Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources courses.

(1)  Advanced Animal Science. Students shall be awarded one credit in science for successful completion of this course as described in 130.7 of this title (relating to Advanced Animal Science (One Credit)). Recommended prerequisite: a minimum of one credit from the courses in the Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources cluster. Students must meet the 40% laboratory and fieldwork requirement in 74.3(b)(2)(C) of this title (relating to Description of a Required Secondary Curriculum). This course is recommended for students in Grade 12.

(2)  Advanced Plant and Soil Science. Students shall be awarded one credit in science for successful completion of this course as described in 130.21 of this title (relating to Advanced Plant and Soil Science (One Credit)). Recommended prerequisite: a minimum of one credit from the courses in the Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources cluster. Students must meet the 40% laboratory and fieldwork requirement in 74.3(b)(2)(C) of this title (relating to Description of a Required Secondary Curriculum). This course is recommended for students in Grade 12.

(b)  Health science courses.

(1)  Anatomy and Physiology. Students shall be awarded one credit in science for successful completion of this course as described in 130.206 of this title (relating to Anatomy and Physiology (One Science Credit)). Recommended prerequisites: three credits of science. Students must meet the 40% laboratory and fieldwork requirement in 74.3(b)(2)(C) of this title (relating to Description of a Required Secondary Curriculum). This course is recommended for students in Grades 10-12.

(2)  Medical Microbiology. Students shall be awarded one-half to one credit in science for successful completion of this course as described in 130.207 of this title (relating to Medical Microbiology (One-Half to One Science Credit)). Recommended prerequisites: three credits of science. Students must meet the 40% laboratory and fieldwork requirement in 74.3(b)(2)(C) of this title (relating to Description of a Required Secondary Curriculum). This course is recommended for students in Grades 10-12.

(3)  Pathophysiology. Students shall be awarded one-half to one credit in science for successful completion of this course as described in 130.208 of this title (relating to Pathophysiology (One-Half to One Science Credit)). Recommended prerequisites: three credits of science. Students must meet the 40% laboratory and fieldwork requirement in 74.3(b)(2)(C) of this title (relating to Description of a Required Secondary Curriculum). This course is recommended for students in Grade 11 or 12.

(c)  Hospitality and Tourism course. Food Science. Students shall be awarded one credit in science for successful completion of this course as described in 130.230 of this title (relating to Food Science (One Credit)). Recommended prerequisite: Principles of Hospitality and Tourism. Students must meet the 40% laboratory and fieldwork requirement in 74.3(b)(2)(C) of this title (relating to Description of a Required Secondary Curriculum). This course is recommended for students in Grade 11 or 12.

(d)  Law, Public Safety, Corrections, and Security course. Forensic Science. Students shall be awarded one credit in science for successful completion of this course as described in 130.295 of this title (relating to Forensic Science (One Credit)). Prerequisites: Biology and Chemistry. Recommended prerequisites: Principles of Law, Public Safety, Corrections, and Security and Law Enforcement I. Students must meet the 40% laboratory and fieldwork requirement in 74.3(b)(2)(C) of this title (relating to Description of a Required Secondary Curriculum). This course is recommended for students in Grade 11 or 12.

(e)  Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics courses.

(1)  Advanced Biotechnology. Students shall be awarded one credit in science for successful completion of this course as described in 130.364 of this title (relating to Advanced Biotechnology (One Credit)). Recommended prerequisites: Biology and Chemistry. Students must meet the 40% laboratory and fieldwork requirement in 74.3(b)(2)(C) of this title (relating to Description of a Required Secondary Curriculum). This course is recommended for students in Grade 11 or 12.

(2)  Scientific Research and Design. Students shall be awarded one credit in science for successful completion of this course as described in 130.372 of this title (relating to Scientific Research and Design (One Science Credit)). Prerequisite: one unit of high school science. Students must meet the 40% laboratory and fieldwork requirement in 74.3(b)(2)(C) of this title (relating to Description of a Required Secondary Curriculum). This course is recommended for students in Grade 11 or 12. Students may repeat this course with different course content for up to three credits.

(3)  Engineering Design and Problem Solving. Students shall be awarded one credit in science for successful completion of this course as described in 130.373 of this title (relating to Engineering Design and Problem Solving (One Science Credit)). Prerequisites: Geometry, Algebra II, Chemistry, and Physics. Students must meet the 40% laboratory and fieldwork requirement in 74.3(b)(2)(C) of this title (relating to Description of a Required Secondary Curriculum). This course is recommended for students in Grade 11 or 12.

(f)  Concurrent enrollment in college courses.

(1)  General requirements. Students shall be awarded at least one-half credit for each semester of successful completion of a college course in which the student is concurrently enrolled while in high school.

(2)  Content requirements. In order for students to receive state graduation credit for concurrent enrollment courses, content requirements must meet or exceed the essential knowledge and skills in a given course.

Source: The provisions of this 112.72 adopted to be effective July 12, 2010, 35 TexReg 6070.


112.73. International Baccalaureate (IB) Biology Standard Level (One Credit).

(a)  General requirements. Students can be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Recommended prerequisites: two years of high school laboratory science.

(b)  Content requirements. Content requirements for International Baccalaureate (IB) Biology Standard Level are prescribed by the International Baccalaureate Organization.

Source: The provisions of this 112.73 adopted to be effective August 24, 2015, 40 TexReg 3147.


112.74. International Baccalaureate (IB) Biology Higher Level (One Credit).

(a)  General requirements. Students can be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Recommended prerequisites: two years of high school laboratory science.

(b)  Content requirements. Content requirements for International Baccalaureate (IB) Biology Higher Level are prescribed by the International Baccalaureate Organization.

Source: The provisions of this 112.74 adopted to be effective August 24, 2015, 40 TexReg 3147.


112.75. International Baccalaureate (IB) Chemistry Standard Level (One Credit).

(a)  General requirements. Students can be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Recommended prerequisites: two years of high school laboratory science.

(b)  Content requirements. Content requirements for International Baccalaureate (IB) Chemistry Standard Level are prescribed by the International Baccalaureate Organization.

Source: The provisions of this 112.75 adopted to be effective August 24, 2015, 40 TexReg 3147.


112.76. International Baccalaureate (IB) Chemistry Higher Level (One Credit).

(a)  General requirements. Students can be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Recommended prerequisites: two years of high school laboratory science.

(b)  Content requirements. Content requirements for International Baccalaureate (IB) Chemistry Higher Level are prescribed by the International Baccalaureate Organization.

Source: The provisions of this 112.76 adopted to be effective August 24, 2015, 40 TexReg 3147.


112.77. International Baccalaureate (IB) Physics Standard Level (One Credit).

(a)  General requirements. Students can be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Recommended prerequisites: two years of high school laboratory science.

(b)  Content requirements. Content requirements for International Baccalaureate (IB) Physics Standard Level are prescribed by the International Baccalaureate Organization.

Source: The provisions of this 112.77 adopted to be effective August 24, 2015, 40 TexReg 3147.


112.78. International Baccalaureate (IB) Physics Higher Level (One Credit).

(a)  General requirements. Students can be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Recommended prerequisites: two years of high school laboratory science.

(b)  Content requirements. Content requirements for International Baccalaureate (IB) Physics Higher Level are prescribed by the International Baccalaureate Organization.

Source: The provisions of this 112.78 adopted to be effective August 24, 2015, 40 TexReg 3147.


For more information, email rules@tea.texas.gov.