Chapter 113. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Social Studies
Subchapter A. Elementary


Statutory Authority: The provisions of this Subchapter A issued under the Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4) and §28.002, unless otherwise noted.


§113.10. Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Social Studies, Elementary, Beginning with School Year 2011-2012.

The provisions of §§113.11-113.16 of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2011-2012 school year.

Source: The provisions of this §113.10 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 35 TexReg 7232; amended to be effective October 17, 2011, 36 TexReg 6946.


§113.11. Social Studies, Kindergarten, Beginning with School Year 2011-2012.

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  In Kindergarten, the study of the self, home, family, and classroom establishes the foundation for responsible citizenship in society. Students explore state and national heritage by examining the celebration of patriotic holidays and the contributions of individuals. The concept of chronology is introduced. Students apply geographic concepts of location and physical and human characteristics of place. Students identify basic human needs and ways people meet these needs. Students learn the purpose of rules and the role of authority figures in the home and school. Students learn customs, symbols, and celebrations that represent American beliefs and principles and contribute to our national identity. Students compare family customs and traditions and describe examples of technology in the home and school. Students acquire information from a variety of oral and visual sources. Students practice problem-solving, decision-making, and independent-thinking skills.

(2)  To support the teaching of the essential knowledge and skills, the use of a variety of rich material is encouraged. Motivating resources are available from museums, historical sites, presidential libraries, and local and state preservation societies.

(3)  The eight strands of the essential knowledge and skills for social studies are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes. Skills listed in the social studies skills strand in subsection (b) of this section should be incorporated into the teaching of all essential knowledge and skills for social studies. A greater depth of understanding of complex content material can be attained when integrated social studies content from the various disciplines and critical-thinking skills are taught together. Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(4)  Students identify the role of the U.S. free enterprise system within the parameters of this course and understand that this system may also be referenced as capitalism or the free market system.

(5)  Throughout social studies in Kindergarten-Grade 12, students build a foundation in history; geography; economics; government; citizenship; culture; science, technology, and society; and social studies skills. The content, as appropriate for the grade level or course, enables students to understand the importance of patriotism, function in a free enterprise society, and appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation as referenced in the Texas Education Code (TEC), §28.002(h).

(6)  Students understand that a constitutional republic is a representative form of government whose representatives derive their authority from the consent of the governed, serve for an established tenure, and are sworn to uphold the constitution.

(7)  Students must demonstrate learning performance related to any federal and state mandates regarding classroom instruction. Although Kindergarten is not required to participate in Celebrate Freedom Week, according to the TEC, §29.907, primary grades lay the foundation for subsequent learning. As a result, Kindergarten Texas essential knowledge and skills include standards related to this patriotic observance.

(8)  Students identify and discuss how the actions of U.S. citizens and the local, state, and federal governments have either met or failed to meet the ideals espoused in the founding documents.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  History. The student understands that holidays are celebrations of special events. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the reasons for national patriotic holidays such as Presidents' Day, Veterans Day, and Independence Day; and

(B)  identify customs associated with national patriotic holidays such as parades and fireworks on Independence Day.

(2)  History. The student understands how historical figures, patriots, and good citizens helped shape the community, state, and nation. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify contributions of historical figures, including Stephen F. Austin, George Washington, Christopher Columbus, and José Antonio Navarro, who helped to shape the state and nation; and

(B)  identify contributions of patriots and good citizens who have shaped the community.

(3)  History. The student understands the concept of chronology. The student is expected to:

(A)  place events in chronological order; and

(B)  use vocabulary related to time and chronology, including before, after, next, first, last, yesterday, today, and tomorrow.

(4)  Geography. The student understands the concept of location. The student is expected to:

(A)  use terms, including over, under, near, far, left, and right, to describe relative location;

(B)  locate places on the school campus and describe their relative locations; and

(C)  identify tools that aid in determining location, including maps and globes.

(5)  Geography. The student understands physical and human characteristics of place. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the physical characteristics of place such as landforms, bodies of water, natural resources, and weather; and

(B)  identify how the human characteristics of place such as ways of earning a living, shelter, clothing, food, and activities are based upon geographic location.

(6)  Economics. The student understands that basic human needs and wants are met in many ways. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify basic human needs of food, clothing, and shelter;

(B)  explain the difference between needs and wants; and

(C)  explain how basic human needs can be met such as through self-producing, purchasing, and trading.

(7)  Economics. The student understands the value of jobs. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify jobs in the home, school, and community; and

(B)  explain why people have jobs.

(8)  Government. The student understands the purpose of rules. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify purposes for having rules; and

(B)  identify rules that provide order, security, and safety in the home and school.

(9)  Government. The student understands the role of authority figures. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify authority figures in the home, school, and community; and

(B)  explain how authority figures make and enforce rules.

(10)  Citizenship. The student understands important symbols, customs, and responsibilities that represent American beliefs and principles and contribute to our national identity. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the flags of the United States and Texas;

(B)  recite the Pledge of Allegiance to the United States Flag and the Pledge to the Texas Flag;

(C)  identify Constitution Day as a celebration of American freedom; and

(D)  use voting as a method for group decision making.

(11)  Culture. The student understands similarities and differences among people. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify similarities and differences among people such as kinship, laws, and religion; and

(B)  identify similarities and differences among people such as music, clothing, and food.

(12)  Culture. The student understands the importance of family customs and traditions. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe and explain the importance of family customs and traditions; and

(B)  compare family customs and traditions.

(13)  Science, technology, and society. The student understands ways technology is used in the home and school and how technology affects people's lives. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify examples of technology used in the home and school;

(B)  describe how technology helps accomplish specific tasks and meet people's needs; and

(C)  describe how his or her life might be different without modern technology.

(14)  Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including electronic technology. The student is expected to:

(A)  obtain information about a topic using a variety of valid oral sources such as conversations, interviews, and music;

(B)  obtain information about a topic using a variety of valid visual sources such as pictures, symbols, electronic media, print material, and artifacts; and

(C)  sequence and categorize information.

(15)  Social studies skills. The student communicates in oral and visual forms. The student is expected to:

(A)  express ideas orally based on knowledge and experiences; and

(B)  create and interpret visuals, including pictures and maps.

(16)  Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings. The student is expected to:

(A)  use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution; and

(B)  use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather information, generate options, predict outcomes, take action to implement a decision, and reflect on the effectiveness of the decision.

Source: The provisions of this §113.11 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 35 TexReg 7232.


§113.12. Social Studies, Grade 1, Beginning with School Year 2011-2012.

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  In Grade 1, students study their relationship to the classroom, school, and community to establish the foundation for responsible citizenship in society. Students develop concepts of time and chronology by distinguishing among past, present, and future events. Students identify anthems and mottoes of the United States and Texas. Students create simple maps to identify the location of places in the classroom, school, and community. Students explore the concepts of goods and services and the value of work. Students identify individuals who exhibit good citizenship. Students describe the importance of family customs and traditions and identify how technology has changed family life. Students sequence and categorize information. Students practice problem-solving, decision-making, and independent-thinking skills.

(2)  To support the teaching of the essential knowledge and skills, the use of a variety of rich material is encouraged. Motivating resources are available from museums, historical sites, presidential libraries, and local and state preservation societies.

(3)  The eight strands of the essential knowledge and skills for social studies are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes. Skills listed in the social studies skills strand in subsection (b) of this section should be incorporated into the teaching of all essential knowledge and skills for social studies. A greater depth of understanding of complex content material can be attained when integrated social studies content from the various disciplines and critical-thinking skills are taught together. Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(4)  Students identify the role of the U.S. free enterprise system within the parameters of this course and understand that this system may also be referenced as capitalism or the free market system.

(5)  Throughout social studies in Kindergarten-Grade 12, students build a foundation in history; geography; economics; government; citizenship; culture; science, technology, and society; and social studies skills. The content, as appropriate for the grade level or course, enables students to understand the importance of patriotism, function in a free enterprise society, and appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation as referenced in the Texas Education Code (TEC), §28.002(h).

(6)  Students understand that a constitutional republic is a representative form of government whose representatives derive their authority from the consent of the governed, serve for an established tenure, and are sworn to uphold the constitution.

(7)  Students must demonstrate learning performance related to any federal and state mandates regarding classroom instruction. Although Grade 1 is not required to participate in Celebrate Freedom Week, according to the TEC, §29.907, primary grades lay the foundation for subsequent learning. As a result, Grade 1 Texas essential knowledge and skills include standards related to this patriotic observance.

(8)  Students identify and discuss how the actions of U.S. citizens and the local, state, and federal governments have either met or failed to meet the ideals espoused in the founding documents.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  History. The student understands the origins of customs, holidays, and celebrations. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe the origins of customs, holidays, and celebrations of the community, state, and nation such as San Jacinto Day, Independence Day, and Veterans Day; and

(B)  compare the observance of holidays and celebrations, past and present.

(2)  History. The student understands how historical figures, patriots, and good citizens helped shape the community, state, and nation. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify contributions of historical figures, including Sam Houston, George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, and Martin Luther King Jr., who have influenced the community, state, and nation;

(B)  identify historical figures such as Alexander Graham Bell, Thomas Edison, Garrett Morgan, and Richard Allen, and other individuals who have exhibited individualism and inventiveness; and

(C)  compare the similarities and differences among the lives and activities of historical figures and other individuals who have influenced the community, state, and nation.

(3)  History. The student understands the concepts of time and chronology. The student is expected to:

(A)  distinguish among past, present, and future;

(B)  describe and measure calendar time by days, weeks, months, and years; and

(C)  create a calendar and simple timeline.

(4)  Geography. The student understands the relative location of places. The student is expected to:

(A)  locate places using the four cardinal directions; and

(B)  describe the location of self and objects relative to other locations in the classroom and school.

(5)  Geography. The student understands the purpose of maps and globes. The student is expected to:

(A)  create and use simple maps such as maps of the home, classroom, school, and community; and

(B)  locate the community, Texas, and the United States on maps and globes.

(6)  Geography. The student understands various physical and human characteristics. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify and describe the physical characteristics of place such as landforms, bodies of water, natural resources, and weather;

(B)  identify examples of and uses for natural resources in the community, state, and nation; and

(C)  identify and describe how the human characteristics of place such as shelter, clothing, food, and activities are based upon geographic location.

(7)  Economics. The student understands how families meet basic human needs. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe ways that families meet basic human needs; and

(B)  describe similarities and differences in ways families meet basic human needs.

(8)  Economics. The student understands the concepts of goods and services. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify examples of goods and services in the home, school, and community;

(B)  identify ways people exchange goods and services; and

(C)  identify the role of markets in the exchange of goods and services.

(9)  Economics. The student understands the condition of not being able to have all the goods and services one wants. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify examples of people wanting more than they can have;

(B)  explain why wanting more than they can have requires that people make choices; and

(C)  identify examples of choices families make when buying goods and services.

(10)  Economics. The student understands the value of work. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe the components of various jobs and the characteristics of a job well performed; and

(B)  describe how specialized jobs contribute to the production of goods and services.

(11)  Government. The student understands the purpose of rules and laws. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the purpose for rules and laws in the home, school, and community; and

(B)  identify rules and laws that establish order, provide security, and manage conflict.

(12)  Government. The student understands the role of authority figures, public officials, and citizens. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the responsibilities of authority figures in the home, school, and community;

(B)  identify and describe the roles of public officials in the community, state, and nation; and

(C)  identify and describe the role of a good citizen in maintaining a constitutional republic.

(13)  Citizenship. The student understands characteristics of good citizenship as exemplified by historical figures and other individuals. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify characteristics of good citizenship, including truthfulness, justice, equality, respect for oneself and others, responsibility in daily life, and participation in government by educating oneself about the issues, respectfully holding public officials to their word, and voting;

(B)  identify historical figures such as Benjamin Franklin, Francis Scott Key, and Eleanor Roosevelt who have exemplified good citizenship; and

(C)  identify other individuals who exemplify good citizenship.

(14)  Citizenship. The student understands important symbols, customs, and celebrations that represent American beliefs and principles and contribute to our national identity. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain state and national patriotic symbols, including the United States and Texas flags, the Liberty Bell, the Statue of Liberty, and the Alamo;

(B)  recite and explain the meaning of the Pledge of Allegiance to the United States Flag and the Pledge to the Texas Flag;

(C)  identify anthems and mottoes of Texas and the United States;

(D)  explain and practice voting as a way of making choices and decisions;

(E)  explain how patriotic customs and celebrations reflect American individualism and freedom; and

(F)  identify Constitution Day as a celebration of American freedom.

(15)  Culture. The student understands the importance of family and community beliefs, customs, language, and traditions. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe and explain the importance of various beliefs, customs, language, and traditions of families and communities; and

(B)  explain the way folktales and legends such as Aesop's fables reflect beliefs, customs, language, and traditions of communities.

(16)  Science, technology, and society. The student understands how technology affects daily life, past and present. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe how technology changes the ways families live;

(B)  describe how technology changes communication, transportation, and recreation; and

(C)  describe how technology changes the way people work.

(17)  Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including electronic technology. The student is expected to:

(A)  obtain information about a topic using a variety of valid oral sources such as conversations, interviews, and music;

(B)  obtain information about a topic using a variety of valid visual sources such as pictures, symbols, electronic media, maps, literature, and artifacts; and

(C)  sequence and categorize information.

(18)  Social studies skills. The student communicates in oral, visual, and written forms. The student is expected to:

(A)  express ideas orally based on knowledge and experiences; and

(B)  create and interpret visual and written material.

(19)  Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings. The student is expected to:

(A)  use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution; and

(B)  use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather information, generate options, predict outcomes, take action to implement a decision, and reflect on the effectiveness of that decision.

Source: The provisions of this §113.12 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 35 TexReg 7232.


§113.13. Social Studies, Grade 2, Beginning with School Year 2011-2012.

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  In Grade 2, students focus on a study of their local community by examining the impact of significant individuals and events on the history of the community as well as on the state and nation. Students begin to develop the concepts of time and chronology. The relationship between the physical environment and human activities is introduced as are the concepts of consumers and producers. Students identify functions of government as well as services provided by the local government. Students continue to acquire knowledge of customs, symbols, and celebrations that represent American beliefs and principles. Students identify the significance of works of art in the local community and explain how technological innovations have changed transportation and communication. Students communicate what they have learned in written, oral, and visual forms.

(2)  To support the teaching of the essential knowledge and skills, the use of a variety of rich material such as nonfiction texts, primary sources, biographies, folklore, poetry, songs, and artworks is encouraged. Motivating resources are available from museums, historical sites, presidential libraries, online tours, and local and state preservation societies.

(3)  The eight strands of the essential knowledge and skills for social studies are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes. Skills listed in the social studies skills strand in subsection (b) of this section should be incorporated into the teaching of all essential knowledge and skills for social studies. A greater depth of understanding of complex content material can be attained when integrated social studies content from the various disciplines and critical-thinking skills are taught together. Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(4)  Students identify the role of the U.S. free enterprise system within the parameters of this course and understand that this system may also be referenced as capitalism or the free market system.

(5)  Throughout social studies in Kindergarten-Grade 12, students build a foundation in history; geography; economics; government; citizenship; culture; science, technology, and society; and social studies skills. The content, as appropriate for the grade level or course, enables students to understand the importance of patriotism, function in a free enterprise society, and appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation as referenced in the Texas Education Code (TEC), §28.002(h).

(6)  Students understand that a constitutional republic is a representative form of government whose representatives derive their authority from the consent of the governed, serve for an established tenure, and are sworn to uphold the constitution.

(7)  Students must demonstrate learning performance related to any federal and state mandates regarding classroom instruction. Although Grade 2 is not required to participate in Celebrate Freedom Week, according to the TEC, §29.907, primary grades lay the foundation for subsequent learning. As a result, Grade 2 Texas essential knowledge and skills include standards related to this patriotic observance.

(8)  Students identify and discuss how the actions of U.S. citizens and the local, state, and federal governments have either met or failed to meet the ideals espoused in the founding documents.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  History. The student understands the historical significance of landmarks and celebrations in the community, state, and nation. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the significance of various community, state, and national celebrations such as Veterans Day, Memorial Day, Independence Day, and Thanksgiving; and

(B)  identify and explain the significance of various community, state, and national landmarks such as monuments and government buildings.

(2)  History. The student understands the concepts of time and chronology. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe the order of events by using designations of time periods such as historical and present times;

(B)  apply vocabulary related to chronology, including past, present, and future; and

(C)  create and interpret timelines for events in the past and present.

(3)  History. The student understands how various sources provide information about the past and present. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify several sources of information about a given period or event such as reference materials, biographies, newspapers, and electronic sources; and

(B)  describe various evidence of the same time period using primary sources such as photographs, journals, and interviews.

(4)  History. The student understands how historical figures, patriots, and good citizens helped shape the community, state, and nation. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify contributions of historical figures, including Thurgood Marshall, Irma Rangel, John Hancock, and Theodore Roosevelt, who have influenced the community, state, and nation;

(B)  identify historical figures such as Amelia Earhart, W. E. B. DuBois, Robert Fulton, and George Washington Carver who have exhibited individualism and inventiveness; and

(C)  explain how people and events have influenced local community history.

(5)  Geography. The student uses simple geographic tools such as maps and globes. The student is expected to:

(A)  interpret information on maps and globes using basic map elements such as title, orientation (north, south, east, west), and legend/map keys; and

(B)  create maps to show places and routes within the home, school, and community.

(6)  Geography. The student understands the locations and characteristics of places and regions in the community, state, and nation. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify major landforms and bodies of water, including each of the continents and each of the oceans, on maps and globes;

(B)  locate places of significance, including the local community, Texas, the state capital, the U.S. capital, major cities in Texas, the coast of Texas, Canada, Mexico, and the United States on maps and globes; and

(C)  examine information from various sources about places and regions.

(7)  Geography. The student understands how physical characteristics of places and regions affect people's activities and settlement patterns. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe how weather patterns and seasonal patterns affect activities and settlement patterns;

(B)  describe how natural resources and natural hazards affect activities and settlement patterns;

(C)  explain how people depend on the physical environment and natural resources to meet basic needs; and

(D)  identify the characteristics of different communities, including urban, suburban, and rural, and how they affect activities and settlement patterns.

(8)  Geography. The student understands how humans use and modify the physical environment. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify ways in which people have modified the physical environment such as building roads, clearing land for urban development and agricultural use, and drilling for oil;

(B)  identify positive and negative consequences of human modification of the physical environment such as the use of irrigation to improve crop yields; and

(C)  identify ways people can conserve and replenish natural resources.

(9)  Economics. The student understands the value of work. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain how work provides income to purchase goods and services; and

(B)  explain the choices people in the U.S. free enterprise system can make about earning, spending, and saving money and where to live and work.

(10)  Economics. The student understands the roles of producers and consumers in the production of goods and services. The student is expected to:

(A)  distinguish between producing and consuming;

(B)  identify ways in which people are both producers and consumers; and

(C)  examine the development of a product from a natural resource to a finished product.

(11)  Government. The student understands the purpose of governments. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify functions of governments such as establishing order, providing security, and managing conflict;

(B)  identify governmental services in the community such as police and fire protection, libraries, schools, and parks and explain their value to the community; and

(C)  describe how governments tax citizens to pay for services.

(12)  Government. The student understands the role of public officials. The student is expected to:

(A)  name current public officials, including mayor, governor, and president;

(B)  compare the roles of public officials, including mayor, governor, and president;

(C)  identify ways that public officials are selected, including election and appointment to office; and

(D)  identify how citizens participate in their own governance through staying informed of what public officials are doing, providing input to them, and volunteering to participate in government functions.

(13)  Citizenship. The student understands characteristics of good citizenship as exemplified by historical figures and other individuals. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify characteristics of good citizenship, including truthfulness, justice, equality, respect for oneself and others, responsibility in daily life, and participation in government by educating oneself about the issues, respectfully holding public officials to their word, and voting;

(B)  identify historical figures such as Paul Revere, Abigail Adams, World War II Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASPs) and Navajo Code Talkers, and Sojourner Truth who have exemplified good citizenship;

(C)  identify other individuals who exemplify good citizenship; and

(D)  identify ways to actively practice good citizenship, including involvement in community service.

(14)  Citizenship. The student identifies customs, symbols, and celebrations that represent American beliefs and principles that contribute to our national identity. The student is expected to:

(A)  recite the Pledge of Allegiance to the United States Flag and the Pledge to the Texas Flag;

(B)  identify selected patriotic songs, including "The Star Spangled Banner" and "America the Beautiful";

(C)  identify selected symbols such as state and national birds and flowers and patriotic symbols such as the U.S. and Texas flags and Uncle Sam; and

(D)  identify how selected customs, symbols, and celebrations reflect an American love of individualism, inventiveness, and freedom.

(15)  Culture. The student understands the significance of works of art in the local community. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify selected stories, poems, statues, paintings, and other examples of the local cultural heritage; and

(B)  explain the significance of selected stories, poems, statues, paintings, and other examples of the local cultural heritage.

(16)  Culture. The student understands ethnic and/or cultural celebrations. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the significance of various ethnic and/or cultural celebrations; and

(B)  compare ethnic and/or cultural celebrations.

(17)  Science, technology, and society. The student understands how science and technology have affected life, past and present. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe how science and technology change communication, transportation, and recreation; and

(B)  explain how science and technology change the ways in which people meet basic needs.

(18)  Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including electronic technology. The student is expected to:

(A)  obtain information about a topic using a variety of valid oral sources such as conversations, interviews, and music;

(B)  obtain information about a topic using a variety of valid visual sources such as pictures, maps, electronic sources, literature, reference sources, and artifacts;

(C)  use various parts of a source, including the table of contents, glossary, and index, as well as keyword Internet searches to locate information;

(D)  sequence and categorize information; and

(E)  interpret oral, visual, and print material by identifying the main idea, predicting, and comparing and contrasting.

(19)  Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:

(A)  express ideas orally based on knowledge and experiences; and

(B)  create written and visual material such as stories, poems, maps, and graphic organizers to express ideas.

(20)  Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings. The student is expected to:

(A)  use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution; and

(B)  use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather information, generate options, predict outcomes, take action to implement a decision, and reflect on the effectiveness of that decision.

Source: The provisions of this §113.13 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 35 TexReg 7232.


§113.14. Social Studies, Grade 3, Beginning with School Year 2011-2012.

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  In Grade 3, students learn how diverse individuals have changed their communities and world. Students study the effects inspiring heroes have had on communities, past and present. Students learn about the lives of heroic men and women who made important choices, overcame obstacles, sacrificed for the betterment of others, and embarked on journeys that resulted in new ideas, new inventions, new technologies, and new communities. Students expand their knowledge through the identification and study of people who made a difference, influenced public policy and decision making, and participated in resolving issues that are important to all people. Throughout Grade 3, students develop an understanding of the economic, cultural, and scientific contributions made by individuals.

(2)  To support the teaching of the essential knowledge and skills, the use of a variety of rich material such as biographies, founding documents, poetry, songs, and artworks is encouraged. Motivating resources are available from museums, historical sites, presidential libraries, and local and state preservation societies.

(3)  The eight strands of the essential knowledge and skills for social studies are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes. Skills listed in the social studies skills strand in subsection (b) of this section should be incorporated into the teaching of all essential knowledge and skills for social studies. A greater depth of understanding of complex content material can be attained when integrated social studies content from the various disciplines and critical-thinking skills are taught together. Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(4)  Students identify the role of the U.S. free enterprise system within the parameters of this course and understand that this system may also be referenced as capitalism or the free market system.

(5)  Throughout social studies in Kindergarten-Grade 12, students build a foundation in history; geography; economics; government; citizenship; culture; science, technology, and society; and social studies skills. The content, as appropriate for the grade level or course, enables students to understand the importance of patriotism, function in a free enterprise society, and appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation as referenced in the Texas Education Code (TEC), §28.002(h).

(6)  Students understand that a constitutional republic is a representative form of government whose representatives derive their authority from the consent of the governed, serve for an established tenure, and are sworn to uphold the constitution.

(7)  State and federal laws mandate a variety of celebrations and observances, including Celebrate Freedom Week.

(A)  Each social studies class shall include, during Celebrate Freedom Week as provided under the TEC, §29.907, or during another full school week as determined by the board of trustees of a school district, appropriate instruction concerning the intent, meaning, and importance of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution, including the Bill of Rights, in their historical contexts. The study of the Declaration of Independence must include the study of the relationship of the ideas expressed in that document to subsequent American history, including the relationship of its ideas to the rich diversity of our people as a nation of immigrants, the American Revolution, the formulation of the U.S. Constitution, and the abolitionist movement, which led to the Emancipation Proclamation and the women's suffrage movement.

(B)  Each school district shall require that, during Celebrate Freedom Week or other week of instruction prescribed under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, students in Grades 3-12 study and recite the following text: "We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness--That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed."

(8)  Students identify and discuss how the actions of U.S. citizens and the local, state, and federal governments have either met or failed to meet the ideals espoused in the founding documents.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  History. The student understands how individuals, events, and ideas have influenced the history of various communities. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe how individuals, events, and ideas have changed communities, past and present;

(B)  identify individuals, including Pierre-Charles L'Enfant, Benjamin Banneker, and Benjamin Franklin, who have helped to shape communities; and

(C)  describe how individuals, including Daniel Boone, Christopher Columbus, the Founding Fathers, and Juan de Oñate, have contributed to the expansion of existing communities or to the creation of new communities.

(2)  History. The student understands common characteristics of communities, past and present. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify reasons people have formed communities, including a need for security, religious freedom, law, and material well-being;

(B)  identify ways in which people in the local community and other communities meet their needs for government, education, communication, transportation, and recreation; and

(C)  compare ways in which various other communities meet their needs.

(3)  History. The student understands the concepts of time and chronology. The student is expected to:

(A)  use vocabulary related to chronology, including past, present, and future times;

(B)  create and interpret timelines; and

(C)  apply the terms year, decade, and century to describe historical times.

(4)  Geography. The student understands how humans adapt to variations in the physical environment. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe and explain variations in the physical environment, including climate, landforms, natural resources, and natural hazards;

(B)  identify and compare how people in different communities adapt to or modify the physical environment in which they live such as deserts, mountains, wetlands, and plains;

(C)  describe the effects of physical processes such as volcanoes, hurricanes, and earthquakes in shaping the landscape;

(D)  describe the effects of human processes such as building new homes, conservation, and pollution in shaping the landscape; and

(E)  identify and compare the human characteristics of various regions.

(5)  Geography. The student understands the concepts of location, distance, and direction on maps and globes. The student is expected to:

(A)  use cardinal and intermediate directions to locate places on maps and globes such as the Rocky Mountains, the Mississippi River, and Austin, Texas, in relation to the local community;

(B)  use a scale to determine the distance between places on maps and globes;

(C)  identify and use the compass rose, grid system, and symbols to locate places on maps and globes; and

(D)  create and interpret maps of places and regions that contain map elements, including a title, compass rose, legend, scale, and grid system.

(6)  Economics. The student understands the purposes of earning, spending, saving, and donating money. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify ways of earning, spending, saving, and donating money; and

(B)  create a simple budget that allocates money for spending, saving, and donating.

(7)  Economics. The student understands the concept of the free enterprise system. The student is expected to:

(A)  define and identify examples of scarcity;

(B)  explain the impact of scarcity on the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services; and

(C)  explain the concept of a free market as it relates to the U.S. free enterprise system.

(8)  Economics. The student understands how businesses operate in the U.S. free enterprise system. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify examples of how a simple business operates;

(B)  explain how supply and demand affect the price of a good or service;

(C)  explain how the cost of production and selling price affect profits;

(D)  explain how government regulations and taxes impact consumer costs; and

(E)  identify individuals, past and present, including Henry Ford and other entrepreneurs in the community such as Mary Kay Ash, Wallace Amos, Milton Hershey, and Sam Walton, who have started new businesses.

(9)  Government. The student understands the basic structure and functions of various levels of government. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe the basic structure of government in the local community, state, and nation;

(B)  identify local, state, and national government officials and explain how they are chosen;

(C)  identify services commonly provided by local, state, and national governments; and

(D)  explain how local, state, and national government services are financed.

(10)  Government. The student understands important ideas in historical documents at various levels of government. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the purposes of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution, including the Bill of Rights; and

(B)  describe and explain the importance of the concept of "consent of the governed" as it relates to the functions of local, state, and national government.

(11)  Citizenship. The student understands characteristics of good citizenship as exemplified by historical and contemporary figures. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify characteristics of good citizenship, including truthfulness, justice, equality, respect for oneself and others, responsibility in daily life, and participation in government by educating oneself about the issues, respectfully holding public officials to their word, and voting;

(B)  identify historical figures such as Helen Keller and Clara Barton and contemporary figures such as Ruby Bridges and military and first responders who exemplify good citizenship; and

(C)  identify and explain the importance of individual acts of civic responsibility, including obeying laws, serving the community, serving on a jury, and voting.

(12)  Citizenship. The student understands the impact of individual and group decisions on communities in a constitutional republic. The student is expected to:

(A)  give examples of community changes that result from individual or group decisions;

(B)  identify examples of actions individuals and groups can take to improve the community; and

(C)  identify examples of nonprofit and/or civic organizations such as the Red Cross and explain how they serve the common good.

(13)  Culture. The student understands ethnic and/or cultural celebrations of the local community and other communities. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the significance of various ethnic and/or cultural celebrations in the local community and other communities; and

(B)  compare ethnic and/or cultural celebrations in the local community with other communities.

(14)  Culture. The student understands the role of heroes in shaping the culture of communities, the state, and the nation. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify and compare the heroic deeds of state and national heroes, including Hector P. Garcia and James A. Lovell, and other individuals such as Harriet Tubman, Juliette Gordon Low, Todd Beamer, Ellen Ochoa, John "Danny" Olivas, and other contemporary heroes; and

(B)  identify and analyze the heroic deeds of individuals, including military and first responders such as the Four Chaplains.

(15)  Culture. The student understands the importance of writers and artists to the cultural heritage of communities. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify various individual writers and artists such as Kadir Nelson, Tomie dePaola, and Phillis Wheatley and their stories, poems, statues, and paintings and other examples of cultural heritage from various communities; and

(B)  explain the significance of various individual writers and artists such as Carmen Lomas Garza, Laura Ingalls Wilder, and Bill Martin Jr. and their stories, poems, statues, and paintings and other examples of cultural heritage to various communities.

(16)  Science, technology, and society. The student understands how individuals have created or invented new technology and affected life in various communities, past and present. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify scientists and inventors, including Jonas Salk, Maria Mitchell, and others who have discovered scientific breakthroughs or created or invented new technology such as Cyrus McCormick, Bill Gates, and Louis Pasteur; and

(B)  identify the impact of scientific breakthroughs and new technology in computers, pasteurization, and medical vaccines on various communities.

(17)  Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including electronic technology. The student is expected to:

(A)  research information, including historical and current events, and geographic data, about the community and world, using a variety of valid print, oral, visual, and Internet resources;

(B)  sequence and categorize information;

(C)  interpret oral, visual, and print material by identifying the main idea, distinguishing between fact and opinion, identifying cause and effect, and comparing and contrasting;

(D)  use various parts of a source, including the table of contents, glossary, and index as well as keyword Internet searches, to locate information;

(E)  interpret and create visuals, including graphs, charts, tables, timelines, illustrations, and maps; and

(F)  use appropriate mathematical skills to interpret social studies information such as maps and graphs.

(18)  Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:

(A)  express ideas orally based on knowledge and experiences;

(B)  use technology to create written and visual material such as stories, poems, pictures, maps, and graphic organizers to express ideas; and

(C)  use standard grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and punctuation.

(19)  Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings. The student is expected to:

(A)  use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution; and

(B)  use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather information, identify options, predict consequences, and take action to implement a decision.

Source: The provisions of this §113.14 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 35 TexReg 7232.


§113.15. Social Studies, Grade 4, Beginning with School Year 2011-2012.

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  In Grade 4, students examine the history of Texas from the early beginnings to the present within the context of influences of North America. Historical content focuses on Texas history, including the Texas Revolution, establishment of the Republic of Texas, and subsequent annexation to the United States. Students discuss important issues, events, and individuals of the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries. Students conduct a thorough study of regions in Texas and North America resulting from human activity and from physical features. The location, distribution, and patterns of economic activities and settlement in Texas further enhance the concept of regions. Students describe how early American Indians in Texas and North America met their basic economic needs. Students identify motivations for European exploration and colonization and reasons for the establishment of Spanish settlements and missions. Students explain how American Indians governed themselves and identify characteristics of Spanish colonial and Mexican governments in Texas. Students recite and explain the meaning of the Pledge to the Texas Flag. Students identify the contributions of people of various racial, ethnic, and religious groups to Texas and describe the impact of science and technology on life in the state. Students use critical-thinking skills to identify cause-and-effect relationships, compare and contrast, and make generalizations and predictions.

(2)  To support the teaching of the essential knowledge and skills, the use of a variety of rich primary and secondary source material such as documents, biographies, novels, speeches, letters, poetry, songs, and artworks is encouraged. Where appropriate, local topics should be included. Motivating resources are available from museums, historical sites, presidential libraries, and local and state preservation societies.

(3)  The eight strands of the essential knowledge and skills for social studies are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes. Skills listed in the social studies skills strand in subsection (b) of this section should be incorporated into the teaching of all essential knowledge and skills for social studies. A greater depth of understanding of complex content material can be attained when integrated social studies content from the various disciplines and critical-thinking skills are taught together. Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(4)  Students identify the role of the U.S. free enterprise system within the parameters of this course and understand that this system may also be referenced as capitalism or the free market system.

(5)  Throughout social studies in Kindergarten-Grade 12, students build a foundation in history; geography; economics; government; citizenship; culture; science, technology, and society; and social studies skills. The content, as appropriate for the grade level or course, enables students to understand the importance of patriotism, function in a free enterprise society, and appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation as referenced in the Texas Education Code (TEC), §28.002(h).

(6)  Students understand that a constitutional republic is a representative form of government whose representatives derive their authority from the consent of the governed, serve for an established tenure, and are sworn to uphold the constitution.

(7)  State and federal laws mandate a variety of celebrations and observances, including Celebrate Freedom Week.

(A)  Each social studies class shall include, during Celebrate Freedom Week as provided under the TEC, §29.907, or during another full school week as determined by the board of trustees of a school district, appropriate instruction concerning the intent, meaning, and importance of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution, including the Bill of Rights, in their historical contexts. The study of the Declaration of Independence must include the study of the relationship of the ideas expressed in that document to subsequent American history, including the relationship of its ideas to the rich diversity of our people as a nation of immigrants, the American Revolution, the formulation of the U.S. Constitution, and the abolitionist movement, which led to the Emancipation Proclamation and the women's suffrage movement.

(B)  Each school district shall require that, during Celebrate Freedom Week or other week of instruction prescribed under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, students in Grades 3-12 study and recite the following text: "We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness--That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed."

(8)  Students identify and discuss how the actions of U.S. citizens and the local, state, and federal governments have either met or failed to meet the ideals espoused in the founding documents.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  History. The student understands the origins, similarities, and differences of American Indian groups in Texas and North America before European exploration. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the possible origins of American Indian groups in Texas and North America;

(B)  identify American Indian groups in Texas and North America before European exploration such as the Lipan Apache, Karankawa, Caddo, and Jumano;

(C)  describe the regions in which American Indians lived and identify American Indian groups remaining in Texas such as the Ysleta Del Sur Pueblo, Alabama-Coushatta, and Kickapoo; and

(D)  compare the ways of life of American Indian groups in Texas and North America before European exploration.

(2)  History. The student understands the causes and effects of European exploration and colonization of Texas and North America. The student is expected to:

(A)  summarize motivations for European exploration and settlement of Texas, including economic opportunity, competition, and the desire for expansion;

(B)  identify the accomplishments and explain the impact of significant explorers, including Cabeza de Vaca; Francisco Coronado; and René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle, on the settlement of Texas;

(C)  explain when, where, and why the Spanish established settlements and Catholic missions in Texas as well as important individuals such as José de Escandón;

(D)  identify Texas' role in the Mexican War of Independence and the war's impact on the development of Texas; and

(E)  identify the accomplishments and explain the economic motivations and impact of significant empresarios, including Stephen F. Austin and Martín de León, on the settlement of Texas.

(3)  History. The student understands the importance of the Texas Revolution, the Republic of Texas, and the annexation of Texas to the United States. The student is expected to:

(A)  analyze the causes, major events, and effects of the Texas Revolution, including the Battle of the Alamo, the Texas Declaration of Independence, the Runaway Scrape, and the Battle of San Jacinto;

(B)  summarize the significant contributions of individuals such as Texians William B. Travis, James Bowie, David Crockett, George Childress, and Sidney Sherman; Tejanos Juan Antonio Padilla, Carlos Espalier, Juan N. Seguín, Plácido Benavides, and José Francisco Ruiz; Mexicans Antonio López de Santa Anna and Vicente Filisola; and non-combatants Susanna Dickinson and Enrique Esparza;

(C)  identify leaders important to the founding of Texas as a republic and state, including José Antonio Navarro, Sam Houston, Mirabeau Lamar, and Anson Jones;

(D)  describe the successes, problems, and organizations of the Republic of Texas such as the establishment of a constitution, economic struggles, relations with American Indians, and the Texas Rangers; and

(E)  explain the events that led to the annexation of Texas to the United States, including the impact of the U.S.-Mexican War.

(4)  History. The student understands the political, economic, and social changes in Texas during the last half of the 19th century. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on Texas;

(B)  explain the growth, development, and impact of the cattle industry, including contributions made by Charles Goodnight, Richard King, and Lizzie Johnson;

(C)  identify the impact of railroads on life in Texas, including changes to cities and major industries; and

(D)  examine the effects upon American Indian life resulting from changes in Texas, including the Red River War, building of U.S. forts and railroads, and loss of buffalo.

(5)  History. The student understands important issues, events, and individuals of the 20th century in Texas. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the impact of various issues and events on life in Texas such as urbanization, increased use of oil and gas, the Great Depression, the Dust Bowl, and World War II;

(B)  explain the development and impact of the oil and gas industry upon industrialization and urbanization in Texas, including important places and people such as Spindletop and Pattillo Higgins; and

(C)  identify the accomplishments of notable individuals such as John Tower, Scott Joplin, Audie Murphy, Cleto Rodríguez, Stanley Marcus, Bessie Coleman, Raul A. Gonzalez Jr., and other local notable individuals.

(6)  Geography. The student uses geographic tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:

(A)  apply geographic tools, including grid systems, legends, symbols, scales, and compass roses, to construct and interpret maps; and

(B)  translate geographic data, population distribution, and natural resources into a variety of formats such as graphs and maps.

(7)  Geography. The student understands the concept of regions. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe a variety of regions in Texas and the United States such as political, population, and economic regions that result from patterns of human activity;

(B)  identify, locate, and compare the geographic regions of Texas (Mountains and Basins, Great Plains, North Central Plains, Coastal Plains), including their landforms, climate, and vegetation; and

(C)  compare the geographic regions of Texas (Mountains and Basins, Great Plains, North Central Plains, Coastal Plains) with regions of the United States and other parts of the world.

(8)  Geography. The student understands the location and patterns of settlement and the geographic factors that influence where people live. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify and explain clusters and patterns of settlement in Texas at different time periods such as prior to the Texas Revolution, after the building of the railroads, and following World War II;

(B)  describe and explain the location and distribution of various towns and cities in Texas, past and present; and

(C)  explain the geographic factors such as landforms and climate that influence patterns of settlement and the distribution of population in Texas, past and present.

(9)  Geography. The student understands how people adapt to and modify their environment. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe ways people have adapted to and modified their environment in Texas, past and present, such as timber clearing, agricultural production, wetlands drainage, energy production, and construction of dams;

(B)  identify reasons why people have adapted to and modified their environment in Texas, past and present, such as the use of natural resources to meet basic needs, facilitate transportation, and enhance recreational activities; and

(C)  compare the positive and negative consequences of human modification of the environment in Texas, past and present, both governmental and private, such as economic development and the impact on habitats and wildlife as well as air and water quality.

(10)  Economics. The student understands the basic economic activities of early societies in Texas and North America. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the economic activities various early American Indian groups in Texas and North America used to meet their needs and wants such as farming, trading, and hunting; and

(B)  explain the economic activities early immigrants to Texas used to meet their needs and wants.

(11)  Economics. The student understands the characteristics and benefits of the free enterprise system in Texas. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe the development of the free enterprise system in Texas;

(B)  describe how the free enterprise system works, including supply and demand; and

(C)  give examples of the benefits of the free enterprise system such as choice and opportunity.

(12)  Economics. The student understands patterns of work and economic activities in Texas. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain how people in different regions of Texas earn their living, past and present, through a subsistence economy and providing goods and services;

(B)  explain how geographic factors such as climate, transportation, and natural resources have influenced the location of economic activities in Texas;

(C)  analyze the effects of exploration, immigration, migration, and limited resources on the economic development and growth of Texas;

(D)  describe the impact of mass production, specialization, and division of labor on the economic growth of Texas;

(E)  explain how developments in transportation and communication have influenced economic activities in Texas; and

(F)  explain the impact of American ideas about progress and equality of opportunity on the economic development and growth of Texas.

(13)  Economics. The student understands how Texas, the United States, and other parts of the world are economically interdependent. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify ways in which technological changes in areas such as transportation and communication have resulted in increased interdependence among Texas, the United States, and the world;

(B)  identify oil and gas, agricultural, and technological products of Texas that are purchased to meet needs in the United States and around the world; and

(C)  explain how Texans meet some of their needs through the purchase of products from the United States and the rest of the world.

(14)  Government. The student understands how people organized governments in different ways during the early development of Texas. The student is expected to:

(A)  compare how various American Indian groups such as the Caddo and the Comanche governed themselves; and

(B)  identify and compare characteristics of the Spanish colonial government and the early Mexican governments and their influence on inhabitants of Texas.

(15)  Government. The student understands important ideas in historical documents of Texas and the United States. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the purposes and explain the importance of the Texas Declaration of Independence, the Texas Constitution, and other documents such as the Meusebach-Comanche Treaty;

(B)  identify and explain the basic functions of the three branches of government according to the Texas Constitution; and

(C)  identify the intent, meaning, and importance of the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution, and the Bill of Rights (Celebrate Freedom Week).

(16)  Citizenship. The student understands important customs, symbols, and celebrations of Texas. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the meaning of various patriotic symbols and landmarks of Texas, including the six flags that flew over Texas, the San Jacinto Monument, the Alamo, and various missions;

(B)  sing or recite "Texas, Our Texas";

(C)  recite and explain the meaning of the Pledge to the Texas Flag; and

(D)  describe the origins and significance of state celebrations such as Texas Independence Day and Juneteenth.

(17)  Citizenship. The student understands the importance of active individual participation in the democratic process. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify important individuals who have participated voluntarily in civic affairs at state and local levels such as Adina de Zavala and Clara Driscoll;

(B)  explain how individuals can participate voluntarily in civic affairs at state and local levels through activities such as holding public officials to their word, writing letters, and participating in historic preservation and service projects;

(C)  explain the duty of the individual in state and local elections such as being informed and voting;

(D)  identify the importance of historical figures and important individuals who modeled active participation in the democratic process such as Sam Houston, Barbara Jordan, Lorenzo de Zavala, Ann Richards, Sam Rayburn, Henry B. González, James A. Baker III, Wallace Jefferson, and other local individuals; and

(E)  explain how to contact elected and appointed leaders in state and local governments.

(18)  Citizenship. The student understands the importance of effective leadership in a constitutional republic. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify leaders in state, local, and national governments, including the governor, local members of the Texas Legislature, the local mayor, U.S. senators, local U.S. representatives, and Texans who have been president of the United States; and

(B)  identify leadership qualities of state and local leaders, past and present.

(19)  Culture. The student understands the contributions of people of various racial, ethnic, and religious groups to Texas. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the similarities and differences among various racial, ethnic, and religious groups in Texas;

(B)  identify customs, celebrations, and traditions of various cultural, regional, and local groups in Texas such as Cinco de Mayo, Oktoberfest, the Strawberry Festival, and Fiesta San Antonio; and

(C)  summarize the contributions of people of various racial, ethnic, and religious groups in the development of Texas such as Lydia Mendoza, Chelo Silva, and Julius Lorenzo Cobb Bledsoe.

(20)  Science, technology, and society. The student understands the impact of science and technology on life in Texas. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify famous inventors and scientists such as Gail Borden, Joseph Glidden, Michael DeBakey, and Millie Hughes-Fulford and their contributions;

(B)  describe how scientific discoveries and innovations such as in aerospace, agriculture, energy, and technology have benefited individuals, businesses, and society in Texas; and

(C)  predict how future scientific discoveries and technological innovations might affect life in Texas.

(21)  Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including electronic technology. The student is expected to:

(A)  differentiate between, locate, and use valid primary and secondary sources such as computer software; interviews; biographies; oral, print, and visual material; documents; and artifacts to acquire information about the United States and Texas;

(B)  analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions;

(C)  organize and interpret information in outlines, reports, databases, and visuals, including graphs, charts, timelines, and maps;

(D)  identify different points of view about an issue, topic, historical event, or current event; and

(E)  use appropriate mathematical skills to interpret social studies information such as maps and graphs.

(22)  Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:

(A)  use social studies terminology correctly;

(B)  incorporate main and supporting ideas in verbal and written communication;

(C)  express ideas orally based on research and experiences;

(D)  create written and visual material such as journal entries, reports, graphic organizers, outlines, and bibliographies; and

(E)  use standard grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and punctuation.

(23)  Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings. The student is expected to:

(A)  use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution; and

(B)  use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather information, identify options, predict consequences, and take action to implement a decision.

Source: The provisions of this §113.15 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 35 TexReg 7232.


§113.16. Social Studies, Grade 5, Beginning with School Year 2011-2012.

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  In Grade 5, students survey the history of the United States from 1565 to the present. Historical content includes the colonial period, the American Revolution, the establishment of the U.S. Constitution and American identity, westward expansion, the Civil War and Reconstruction, immigration and industrialization, and the 20th and 21st centuries. Students study a variety of regions in the United States that result from physical features and human activity and identify how people adapt to and modify the environment. Students explain the characteristics and benefits of the free enterprise system and describe economic activities in the United States. Students identify the roots of representative government in this nation as well as the important ideas in the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution. Students study the fundamental rights guaranteed in the Bill of Rights. Students examine the importance of effective leadership in a constitutional republic and identify important leaders in the national government. Students recite and explain the meaning of the Pledge of Allegiance to the United States Flag. Students describe the cultural impact of various racial, ethnic, and religious groups in the nation and identify the accomplishments of notable individuals in the fields of science and technology. Students explain symbols, traditions, and landmarks that represent American beliefs and principles. Students use critical-thinking skills to sequence, categorize, and summarize information and to draw inferences and conclusions.

(2)  To support the teaching of the essential knowledge and skills, the use of a variety of rich primary and secondary source material such as documents, biographies, novels, speeches, letters, poetry, songs, and artworks is encouraged. Motivating resources are available from museums, historical sites, presidential libraries, and local and state preservation societies.

(3)  The eight strands of the essential knowledge and skills for social studies are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes. Skills listed in the social studies skills strand in subsection (b) of this section should be incorporated into the teaching of all essential knowledge and skills for social studies. A greater depth of understanding of complex content material can be attained when integrated social studies content from the various disciplines and critical-thinking skills are taught together. Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(4)  Students identify the role of the U.S. free enterprise system within the parameters of this course and understand that this system may also be referenced as capitalism or the free market system.

(5)  Throughout social studies in Kindergarten-Grade 12, students build a foundation in history; geography; economics; government; citizenship; culture; science, technology, and society; and social studies skills. The content, as appropriate for the grade level or course, enables students to understand the importance of patriotism, function in a free enterprise society, and appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation as referenced in the Texas Education Code (TEC), §28.002(h).

(6)  Students understand that a constitutional republic is a representative form of government whose representatives derive their authority from the consent of the governed, serve for an established tenure, and are sworn to uphold the constitution.

(7)  State and federal laws mandate a variety of celebrations and observances, including Celebrate Freedom Week.

(A)  Each social studies class shall include, during Celebrate Freedom Week as provided under the TEC, §29.907, or during another full school week as determined by the board of trustees of a school district, appropriate instruction concerning the intent, meaning, and importance of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution, including the Bill of Rights, in their historical contexts. The study of the Declaration of Independence must include the study of the relationship of the ideas expressed in that document to subsequent American history, including the relationship of its ideas to the rich diversity of our people as a nation of immigrants, the American Revolution, the formulation of the U.S. Constitution, and the abolitionist movement, which led to the Emancipation Proclamation and the women's suffrage movement.

(B)  Each school district shall require that, during Celebrate Freedom Week or other week of instruction prescribed under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, students in Grades 3-12 study and recite the following text: "We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness--That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed."

(8)  Students identify and discuss how the actions of U.S. citizens and the local, state, and federal governments have either met or failed to meet the ideals espoused in the founding documents.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  History. The student understands the causes and effects of European colonization in the United States beginning in 1565, the founding of St. Augustine. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain when, where, and why groups of people explored, colonized, and settled in the United States, including the search for religious freedom and economic gain; and

(B)  describe the accomplishments of significant individuals during the colonial period, including William Bradford, Anne Hutchinson, William Penn, John Smith, John Wise, and Roger Williams.

(2)  History. The student understands how conflict between the American colonies and Great Britain led to American independence. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify and analyze the causes and effects of events prior to and during the American Revolution, including the French and Indian War and the Boston Tea Party;

(B)  identify the Founding Fathers and Patriot heroes, including John Adams, Samuel Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Nathan Hale, Thomas Jefferson, the Sons of Liberty, and George Washington, and their motivations and contributions during the revolutionary period; and

(C)  summarize the results of the American Revolution, including the establishment of the United States and the development of the U.S. military.

(3)  History. The student understands the events that led from the Articles of Confederation to the creation of the U.S. Constitution and the government it established. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the issues that led to the creation of the U.S. Constitution, including the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation; and

(B)  identify the contributions of individuals, including James Madison, and others such as George Mason, Charles Pinckney, and Roger Sherman who helped create the U.S. Constitution.

(4)  History. The student understands political, economic, and social changes that occurred in the United States during the 19th century. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe the causes and effects of the War of 1812;

(B)  identify and explain how changes resulting from the Industrial Revolution led to conflict among sections of the United States;

(C)  identify reasons people moved west;

(D)  identify significant events and concepts associated with U.S. territorial expansion, including the Louisiana Purchase, the expedition of Lewis and Clark, and Manifest Destiny;

(E)  identify the causes of the Civil War, including sectionalism, states' rights, and slavery, and the effects of the Civil War, including Reconstruction and the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments to the U.S. Constitution;

(F)  explain how industry and the mechanization of agriculture changed the American way of life; and

(G)  identify the challenges, opportunities, and contributions of people from various American Indian and immigrant groups.

(5)  History. The student understands important issues, events, and individuals in the United States during the 20th and 21st centuries. The student is expected to:

(A)  analyze various issues and events of the 20th century such as industrialization, urbanization, increased use of oil and gas, the Great Depression, the world wars, the civil rights movement, and military actions;

(B)  analyze various issues and events of the 21st century such as the War on Terror and the 2008 presidential election; and

(C)  identify the accomplishments of individuals and groups such as Jane Addams, Susan B. Anthony, Dwight Eisenhower, Martin Luther King Jr., Rosa Parks, Cesar Chavez, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Ronald Reagan, Colin Powell, the Tuskegee Airmen, and the 442nd Regimental Combat Team who have made contributions to society in the areas of civil rights, women's rights, military actions, and politics.

(6)  Geography. The student uses geographic tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:

(A)  apply geographic tools, including grid systems, legends, symbols, scales, and compass roses, to construct and interpret maps; and

(B)  translate geographic data into a variety of formats such as raw data to graphs and maps.

(7)  Geography. The student understands the concept of regions in the United States. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe a variety of regions in the United States such as political, population, and economic regions that result from patterns of human activity;

(B)  describe a variety of regions in the United States such as landform, climate, and vegetation regions that result from physical characteristics such as the Great Plains, Rocky Mountains, and Coastal Plains;

(C)  locate on a map important political features such as the ten largest urban areas in the United States, the 50 states and their capitals, and regions such as the Northeast, the Midwest, and the Southwest; and

(D)  locate on a map important physical features such as the Rocky Mountains, Mississippi River, and Great Plains.

(8)  Geography. The student understands the location and patterns of settlement and the geographic factors that influence where people live. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify and describe the types of settlement and patterns of land use in the United States;

(B)  explain the geographic factors that influence patterns of settlement and the distribution of population in the United States, past and present; and

(C)  analyze the reasons for the location of cities in the United States, including capital cities, and explain their distribution, past and present.

(9)  Geography. The student understands how people adapt to and modify their environment. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe how and why people have adapted to and modified their environment in the United States, past and present, such as the use of human resources to meet basic needs; and

(B)  analyze the positive and negative consequences of human modification of the environment in the United States, past and present.

(10)  Economics. The student understands the basic economic patterns of early societies in the United States. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the economic patterns of early European colonists; and

(B)  identify major industries of colonial America.

(11)  Economics. The student understands the development, characteristics, and benefits of the free enterprise system in the United States. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe the development of the free enterprise system in colonial America and the United States;

(B)  describe how the free enterprise system works in the United States; and

(C)  give examples of the benefits of the free enterprise system in the United States.

(12)  Economics. The student understands the impact of supply and demand on consumers and producers in a free enterprise system. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain how supply and demand affects consumers in the United States; and

(B)  evaluate the effects of supply and demand on business, industry, and agriculture, including the plantation system, in the United States.

(13)  Economics. The student understands patterns of work and economic activities in the United States. The student is expected to:

(A)  compare how people in different parts of the United States earn a living, past and present;

(B)  identify and explain how geographic factors have influenced the location of economic activities in the United States;

(C)  analyze the effects of immigration, migration, and limited resources on the economic development and growth of the United States;

(D)  describe the impact of mass production, specialization, and division of labor on the economic growth of the United States; and

(E)  explain the impact of American ideas about progress and equality of opportunity on the economic development and growth of the United States.

(14)  Government. The student understands the organization of governments in colonial America. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify and compare the systems of government of early European colonists, including representative government and monarchy; and

(B)  identify examples of representative government in the American colonies, including the Mayflower Compact and the Virginia House of Burgesses.

(15)  Government. The student understands important ideas in the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution, and the Bill of Rights. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the key elements and the purposes and explain the importance of the Declaration of Independence;

(B)  explain the purposes of the U.S. Constitution as identified in the Preamble; and

(C)  explain the reasons for the creation of the Bill of Rights and its importance.

(16)  Government. The student understands the framework of government created by the U.S. Constitution of 1787. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify and explain the basic functions of the three branches of government;

(B)  identify the reasons for and describe the system of checks and balances outlined in the U.S. Constitution; and

(C)  distinguish between national and state governments and compare their responsibilities in the U.S. federal system.

(17)  Citizenship. The student understands important symbols, customs, celebrations, and landmarks that represent American beliefs and principles and contribute to our national identity. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain various patriotic symbols, including Uncle Sam, and political symbols such as the donkey and elephant;

(B)  sing or recite "The Star-Spangled Banner" and explain its history;

(C)  recite and explain the meaning of the Pledge of Allegiance to the United States Flag;

(D)  describe the origins and significance of national celebrations such as Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Constitution Day, Columbus Day, and Veterans Day; and

(E)  explain the significance of important landmarks, including the White House, the Statue of Liberty, and Mount Rushmore.

(18)  Citizenship. The student understands the importance of individual participation in the democratic process at the local, state, and national levels. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the duty individuals have to participate in civic affairs at the local, state, and national levels; and

(B)  explain how to contact elected and appointed leaders in local, state, and national governments.

(19)  Citizenship. The student understands the importance of effective leadership in a constitutional republic. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the contributions of the Founding Fathers to the development of the national government;

(B)  identify past and present leaders in the national government, including the president and various members of Congress, and their political parties; and

(C)  identify and compare leadership qualities of national leaders, past and present.

(20)  Citizenship. The student understands the fundamental rights of American citizens guaranteed in the Bill of Rights and other amendments to the U.S. Constitution. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe the fundamental rights guaranteed by each amendment in the Bill of Rights, including freedom of religion, speech, and press; the right to assemble and petition the government; the right to keep and bear arms; the right to trial by jury; and the right to an attorney; and

(B)  describe various amendments to the U.S. Constitution such as those that extended voting rights of U.S. citizens.

(21)  Culture. The student understands the relationship between the arts and the times during which they were created. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify significant examples of art, music, and literature from various periods in U.S. history such as the painting American Progress, "Yankee Doodle," and "Paul Revere's Ride"; and

(B)  explain how examples of art, music, and literature reflect the times during which they were created.

(22)  Culture. The student understands the contributions of people of various racial, ethnic, and religious groups to the United States. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the similarities and differences within and among various racial, ethnic, and religious groups in the United States;

(B)  describe customs and traditions of various racial, ethnic, and religious groups in the United States; and

(C)  summarize the contributions of people of various racial, ethnic, and religious groups to our national identity.

(23)  Science, technology, and society. The student understands the impact of science and technology on society in the United States. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the accomplishments of notable individuals in the fields of science and technology, including Benjamin Franklin, Eli Whitney, John Deere, Thomas Edison, Alexander Graham Bell, George Washington Carver, the Wright Brothers, and Neil Armstrong;

(B)  identify how scientific discoveries, technological innovations, and the rapid growth of technology industries have advanced the economic development of the United States, including the transcontinental railroad and the space program;

(C)  explain how scientific discoveries and technological innovations in the fields of medicine, communication, and transportation have benefited individuals and society in the United States; and

(D)  predict how future scientific discoveries and technological innovations could affect society in the United States.

(24)  Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including electronic technology. The student is expected to:

(A)  differentiate between, locate, and use valid primary and secondary sources such as computer software; interviews; biographies; oral, print, and visual material; documents; and artifacts to acquire information about the United States;

(B)  analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions;

(C)  organize and interpret information in outlines, reports, databases, and visuals, including graphs, charts, timelines, and maps;

(D)  identify different points of view about an issue, topic, or current event; and

(E)  identify the historical context of an event.

(25)  Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:

(A)  use social studies terminology correctly;

(B)  incorporate main and supporting ideas in verbal and written communication;

(C)  express ideas orally based on research and experiences;

(D)  create written and visual material such as journal entries, reports, graphic organizers, outlines, and bibliographies; and

(E)  use standard grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and punctuation.

(26)  Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings. The student is expected to:

(A)  use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution; and

(B)  use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather information, identify options, predict consequences, and take action to implement a decision.

Source: The provisions of this §113.16 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 35 TexReg 7232.


For additional information, email rules@tea.state.tx.us.