Chapter 128. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills
for Spanish Language Arts and Reading and English as a Second Language
Subchapter A. Elementary


Statutory Authority: The provisions of this Subchapter A issued under the Texas Education Code, §§7.102(c)(4), 28.002, 28.005, and 29.051, unless otherwise noted.


§128.1. Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Elementary, Adopted 2017.

(a) The provisions of this section and §§128.2-128.7 of this title shall be implemented by school districts.

(b) No later than August 31, 2018, the commissioner of education shall determine whether instructional materials funding has been made available to Texas public schools for materials that cover the essential knowledge and skills for Spanish language arts and reading as adopted in §§128.2-128.7 of this title.

(c) If the commissioner makes the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under subsection (b) of this section, §§128.2-128.7 of this title shall be implemented beginning with the 2019-2020 school year and apply to the 2019-2020 and subsequent school years.

(d) If the commissioner does not make the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under subsection (b) of this section, the commissioner shall determine no later than August 31 of each subsequent school year whether instructional materials funding has been made available. If the commissioner determines that instructional materials funding has been made available, the commissioner shall notify the State Board of Education and school districts that §§128.2-128.7 of this title shall be implemented for the following school year.

(e) Sections 128.11-128.16 of this title shall be superseded by the implementation of this section and §§128.2-128.7 of this title.

Source: The provisions of this §128.1 adopted to be effective September 25, 2017, 42 TexReg 5096.


§128.2. Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Kindergarten, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The Spanish language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy; they are neither translations nor modifications of the English language arts TEKS. The Spanish language arts and reading TEKS embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. They are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for Spanish language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process, and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. However, in English sight words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development.

(4) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(5) Research consistently shows that language and literacy development in the student's native language not only facilitates learning English and English literacy, but is foundational to cognitive development and learning (Cummins, 2001; Thomas & Collier, 2002; Coelho, 2001). Emergent bilinguals (Sparrow et al., 2014; Slavin & Cheving, 2013) are students who are in the process of acquiring two or more linguistic codes, becoming bilingual, biliterate, and bicultural. Emergent bilinguals are often defined by their perceived deficits (semilinguals) (Escamilla, 2012). However, research has shown that bilinguals develop a unique interdependent system (Escamilla et al. 2007; Grosjean, 1989; Valdes and Figueroa, 1994) in which languages interconnect to increase linguistic functionality. This linguistic interdependence of language acquisition facilitates a transfer of literacy skills from the primary language (L1) to the second language (L2) (August & Shanahan, 2006; Bialystok, 2007; Miramontes, et al., 1997). The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer to English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2002; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). For transfer to be maximized, cross-linguistic connections between the two languages must be explicitly taught while students engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Continued strong literacy development in Spanish provides the foundation and scaffold for literacy development given that a Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) exists between the two languages (Cummins, 1991). Consequently, direct and systematic instruction (Genesee et al., 2005) in the appropriate sequence of Spanish skills with early English as a second language-based literacy instruction is critical to student success. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages (Escamilla et. al., 2014). The extent to which English and Spanish are used is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (see Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(6) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language, and their proficiency in English directly impacts their ability to meet these standards. The comprehension of text throughout the stages of English language acquisition requires scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected oral and written discourse so that it is meaningful.

(7) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(8) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(9) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively and ask questions to understand information and answer questions using multi-word responses;

(B) restate and follow oral directions that involve a short, related sequence of actions;

(C) share information and ideas by speaking audibly and clearly using the conventions of language;

(D) work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules for discussion, including taking turns; and

(E) develop social communication such as introducing himself/herself, using common greetings, and expressing needs and wants.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate phonological awareness by:

(i) identifying and producing rhyming words;

(ii) recognizing spoken alliteration or groups of words that begin with the same simple syllable or initial sound;

(iii) identifying the individual words in a spoken sentence;

(iv) identifying syllables in spoken words;

(v) blending syllables to form multisyllabic words;

(vi) segmenting multisyllabic words into syllables;

(vii) identifying initial and final sounds in simple words;

(viii) blending spoken phonemes to form syllables; and

(ix) manipulating syllables within a multisyllabic word;

(B) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) identifying and matching the common sounds that letters represent;

(ii) using letter-sound relationships to decode one- and two-syllable words and multisyllabic words, including CV, VC, CCV, CVC, VCV, CVCV, CCVCV, and CVCCV;

(iii) decoding words with silent h and consonant digraphs such as/ch/,/rr/, and/ll/; and

(iv) recognizing that new words are created when syllables are changed, added, or deleted;

(C) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling common letter and sound correlations; and

(ii) spelling words with common syllabic patterns such as CV, VC, CCV, CVC, VCV, CVCV, CCVCV, and CVCCV;

(D) demonstrate print awareness by:

(i) identifying the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book;

(ii) holding a book right side up, turning pages correctly, and knowing that reading moves from top to bottom and left to right with return sweep;

(iii) recognizing that sentences are comprised of words separated by spaces and recognizing word boundaries;

(iv) recognizing the difference between a letter and a printed word; and

(v) identifying all uppercase and lowercase letters; and

(E) develop handwriting by accurately forming all uppercase and lowercase letters using appropriate directionality.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use a resource such as a picture dictionary or digital resource to find words;

(B) use illustrations and texts the student is able to read or hear to learn or clarify word meanings; and

(C) identify and use words that name actions; directions; positions; sequences; categories such as colors, shapes, and textures; and locations.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and interact independently with text for increasing periods of time.

(5) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts with adult assistance;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information with adult assistance;

(C) make and confirm predictions using text features and structures with adult assistance;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding with adult assistance;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society with adult assistance;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding with adult assistance;

(G) evaluate details to determine what is most important with adult assistance;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding with adult assistance; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, checking for visual cues, and asking questions when understanding breaks down with adult assistance.

(6) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources;

(B) provide an oral, pictorial, or written response to a text;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell texts in ways that maintain meaning;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as illustrating or writing; and

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate.

(7) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss topics and determine the basic theme using text evidence with adult assistance;

(B) identify and describe the main character(s);

(C) describe the elements of plot development, including the main events, the problem, and the resolution, for texts read aloud with adult assistance; and

(D) describe the setting.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, fairy tales, and nursery rhymes;

(B) discuss rhyme and rhythm in nursery rhymes and a variety of poems;

(C) discuss main characters in drama;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:(i) the central idea and supporting evidence with adult assistance;

(ii) titles and simple graphics to gain information; and

(iii) the steps in a sequence with adult assistance;

(E) recognize characteristics of persuasive text with adult assistance and state what the author is trying to persuade the reader to think or do; and

(F) recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(9) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss with adult assistance the author's purpose for writing texts;

(B) discuss with adult assistance how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) discuss with adult assistance the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) discuss with adult assistance how the author uses words that help the reader visualize; and

(E) listen to and experience first- and third-person texts.

(10) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan by generating ideas for writing through class discussions and drawings;

(B) develop drafts in oral, pictorial, or written form by organizing ideas;

(C) revise drafts by adding details in pictures or words;

(D) edit drafts with adult assistance using standard Spanish conventions, including:

(i) complete sentences;

(ii) verbs, including the difference between ser and estar;

(iii) singular and plural nouns, including gender-specific articles;

(iv) adjectives, including articles;

(v) prepositions;

(vi) pronouns, including personal, and the difference in the use of formal pronoun usted and informal pronoun tú;

(vii) capitalization of the first letter in a sentence and names;

(viii) punctuation marks at the end of declarative sentences; and

(ix) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules; and

(E) share writing.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) dictate or compose literary texts, including personal narratives; and

(B) dictate or compose informational texts.

(12) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate questions for formal and informal inquiry with adult assistance;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) gather information from a variety of sources with adult assistance;

(D) demonstrate understanding of information gathered with adult assistance; and

(E) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

Source: The provisions of this §128.2 adopted to be effective September 25, 2017, 42 TexReg 5096.


§128.3. Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 1, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The Spanish language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy; they are neither translations nor modifications of the English language arts TEKS. The Spanish language arts and reading TEKS embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. They are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for Spanish language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process, and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. However, in English sight words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development.

(4) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(5) Research consistently shows that language and literacy development in the student's native language not only facilitates learning English and English literacy, but is foundational to cognitive development and learning (Cummins, 2001; Thomas & Collier, 2002; Coelho, 2001). Emergent bilinguals (Sparrow et al., 2014; Slavin & Cheving, 2013) are students who are in the process of acquiring two or more linguistic codes, becoming bilingual, biliterate, and bicultural. Emergent bilinguals are often defined by their perceived deficits (semilinguals) (Escamilla, 2012). However, research has shown that bilinguals develop a unique interdependent system (Escamilla et al. 2007; Grosjean, 1989; Valdes and Figueroa, 1994) in which languages interconnect to increase linguistic functionality. This linguistic interdependence of language acquisition facilitates a transfer of literacy skills from the primary language (L1) to the second language (L2) (August & Shanahan, 2006; Bialystok, 2007; Miramontes, et al., 1997). The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer to English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2002; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). For transfer to be maximized, cross-linguistic connections between the two languages must be explicitly taught while students engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Continued strong literacy development in Spanish provides the foundation and scaffold for literacy development given that a Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) exists between the two languages (Cummins, 1991). Consequently, direct and systematic instruction (Genesee et al., 2005) in the appropriate sequence of Spanish skills with early English as a second language-based literacy instruction is critical to student success. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages (Escamilla et. al., 2014). The extent to which English and Spanish are used is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (see Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(6) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language, and their proficiency in English directly impacts their ability to meet these standards. The comprehension of text throughout the stages of English language acquisition requires scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected oral and written discourse so that it is meaningful.

(7) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(8) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(9) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and answer questions using multi-word responses;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a short, related sequence of actions;

(C) share information and ideas about the topic under discussion, speaking clearly at an appropriate pace and using the conventions of language;

(D) work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules for discussion, including listening to others, speaking when recognized, and making appropriate contributions; and

(E) develop social communication such as introducing himself/herself and others, relating experiences to a classmate, and expressing needs and feelings.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate phonological awareness by:

(i) producing a series of rhyming words;

(ii) recognizing spoken alliteration or groups of words that begin with the same simple syllable or initial sound;

(iii) recognizing the change in spoken word when a specified syllable is added, changed, or removed;

(iv) segmenting spoken words into individual syllables;

(v) blending spoken complex syllables, including sílabas trabadas, to form multisyllabic words;

(vi) segmenting spoken words into syllables, including words with sílabas trabadas; and

(vii) manipulating syllables within words;

(B) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) identifying and matching sounds to individual letters;

(ii) decoding words with sílabas trabadas such as/bla/,/bra/, and/gla/; digraphs; and words with multiple sound spelling patterns such as c, k, and q and s, z, soft c, and x;

(iii) decoding words with silent h and words that use the syllables que-, qui-, gue-, gui-, güe-, and güi-;

(iv) decoding words with diphthongs such as/ai/,/au/, and/ei/;

(v) decoding contractions such as al and del;

(vi) decoding three- to four-syllable words;

(vii) using knowledge of base words to decode common compound words; and

(viii) decoding words with common prefixes and suffixes;

(C) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling common letter and sound correlations;

(ii) spelling words with common patterns such as CV, VC, CCV, CVC, VCV, CVCV, CCVCV, and CVCCV;

(iii) spelling words with silent h; consonant digraphs such as/ch/,/rr/, and/ll/; and sílabas trabadas such as/bla/,/bra/,/gla/, and/gra/;

(iv) spelling multisyllabic words, including words with que-, qui-, gue-, gui-, güe-, and güi-;

(v) spelling contractions such as al and del;

(vi) spelling words with diphthongs such as/ai/,/au/, and/ie/ as in quie-ro, na-die, and ra-dio and hiatus such as le-er and rí-o; and

(vii) spelling words with common prefixes and suffixes;

(D) demonstrate print awareness by identifying the information that different parts of a book provide;

(E) alphabetize a series of words to the first or second letter and use a dictionary to find words; and

(F) develop handwriting by printing words, sentences, and answers legibly leaving appropriate spaces between words.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use a resource such as a picture dictionary or digital resource to find words;

(B) use illustrations and texts the student is able to read or hear to learn or clarify word meanings;

(C) identify the meaning of words with affixes, including -s, -es, and -or; and

(D) identify and use words that name actions, directions, positions, sequences, categories, and locations.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and interact independently with text for increasing periods of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts with adult assistance;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information with adult assistance;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures with adult assistance;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding with adult assistance;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society with adult assistance;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding with adult assistance;

(G) evaluate details to determine what is most important with adult assistance;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding with adult assistance; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, checking for visual cues, and asking questions when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources;

(B) write brief comments on literary or informational texts;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell texts in ways that maintain meaning;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as illustrating or writing; and

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss topics and determine theme using text evidence with adult assistance;

(B) describe the main character(s) and the reason(s) for their actions;

(C) describe plot elements, including the main events, the problem, and the resolution, for texts read aloud and independently; and

(D) describe the setting.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, fairy tales, and nursery rhymes;

(B) discuss rhyme, rhythm, repetition, and alliteration in a variety of poems;

(C) discuss elements of drama such as characters and setting;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea and supporting evidence with adult assistance;

(ii) features and simple graphics to locate or gain information; and

(iii) organizational patterns such as chronological order and description with adult assistance;

(E) recognize characteristics of persuasive text with adult assistance and state what the author is trying to persuade the reader to think or do; and

(F) recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss the author's purpose for writing text;

(B) discuss how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) discuss with adult assistance the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) discuss how the author uses words that help the reader visualize; and

(E) listen to and experience first- and third-person texts.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by generating ideas for writing such as by drawing and brainstorming;

(B) develop drafts in oral, pictorial, or written form by:

(i) organizing with structure; and

(ii) developing an idea with specific and relevant details;

(C) revise drafts by adding details in pictures or words;

(D) edit drafts using standard Spanish conventions, including:

(i) complete sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii) past and present verb tense, including the difference between ser and estar;

(iii) singular, plural, common, and proper nouns, including gender-specific articles;

(iv) adjectives, including articles;

(v) adverbs that convey time;

(vi) prepositions;

(vii) pronouns, including the use of personal and possessive pronouns, and the difference in the use of formal pronoun usted and informal pronoun tú;

(viii) capitalization for the beginning of sentences;

(ix) punctuation marks at the end of declarative sentences and at the beginning and end of exclamatory and interrogative sentences; and

(x) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules with adult assistance; and

(E) publish and share writing.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) dictate or compose literary texts, including personal narratives and poetry;

(B) dictate or compose informational texts, including procedural texts; and

(C) dictate or compose correspondence such as thank you notes or letters.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate questions for formal and informal inquiry with adult assistance;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant sources and information to answer the questions with adult assistance;

(D) demonstrate understanding of information gathered with adult assistance; and

(E) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

Source: The provisions of this §128.3 adopted to be effective September 25, 2017, 42 TexReg 5096.


§128.4. Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 2, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The Spanish language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy; they are neither translations nor modifications of the English language arts TEKS. The Spanish language arts and reading TEKS embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. They are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for Spanish language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process, and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. However, in English sight words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development.

(4) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(5) Research consistently shows that language and literacy development in the student's native language not only facilitates learning English and English literacy, but is foundational to cognitive development and learning (Cummins, 2001; Thomas & Collier, 2002; Coelho, 2001). Emergent bilinguals (Sparrow et al., 2014; Slavin & Cheving, 2013) are students who are in the process of acquiring two or more linguistic codes, becoming bilingual, biliterate, and bicultural. Emergent bilinguals are often defined by their perceived deficits (semilinguals) (Escamilla, 2012). However, research has shown that bilinguals develop a unique interdependent system (Escamilla et al. 2007; Grosjean, 1989; Valdes and Figueroa, 1994) in which languages interconnect to increase linguistic functionality. This linguistic interdependence of language acquisition facilitates a transfer of literacy skills from the primary language (L1) to the second language (L2) (August & Shanahan, 2006; Bialystok, 2007; Miramontes, et al., 1997). The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer to English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2002; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). For transfer to be maximized, cross-linguistic connections between the two languages must be explicitly taught while students engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Continued strong literacy development in Spanish provides the foundation and scaffold for literacy development given that a Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) exists between the two languages (Cummins, 1991). Consequently, direct and systematic instruction (Genesee et al., 2005) in the appropriate sequence of Spanish skills with early English as a second language-based literacy instruction is critical to student success. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages (Escamilla et. al., 2014). The extent to which English and Spanish are used is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (see Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(6) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language, and their proficiency in English directly impacts their ability to meet these standards. The comprehension of text throughout the stages of English language acquisition requires scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected oral and written discourse so that it is meaningful.

(7) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(8) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(9) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and answer questions using multi-word responses;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a short, related sequence of actions;

(C) share information and ideas that focus on the topic under discussion, speaking clearly at an appropriate pace and using the conventions of language;

(D) work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules for discussion, including listening to others, speaking when recognized, making appropriate contributions, and building on the ideas of others; and

(E) develop social communication such as distinguishing between asking and telling.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) decoding multisyllabic words;

(ii) decoding words with multiple sound spelling patterns such as c, k, and q and s, z, soft c, and x;

(iii) decoding words with silent h and words that use the syllables que-, qui-, gue-, gui-, güe-, and güi-;

(iv) decoding words with diphthongs and hiatus;

(v) decoding common abbreviations; and

(vi) decoding words with prefixes and suffixes;

(B) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling multisyllabic words;

(ii) spelling words with diphthongs and hiatus;

(iii) spelling common abbreviations;

(iv) spelling words with prefixes and suffixes; and

(v) spelling words with silent h and words that use the syllables que-, qui-, gue-, gui-, güe-, and güi-;

(C) alphabetize a series of words and use a dictionary or glossary to find words; and

(D) develop handwriting by accurately forming all cursive letters using appropriate strokes when connecting letters.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine meaning and pronunciation of unknown words;

(B) use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words;

(C) use affixes, including re-, pre-, -ción, and ísimo/ísima, to determine the meaning of words and subsequently use the newly acquired words;

(D) identify, use, and explain the meaning of antonyms, synonyms, idioms, and homographs in context; and

(E) differentiate between and use homographs, homophones, and commonly confused terms such as porque/porqué/por qué/por que, sino/si no, and también/tan bien.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, checking for visual cues, and asking questions when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources;

(B) write brief comments on literary or informational texts that demonstrate an understanding of the text;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell and paraphrase texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as illustrating or writing; and

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss topics and determine theme using text evidence with adult assistance;

(B) describe the main character's (characters') internal and external traits;

(C) describe and understand plot elements, including the main events, the conflict, and the resolution, for texts read aloud and independently; and

(D) describe the importance of the setting.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, and fairy tales;

(B) explain visual patterns and structures in a variety of poems;

(C) discuss elements of drama such as characters, dialogue, and setting;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea and supporting evidence with adult assistance;

(ii) features and graphics to locate and gain information; and

(iii) organizational patterns such as chronological order and cause and effect stated explicitly;

(E) recognize characteristics of persuasive text, including:

(i) stating what the author is trying to persuade the reader to think or do; and

(ii) distinguishing facts from opinion; and

(F) recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss the author's purpose for writing text;

(B) discuss how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) discuss the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) discuss the use of descriptive, literal, and figurative language;

(E) identify the use of first or third person in a text; and

(F) identify and explain the use of repetition.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by generating ideas for writing such as drawing and brainstorming;

(B) develop drafts into a focused piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with structure; and

(ii) developing an idea with specific and relevant details;

(C) revise drafts by adding, deleting, or rearranging words, phrases, or sentences;

(D) edit drafts using standard Spanish conventions, including:

(i) complete sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii) past, present, and future verb tense, including the difference between ser and estar;

(iii) singular, plural, common, and proper nouns, including gender-specific articles;

(iv) adjectives, including articles;

(v) adverbs that convey time and adverbs that convey place;

(vi) prepositions and prepositional phrases;

(vii) pronouns, including personal, possessive, and objective, and the difference in the use of formal pronoun usted and informal pronoun tú;

(viii) coordinating conjunctions to form compound subjects and predicates;

(ix) capitalization of proper nouns and the salutation and closing of a letter;

(x) punctuation marks at the end of declarative sentences and the beginning and end of exclamatory and interrogative sentences; and

(xi) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules; and

(E) publish and share writing.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts, including personal narratives and poetry;

(B) compose informational texts, including procedural texts and reports; and

(C) compose correspondence such as thank you notes or letters.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate questions for formal and informal inquiry with adult assistance;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant sources and information to answer the questions;

(D) identify primary and secondary sources;

(E) demonstrate understanding of information gathered;

(F) cite sources appropriately; and

(G) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

Source: The provisions of this §128.4 adopted to be effective September 25, 2017, 42 TexReg 5096.


§128.5. Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 3, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The Spanish language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy; they are neither translations nor modifications of the English language arts TEKS. The Spanish language arts and reading TEKS embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. They are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for Spanish language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process, and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. However, in English sight words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development.

(4) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(5) Research consistently shows that language and literacy development in the student's native language not only facilitates learning English and English literacy, but is foundational to cognitive development and learning (Cummins, 2001; Thomas & Collier, 2002; Coelho, 2001). Emergent bilinguals (Sparrow et al., 2014; Slavin & Cheving, 2013) are students who are in the process of acquiring two or more linguistic codes, becoming bilingual, biliterate, and bicultural. Emergent bilinguals are often defined by their perceived deficits (semilinguals) (Escamilla, 2012). However, research has shown that bilinguals develop a unique interdependent system (Escamilla et al. 2007; Grosjean, 1989; Valdes and Figueroa, 1994) in which languages interconnect to increase linguistic functionality. This linguistic interdependence of language acquisition facilitates a transfer of literacy skills from the primary language (L1) to the second language (L2) (August & Shanahan, 2006; Bialystok, 2007; Miramontes, et al., 1997). The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer to English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2002; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). For transfer to be maximized, cross-linguistic connections between the two languages must be explicitly taught while students engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Continued strong literacy development in Spanish provides the foundation and scaffold for literacy development given that a Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) exists between the two languages (Cummins, 1991). Consequently, direct and systematic instruction (Genesee et al., 2005) in the appropriate sequence of Spanish skills with early English as a second language-based literacy instruction is critical to student success. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages (Escamilla et. al., 2014). The extent to which English and Spanish are used is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (see Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(6) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language, and their proficiency in English directly impacts their ability to meet these standards. The comprehension of text throughout the stages of English language acquisition requires scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected oral and written discourse so that it is meaningful.

(7) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(8) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(9) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and make pertinent comments;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a series of related sequences of action;

(C) speak coherently about the topic under discussion, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, and the conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively;

(D) work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules, norms, and protocols; and

(E) develop social communication such as conversing politely in all situations.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) decoding words with a prosodic or orthographic accent;

(ii) decoding words with multiple sound spelling patterns such as c, k, and q and s, z, soft c, and x;

(iii) decoding words with silent h and words that use the syllables que-, qui-, gue-, gui-, güe-, and güi-;

(iv) becoming very familiar with the concept of hiatus and diphthongs and the implications for orthographic accents;

(v) decoding and differentiating meaning of a word based on a diacritical accent; and

(vi) decoding words with prefixes and suffixes;

(B) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling palabras agudas and graves (words with an accent on the last and penultimate syllable);

(ii) spelling palabras esdrújulas (words with the stress on the antepenultimate syllable) that have an orthographic accent;

(iii) spelling words with the concept of diphthongs and hiatus and their implications for orthographic accents;

(iv) using accents on words commonly used in questions and exclamations;

(v) spelling words based on the diacritical accent such as se/sé, el/él, and mas/más;

(vi) marking accents appropriately when conjugating verbs in simple and imperfect past, perfect, conditional, and future tenses;

(vii) spelling words with silent h and words that use the syllables que-, qui-, gue-, gui-, güe-, and güi-;

(viii) spelling words that have the same sounds represented by different letters, including ll and y; c, k, and q; soft c, soft x, s, and z; and soft g, j, and x;

(ix) spelling words with hard and soft r;

(x) spelling words using n before v; m before b; and m before p;

(xi) spelling words with sílabas trabadas; and

(xii) spelling the plural form of words ending in z by replacing the z with c before adding -es;

(C) alphabetize a series of words to the third letter; and

(D) write complete words, thoughts, and answers legibly in cursive leaving appropriate spaces between words.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine meaning, syllabication, and pronunciation;

(B) use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words and multiple-meaning words;

(C) identify the meaning of and use words with affixes, including in-, des-, ex-, -mente, -dad, -oso, -eza, and -ura, and know how the affix changes the meaning of the word;

(D) identify, use, and explain the meaning of antonyms, synonyms, idioms, homophones, and homographs in a text; and

(E) differentiate between and use homographs, homophones, and commonly confused terms such as porque/porqué/por qué/por que, sino/si no, and también/tan bien.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write a response to a literary or informational text that demonstrates an understanding of a text;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell and paraphrase texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate; and

(G) discuss specific ideas in the text that are important to the meaning.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) infer the theme of a work, distinguishing theme from topic;

(B) explain the relationships among the major and minor characters;

(C) analyze plot elements, including the sequence of events, the conflict, and the resolution; and

(D) explain the influence of the setting on the plot.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, fairy tales, legends, and myths;

(B) explain rhyme scheme, sound devices, and structural elements such as stanzas in a variety of poems;

(C) discuss the elements of drama such as characters, dialogue, setting, and acts;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea with supporting evidence;

(ii) features such as sections, tables, graphs, timelines, bullets, numbers, and bold and italicized font to support understanding; and

(iii) organizational patterns such as cause and effect and problem and solution;

(E) recognize characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim;

(ii) distinguishing facts from opinion; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader; and

(F) recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) explain how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) explain the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of imagery, literal and figurative language such as simile, and sound devices such as onomatopoeia achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify the use of literary devices, including first- or third-person point of view;

(F) discuss how the author's use of language contributes to voice; and

(G) identify and explain the use of hyperbole.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as brainstorming, freewriting, and mapping;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea with relevant details;

(C) revise drafts to improve sentence structure and word choice by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging ideas for coherence and clarity;

(D) edit drafts using standard Spanish conventions, including:

(i) complete simple and compound sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii) simple past, present, and future verb tense and imperfect past, perfect, and conditional verb tenses, including the difference between ser and estar;

(iii) singular, plural, common, and proper nouns, including gender-specific articles;

(iv) adjectives, including their comparative and superlative forms;

(v) adverbs that convey time and adverbs that convey manner;

(vi) prepositions and prepositional phrases;

(vii) pronouns, including personal, possessive, objective, and reflexive pronouns;

(viii) coordinating conjunctions to form compound subjects, predicates, and sentences;

(ix) capitalization of proper nouns, geographical names and places, historical periods, and official titles of people;

(x) punctuation marks, including commas in a series and dates, and correct mechanics, including indentations; and

(xi) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts, including personal narratives and poetry, using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts, including brief compositions that convey information about a topic, using a clear central idea and genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose argumentative texts, including opinion essays, using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence such as thank you notes or letters.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate questions on a topic for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(D) identify primary and secondary sources;

(E) demonstrate understanding of information gathered;

(F) recognize the difference between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(G) create a works cited page; and

(H) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

Source: The provisions of this §128.5 adopted to be effective September 25, 2017, 42 TexReg 5096.


§128.6. Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 4, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The Spanish language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy; they are neither translations nor modifications of the English language arts TEKS. The Spanish language arts and reading TEKS embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. They are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for Spanish language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process, and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. However, in English sight words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development.

(4) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(5) Research consistently shows that language and literacy development in the student's native language not only facilitates learning English and English literacy, but is foundational to cognitive development and learning (Cummins, 2001; Thomas & Collier, 2002; Coelho, 2001). Emergent bilinguals (Sparrow et al., 2014; Slavin & Cheving, 2013) are students who are in the process of acquiring two or more linguistic codes, becoming bilingual, biliterate, and bicultural. Emergent bilinguals are often defined by their perceived deficits (semilinguals) (Escamilla, 2012). However, research has shown that bilinguals develop a unique interdependent system (Escamilla et al. 2007; Grosjean, 1989; Valdes and Figueroa, 1994) in which languages interconnect to increase linguistic functionality. This linguistic interdependence of language acquisition facilitates a transfer of literacy skills from the primary language (L1) to the second language (L2) (August & Shanahan, 2006; Bialystok, 2007; Miramontes, et al., 1997). The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer to English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2002; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). For transfer to be maximized, cross-linguistic connections between the two languages must be explicitly taught while students engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Continued strong literacy development in Spanish provides the foundation and scaffold for literacy development given that a Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) exists between the two languages (Cummins, 1991). Consequently, direct and systematic instruction (Genesee et al., 2005) in the appropriate sequence of Spanish skills with early English as a second language-based literacy instruction is critical to student success. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages (Escamilla et. al., 2014). The extent to which English and Spanish are used is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (see Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(6) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language, and their proficiency in English directly impacts their ability to meet these standards. The comprehension of text throughout the stages of English language acquisition requires scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected oral and written discourse so that it is meaningful.

(7) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(8) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(9) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and make pertinent comments;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a series of related sequences of action;

(C) express an opinion supported by accurate information, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, and the conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) work collaboratively with others to develop a plan of shared responsibilities.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) decoding palabras agudas, graves, esdrújulas, and sobreesdrújulas (words with the stress on the last, penultimate, and antepenultimate syllable and words with the stress on the syllable before the antepenultimate);

(ii) using orthographic rules to segment and combine syllables, including diphthongs and formal and accented hiatus;

(iii) decoding and differentiating the meaning of a word based on the diacritical accent; and

(iv) decoding words with prefixes and suffixes;

(B) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling palabras agudas and graves (words with the stress on the last and penultimate syllable) with an orthographic accent;

(ii) spelling palabras esdrújulas (words with the stress on the antepenultimate syllable) that have an orthographic accent;

(iii) spelling words with diphthongs and hiatus; and

(iv) marking accents appropriately when conjugating verbs in simple and imperfect past, perfect, conditional, and future tenses; and

(C) write legibly in cursive to complete assignments.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine meaning, syllabication, and pronunciation;

(B) use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the relevant meaning of unfamiliar words or multiple-meaning words;

(C) identify the meaning of and use base words with affixes, including mono-, sobre-, sub-, inter-, poli-, -able, -ante, -eza, -ancia, and -ura, and roots, including auto, bio, grafía, metro, fono, and tele;

(D) identify, use, and explain the meaning of idioms, homographs, and homophones such as abrasar/abrazar; and

(E) differentiate between and use homographs, homophones, and commonly confused terms such as porque/porqué/por qué/por que, sino/si no, and también/tan bien.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing and contrasting ideas across a variety of sources;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell, paraphrase, or summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate; and

(G) discuss specific ideas in the text that are important to the meaning.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) infer basic themes supported by text evidence;

(B) explain the interactions of the characters and the changes they undergo;

(C) analyze plot elements, including the rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution; and

(D) explain the influence of the setting, including historical and cultural settings, on the plot.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, legends, myths, and tall tales;

(B) explain figurative language such as simile, metaphor, and personification that the poet uses to create images;

(C) explain structure in drama such as character tags, acts, scenes, and stage directions;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea with supporting evidence;

(ii) features such as pronunciation guides and diagrams to support understanding; and

(iii) organizational patterns such as compare and contrast;

(E) recognize characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim;

(ii) explaining how the author has used facts for an argument; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader; and

(F) recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) explain how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of imagery, literal and figurative language such as simile and metaphor, and sound devices such as alliteration and assonance achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify and understand the use of literary devices, including first- or third-person point of view;

(F) discuss how the author's use of language contributes to voice; and

(G) identify and explain the use of anecdote.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as brainstorming, freewriting, and mapping;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea with relevant details;

(C) revise drafts to improve sentence structure and word choice by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging ideas for coherence and clarity;

(D) edit drafts using standard Spanish conventions, including:

(i) complete simple and compound sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments;

(ii) irregular verbs;

(iii) singular, plural, common, and proper nouns, including gender-specific articles;

(iv) adjectives, including their comparative and superlative forms;

(v) adverbs that convey frequency and adverbs that convey degree;

(vi) prepositions and prepositional phrases;

(vii) pronouns, including personal, possessive, objective, reflexive, and prepositional;

(viii) coordinating conjunctions to form compound subjects, predicates, and sentences;

(ix) capitalization of historical events and documents, titles of books, stories, and essays;

(x) punctuation marks, including commas in compound and complex sentences and em dash for dialogue; and

(xi) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as personal narratives and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts, including brief compositions that convey information about a topic, using a clear central idea and genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose argumentative texts, including opinion essays using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence that requests information.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate and clarify questions on a topic for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(D) identify primary and secondary sources;

(E) demonstrate understanding of information gathered;

(F) recognize the difference between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(G) develop a bibliography; and

(H) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

Source: The provisions of this §128.6 adopted to be effective September 25, 2017, 42 TexReg 5096.


§128.7. Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 5, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The Spanish language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy; they are neither translations nor modifications of the English language arts TEKS. The Spanish language arts and reading TEKS embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. They are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for Spanish language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process, and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. However, in English sight words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development.

(4) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(5) Research consistently shows that language and literacy development in the student's native language not only facilitates learning English and English literacy, but is foundational to cognitive development and learning (Cummins, 2001; Thomas & Collier, 2002; Coelho, 2001). Emergent bilinguals (Sparrow et al., 2014; Slavin & Cheving, 2013) are students who are in the process of acquiring two or more linguistic codes, becoming bilingual, biliterate, and bicultural. Emergent bilinguals are often defined by their perceived deficits (semilinguals) (Escamilla, 2012). However, research has shown that bilinguals develop a unique interdependent system (Escamilla et al. 2007; Grosjean, 1989; Valdes and Figueroa, 1994) in which languages interconnect to increase linguistic functionality. This linguistic interdependence of language acquisition facilitates a transfer of literacy skills from the primary language (L1) to the second language (L2) (August & Shanahan, 2006; Bialystok, 2007; Miramontes, et al., 1997). The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer to English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2002; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). For transfer to be maximized, cross-linguistic connections between the two languages must be explicitly taught while students engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Continued strong literacy development in Spanish provides the foundation and scaffold for literacy development given that a Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) exists between the two languages (Cummins, 1991). Consequently, direct and systematic instruction (Genesee et al., 2005) in the appropriate sequence of Spanish skills with early English as a second language-based literacy instruction is critical to student success. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages (Escamilla et. al., 2014). The extent to which English and Spanish are used is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (see Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(6) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language, and their proficiency in English directly impacts their ability to meet these standards. The comprehension of text throughout the stages of English language acquisition requires scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected oral and written discourse so that it is meaningful.

(7) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(8) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(9) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively to interpret verbal and non-verbal messages, ask relevant questions, and make pertinent comments;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that include multiple action steps;

(C) give an organized presentation employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) work collaboratively with others to develop a plan of shared responsibilities.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) decoding palabras agudas, graves, and esdrújulas (words with the stress on the antepenultimate, penultimate, and last syllable and words with the stress on the syllable before the antepenultimate);

(ii) using orthographic rules to segment and combine syllables, including diphthongs and formal and accented hiatus;

(iii) decoding and differentiating meaning of word based on the diacritical accent; and

(iv) decoding words with prefixes and suffixes;

(B) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling words with more advanced orthographic patterns and rules;

(ii) spelling palabras agudas, graves, and esdrújulas (words with the stress on the antepenultimate, penultimate, and last syllable) with a prosodic or orthographic accent;

(iii) spelling palabras sobresdrújulas (words with the stress on the syllable before the antepenultimate syllable) with a prosodic or orthographic accent;

(iv) spelling words with diphthongs and hiatus; and

(v) marking accents appropriately when conjugating verbs in simple and imperfect past, perfect, conditional, and future tenses; and

(C) write legibly in cursive.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, and word origin;

(B) use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the relevant meaning of unfamiliar words or multiple-meaning words;

(C) identify the meaning of and use base words with affixes, including trans-, super-, anti-, semi-, -logía, -ificar, -ismo, and -ista and roots, including audi, crono, foto, geo, and terr;

(D) identify, use, and explain the meaning of idioms, adages, and puns; and

(E) differentiate between and use homographs, homophones, and commonly confused terms such as porque/porqué/por qué/por que, sino/si no, and también/tan bien.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing and contrasting ideas across a variety of sources;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell, paraphrase, or summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate; and

(G) discuss specific ideas in the text that are important to the meaning.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) infer multiple themes within a text using text evidence;

(B) analyze the relationships of and conflicts among the characters;

(C) analyze plot elements, including rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution; and

(D) analyze the influence of the setting, including historical and cultural settings, on the plot.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, legends, myths, and tall tales;

(B) explain the use of sound devices and figurative language and distinguish between the poet and the speaker in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C) explain structure in drama such as character tags, acts, scenes, and stage directions;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea with supporting evidence;

(ii) features such as insets, timelines, and sidebars to support understanding; and

(iii) organizational patterns such as logical order and order of importance;

(E) recognize characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim;

(ii) explaining how the author has used facts for or against an argument; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader; and

(F) recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of imagery, literal and figurative language such as simile and metaphor, and sound devices achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify and understand the use of literary devices, including first- or third-person point of view;

(F) examine how the author's use of language contributes to voice; and

(G) explain the purpose of hyperbole, stereotyping, and anecdote.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as brainstorming, freewriting, and mapping;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts and details;

(C) revise drafts to improve sentence structure and word choice by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging ideas for coherence and clarity;

(D) edit drafts using standard Spanish conventions, including:

(i) complete simple and compound sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments;

(ii) irregular verbs;

(iii) collective nouns;

(iv) adjectives, including those indicating origin, and their comparative and superlative forms;

(v) conjunctive adverbs;

(vi) prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

(vii) pronouns, including personal, possessive, objective, reflexive, prepositional, and indefinite;

(viii) subordinating conjunctions to form complex sentences;

(ix) capitalization of initials, acronyms, and organizations;

(x) punctuation marks, including commas in compound and complex sentences, em dash for dialogue, italics and underlining for titles and emphasis, and quotation marks for titles; and

(xi) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts, including brief compositions that convey information about a topic, using a clear central idea and genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose argumentative texts, including opinion essays, using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence that requests information.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate and clarify questions on a topic for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(D) understand credibility of primary and secondary sources;

(E) demonstrate understanding of information gathered;

(F) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(G) develop a bibliography; and

(H) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

Source: The provisions of this §128.7 adopted to be effective September 25, 2017, 42 TexReg 5096.


§128.10. Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Elementary, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010.

(a)  The provisions of §§128.11-128.16 of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2009-2010 school year.

(b)  Students must develop the ability to comprehend and process material from a wide range of texts. Student expectations for Reading/Comprehension Skills as provided in this subsection are described for the appropriate grade level.

Figure: 19 TAC §128.10(b)

Source: The provisions of this §128.10 adopted to be effective November 26, 2008, 33 TexReg 9465; amended to be effective February 22, 2010, 35 TexReg 1463.


§128.11. Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Kindergarten, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010.

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  The Spanish Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy, not mere translations from English. The Spanish Language Arts and Reading TEKS are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the Spanish language in speaking and writing. The Reading strand is structured to reflect major topic areas of the National Reading Panel Report as well as other current and relevant research on Spanish literacy development. In Kindergarten, students engage in activities that build on their natural curiosity and prior knowledge to develop their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should be read to on a daily basis.

(2)  Research consistently shows that literacy development in the student's native language facilitates learning in English (Collier & Thomas, 1997; Cummins, 2001). Students can develop cognition, learn, and achieve best when they can understand the language of instruction (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2003). Students who have strong literacy skills in their primary language can be expected to transfer those skills to English and progress rapidly in learning in English. Although English and Spanish look very similar on the surface (i.e., similar alphabets; directionality; cognates) the conventions of each language presuppose the reading process in that language. Consequently, systematic instruction in the appropriate sequence of skills is critical. For this reason, the Spanish Language Arts and Reading TEKS reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and not mere translations from English.

(A)  Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process, and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. Spanish uses frequency words that are identified by the rate of occurrence in grade appropriate text and used to build on fluency and comprehension. However, in English, "sight" words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development.

(B)  Spanish instruction maximizes access to English content. Students with strong literacy skills in Spanish phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, and reading comprehension can be expected to transfer those skills to English. The "transfer" of knowledge and skills from one language to another refers to the metalinguistic and metacognitive processes and awareness that students gain in developing literacy in two languages. Current research on bilingual instruction (e.g., August & Shanahan, 2006; Genesse et al., 2006) shows how students use native literacy knowledge when learning to read and write in another language.

(C)  The effective transfer of skills transpires as students develop their metalinguistic skills and as they engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Transfer matters occur within fundamentals of language that are common to Spanish and English; within fundamentals that are similar, but not exact in both languages; and in fundamentals specific to each language and not applicable to the other language. The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer in English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2000; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). In other words, for transfer to occur, comprehension of the "rules" and the realization of their applicability to the new language specific tasks are necessary.

(D)  The concept of transfer necessitates the use of some of both languages in which both (Spanish and English) co-exist with flexibility. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages. This is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (See Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(3)  To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations at Kindergarten as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(4)  To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Print Awareness. Students understand how Spanish is written and printed. Students are expected to:

(A)  recognize that spoken words can be represented by print for communication;

(B)  identify upper- and lower-case letters;

(C)  demonstrate the one-to-one correspondence between a spoken word and a printed word in text;

(D)  recognize the difference between a letter and a printed word;

(E)  recognize that sentences are comprised of words separated by spaces and demonstrate the awareness of word boundaries (e.g., through kinesthetic or tactile actions such as clapping and jumping);

(F)  hold a book right side up, turn its pages correctly, and know that reading moves from top to bottom and left to right; and

(G)  identify different parts of a book (e.g., front and back covers, title page).

(2)  Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Phonological Awareness. Students display phonological awareness. Students are expected to:

(A)  identify a sentence made up of a group of words;

(B)  identify syllables in spoken words;

(C)  orally generate rhymes in response to spoken words (e.g., "¿Qué rima con mesa?");

(D)  distinguish orally presented rhyming pairs of words from non-rhyming pairs;

(E)  recognize spoken alliteration or groups of words that begin with the same initial sound (e.g., "Pepe Pecas pica papas");

(F)  blend spoken phonemes to form syllables and words (e.g., /m/ …/a/ says ma, ma-pa says "mapa");

(G)  isolate the initial syllabic sound in spoken words (e.g., /pa/ta, /la/ta, /ra/ta); and

(H)  separate spoken multi-syllabic words into two to three syllables (e.g., /to/ /ma/ /te/).

(3)  Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Phonics. Students use the relationships between letters and sounds and morphological analysis to decode written Spanish. Students are expected to:

(A)  decode the five vowel sounds;

(B)  decode syllables;

(C)  use phonological knowledge to match sounds to individual letters and syllables, including hard and soft consonants such as "r," "c," and "g";

(D)  decode the written "y" when used as a conjunction, as in "mamá y papá";

(E)  become familiar with the concept that "h" is silent;

(F)  become familiar with the digraphs /ch/, /rr/;

(G)  become familiar with the concept that "ll" and "y" have the same sound (e.g., llave, ya);

(H)  use knowledge of consonant/vowel sound relationships to decode syllables and words in text and independent of content (e.g., CV, VC, CVC, CVCV words); and

(I)  recognize that new words are created when syllables are changed, added, or deleted.

(4)  Reading/Beginning Reading/Strategies. Students comprehend a variety of texts drawing on useful strategies as needed. Students are expected to:

(A)  predict what might happen next in text based on the cover, title, and illustrations; and

(B)  ask and respond to questions about texts read aloud.

(5)  Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it correctly when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A)  identify and use words that name actions, directions, positions, sequences, and locations;

(B)  become familiar with grade appropriate vocabulary including content and function words;

(C)  recognize that compound words are made by putting two words together (e.g., saca + puntas = sacapuntas);

(D)  identify and sort pictures of objects into conceptual categories (e.g., colors, shapes, textures); and

(E)  use a picture dictionary to find words.

(6)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  identify elements of a story including setting, character, and key events;

(B)  discuss the big idea (theme) of a well-known folktale or fable and connect it to personal experience;

(C)  recognize sensory details; and

(D)  recognize recurring phrases and characters in traditional fairy tales, lullabies, and folktales from various cultures.

(7)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to respond to rhythm and rhyme in poetry through identifying a regular beat and similarities in word sounds.

(8)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  retell a main event from a story read aloud; and

(B)  describe characters in a story and the reasons for their actions.

(9)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the topic of an informational text heard.

(10)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text, and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  identify the topic and details in expository text heard or read, referring to the words and/or illustrations;

(B)  retell important facts in a text, heard or read;

(C)  discuss the ways authors group information in text; and

(D)  use titles and illustrations to make predictions about text.

(11)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A)  follow pictorial directions (e.g., recipes, science experiments); and

(B)  identify the meaning of specific signs (e.g., traffic signs, warning signs).

(12)  Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to:

(A)  identify different forms of media (e.g., advertisements, newspapers, radio programs); and

(B)  identify techniques used in media (e.g., sound, movement).

(13)  Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to:

(A)  plan a first draft by generating ideas for writing through class discussion;

(B)  develop drafts by sequencing the action or details in the story;

(C)  revise drafts by adding details or sentences;

(D)  edit drafts by leaving spaces between letters and words; and

(E)  share writing with others.

(14)  Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:

(A)  dictate or write sentences to tell a story and put the sentences in chronological sequence; and

(B)  write short poems.

(15)  Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to dictate or write information for lists, captions, or invitations.

(16)  Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  understand and use the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking (with adult assistance):

(i)  verbs, including commands and past and future tenses when speaking;

(ii)  nouns (singular/plural);

(iii)  descriptive words;

(iv)  prepositions and simple prepositional phrases appropriately when speaking or writing (e.g., en, de, por la tarde, en la mañana); and

(v)  personal pronouns (e.g., yo, ellos);

(B)  speak in complete sentences to communicate; and

(C)  use complete simple sentences.

(17)  Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

(A)  form upper- and lower-case letters legibly using the basic conventions of print (left-to-right and top-to-bottom progression);

(B)  capitalize the first letter in a sentence; and

(C)  use punctuation at the beginning (when appropriate) and at the end of a sentence.

(18)  Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to:

(A)  use phonological knowledge to match sounds to individual letters or syllables;

(B)  use letter-sound correspondences to spell mono- and multi-syllabic words;

(C)  use knowledge of consonant/vowel sound relationships to spell syllables and words in text and independent of content (e.g., CV, ma; VC, un; VCV, oso; CVC, sol; CVCV, mesa);

(D)  use "y" to represent /i/ when used as a conjunction (e.g. mamá y papá); and

(E)  write one's own name.

(19)  Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to:

(A)  ask questions about topics of class-wide interest; and

(B)  decide what sources or people in the classroom, school, library, or home can answer these questions.

(20)  Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to:

(A)  gather evidence from provided text sources; and

(B)  use pictures in conjunction with writing when documenting research.

(21)  Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  listen attentively by facing speakers and asking questions to clarify information; and

(B)  follow oral directions that involve a short related sequence of actions.

(22)  Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to share information and ideas by speaking audibly and clearly using the conventions of language.

(23)  Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to follow agreed-upon rules for discussion, including taking turns and speaking one at a time.

Source: The provisions of this §128.11 adopted to be effective November 26, 2008, 33 TexReg 9465.


§128.12. Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 1, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010.

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  The Spanish Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy, not mere translations from English. The Spanish Language Arts and Reading TEKS are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the Spanish language in speaking and writing. The Reading strand is structured to reflect major topic areas of the National Reading Panel Report as well as other current and relevant research on Spanish literacy development. In first grade, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should write, read, and be read to on a daily basis.

(2)  Research consistently shows that literacy development in the student's native language facilitates learning in English (Collier & Thomas, 1997; Cummins, 2001). Students can develop cognition, learn, and achieve best when they can understand the language of instruction (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2003). Students who have strong literacy skills in their primary language can be expected to transfer those skills to English and progress rapidly in learning in English. Although English and Spanish look very similar on the surface (i.e., similar alphabets; directionality; cognates) the conventions of each language presuppose the reading process in that language. Consequently, systematic instruction in the appropriate sequence of skills is critical. For this reason, the Spanish Language Arts and Reading TEKS reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and not mere translations from English.

(A)  Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. Spanish uses frequency words that are identified by the rate of occurrence in grade appropriate text and used to build on fluency and comprehension. However, in English, "sight" words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development.

(B)  Spanish instruction maximizes access to English content. Students with strong literacy skills in Spanish phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, and reading comprehension can be expected to transfer those skills to English. The "transfer" of knowledge and skills from one language to another refers to the metalinguistic and metacognitive processes and awareness that students gain in developing literacy in two languages. Current research on bilingual instruction (e.g., August & Shanahan, 2006; Genesse et al., 2006) shows how students use native literacy knowledge when learning to read and write in another language.

(C)  The effective transfer of skills transpires as students develop their metalinguistic skills and as they engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Transfer matters occur within fundamentals of language that are common to Spanish and English; within fundamentals that are similar, but not exact in both languages; and in fundamentals specific to each language and not applicable to the other language. The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer in English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2000; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). In other words, for transfer to occur, comprehension of the "rules" and the realization of their applicability to the new language specific tasks are necessary.

(D)  The concept of transfer necessitates the use of some of both languages in which both (Spanish and English) co-exist with flexibility. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages. This is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (See Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(3)  To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations in Grade 1 as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(4)  To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Print Awareness. Students understand how Spanish is written and printed. Students are expected to:

(A)  recognize that spoken words are represented in written Spanish by specific sequences of letters;

(B)  identify upper- and lower-case letters;

(C)  sequence the letters of the alphabet;

(D)  recognize the distinguishing features of a sentence (e.g., capitalization of first word, beginning and ending punctuation, the em dash to indicate dialogue);

(E)  read texts by moving from top to bottom of the page and tracking words from left to right with return sweep; and

(F)  identify the information that different parts of a book provide (e.g., title, author, illustrator, table of contents).

(2)  Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Phonological Awareness. Students display phonological awareness. Students are expected to:

(A)  orally generate a series of original rhyming words using a variety of endings (e.g., -ita, -osa, -ión);

(B)  recognize the change in a spoken word when a specified syllable or phoneme is added, changed, or removed (e.g., "ma-lo" to "ma-sa"; "to-mo" to "co-mo");

(C)  blend spoken phonemes to form syllables and words (e.g., sol, pato);

(D)  distinguish orally presented rhyming pairs of words from non-rhyming pairs;

(E)  identify syllables in spoken words, including diphthongs and hiatus (le-er, rí-o, quie-ro, na-die, ra-dio, sa-po); and

(F)  separate spoken multi-syllabic words into two to four syllables (e.g., ra-na, má-qui-na, te-lé-fo-no).

(3)  Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Phonics. Students use the relationships between letters and sounds to decode written Spanish. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A)  decode the five vowel sounds;

(B)  decode syllables;

(C)  use phonological knowledge to match sounds to individual letters and syllables including hard and soft consonants such as "r," "c," and "g";

(D)  decode the written "y" when used as a conjunction (e.g., "mamá y papá");

(E)  decode words in context and in isolation by applying the knowledge of letter-sound relationships in different structures including:

(i)  open syllable (e.g., CV, la; VCV, ala; CVCV, toma);

(ii)  closed syllable (e.g., VC, un; CVC, mes);

(iii)  consonant blends (e.g., bra/bra-zo; glo/glo-bo); and

(iv)  consonant digraphs (e.g., ch/chi-le; ll/lla-ve; rr/pe-rro);

(F)  decode words with the silent "h";

(G)  decode words that use syllables que-, qui-, as in queso and quito; gue-, gui-, as in guiso and juguete; and güe-, güi-, as in pingüino and agüita;

(H)  decode words that have the same sounds represented by different letters (e.g., "r" and "rr," as in ratón and perro; "ll" and "y," as in llave and yate; "g" and "j," as in gigante and jirafa; "c," "k," and "q," as in casa, kilo, and quince; "c," "s," and "z," as in cereal, semilla, and zapato; "j" and "x," as in cojín and México; "i" and "y," as in imán and doy; "b" and "v," as in burro and vela);

(I)  identify the stressed syllable (sílaba tónica);

(J)  decode words with an orthographic accent (e.g., "papá," "mamá"); and

(K)  use knowledge of the meaning of base words to identify and read common compound words (e.g., sacapuntas, abrelata, salvavida).

(4)  Reading/Beginning Reading/Strategies. Students comprehend a variety of texts drawing on useful strategies as needed. Students are expected to:

(A)  confirm predictions about what will happen next in text by "reading the part that tells";

(B)  ask relevant questions, seek clarification, and locate facts and details about stories and other texts; and

(C)  establish purpose for reading selected texts and monitor comprehension, making corrections and adjustments when that understanding breaks down (e.g., identifying clues, using background knowledge, generating questions, re-reading a portion aloud).

(5)  Reading/Fluency. Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are expected to read aloud grade-level appropriate text with accuracy, expression, appropriate phrasing, and comprehension.

(6)  Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A)  identify words that name actions (verbs) and words that name persons, places, or things (nouns);

(B)  determine the meaning of compound words using knowledge of the meaning of their individual component words (e.g., paraguas);

(C)  determine what words mean from how they are used in a sentence, either heard or read;

(D)  identify and sort words into conceptual categories (e.g., opposites, living things); and

(E)  alphabetize a series of words to the first or second letter and use a dictionary to find words.

(7)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  connect the meaning of a well-known story or fable to personal experiences; and

(B)  explain the function of recurring phrases (e.g., " Había una vez" or " Colorín Colorado, este cuento se ha acabado") in traditional folk- and fairy tales.

(8)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to respond to and use rhythm, rhyme, and alliteration in poetry.

(9)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  describe the plot (problem and solution) and retell a story's beginning, middle, and end with attention to the sequence of events; and

(B)  describe characters in a story and the reasons for their actions and feelings.

(10)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and respond by providing evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to determine whether a story is true or a fantasy and explain why.

(11)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to recognize sensory details in literary text.

(12)  Reading/Comprehension of Text/Independent Reading. Students read independently for sustained periods of time and produce evidence of their reading. Students are expected to read independently for a sustained period of time.

(13)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the topic and explain the author's purpose in writing the text.

(14)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  restate the main idea, heard or read;

(B)  identify important facts or details in text, heard or read;

(C)  retell the order of events in a text by referring to the words and/or illustrations; and

(D)  use text features (e.g., title, tables of contents, illustrations) to locate specific information in text.

(15)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A)  follow written multi-step directions with picture cues to assist with understanding; and

(B)  explain the meaning of specific signs and symbols (e.g., map features).

(16)  Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A)  recognize different purposes of media (e.g., informational, entertainment) (with adult assistance); and

(B)  identify techniques used in media (e.g., sound, movement).

(17)  Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A)  plan a first draft by generating ideas for writing (e.g., drawing, sharing ideas, listing key ideas);

(B)  develop drafts by sequencing ideas through writing sentences;

(C)  revise drafts by adding or deleting a word, phrase, or sentence;

(D)  edit drafts for grammar, punctuation, and spelling using a teacher-developed rubric; and

(E)  publish and share writing with others.

(18)  Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:

(A)  write brief stories that include a beginning, middle, and end; and

(B)  write short poems that convey sensory details.

(19)  Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A)  write brief compositions about topics of interest to the student;

(B)  write short letters that put ideas in a chronological or logical sequence and use appropriate conventions (e.g., date, salutation, closing); and

(C)  write brief comments on literary or informational texts.

(20)  Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  understand and use the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:

(i)  verbs in the past, present, and future in the indicative mode (canto, canté);

(ii)  nouns (singular/plural, common/proper);

(iii)  adjectives (e.g., descriptive: verde, alto);

(iv)  adverbs (e.g., time: before, next);

(v)  prepositions and prepositional phrases ("por la mañana");

(vi)  personal pronouns (e.g., yo, ellos); and

(vii)  time-order transition words (e.g., primero, luego, después);

(B)  speak in complete sentences with correct article-noun agreement (e.g., la pelota, el mapa, el agua, la mano, el águila); and

(C)  identify and read abbreviations (e.g., Sr., Sra.).

(21)  Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

(A)  form upper- and lower-case letters legibly in text, using the basic conventions of print (left-to-right and top-to-bottom progression), including spacing between words and sentences;

(B)  recognize and use basic capitalization for:

(i)  the beginning of sentences; and

(ii)  names of people; and

(C)  recognize and use punctuation marks at the beginning and end of exclamatory and interrogative sentences and at the end of declarative sentences.

(22)  Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to:

(A)  use phonological knowledge to match sounds to letters and syllables to construct words;

(B)  use syllable-sound patterns to generate a series of original rhyming words using a variety of ending patterns (e.g., -ción, -illa, -ita, -ito);

(C)  blend phonemes to form syllables and words (e.g., mismo, tarde);

(D)  become familiar with words using orthographic patterns including:

(i)  words that use syllables with hard /r/ spelled as "r" or "rr," as in ratón and carro;

(ii)  words that use syllables with soft /r/ spelled as "r" and always between two vowels, as in pero and perro;

(iii)  words that use syllables with silent "h, " as in hora and ahora;

(iv)  words that use syllables que-, qui-, as in queso and quito; gue-, gui-, as in guiso and juguete; and güe-, güi-, as in paragüero and agüita;

(v)  words that have the same sound represented by different letters (e.g., "r" and "rr," as in ratón and perro; "ll" and "y," as in llave and yate; "g" and "j," as in gigante and jirafa; "c," "k," and "q," as in casa, kilo, and quince; "c," "s," and "z," as in cereal, semilla, and zapato; "j" and "x," as in cojín and México; "i" and "y," as in imán and doy; "b" and "v," as in burro and vela); and

(vi)  words using "n" before "v" (e.g., invitar), "m" before "b" (e.g., cambiar), and "m" before "p" (e.g., importante);

(E)  become familiar with words with consonant blends (e.g., bra/bra-zo-, glo/glo-bo-);

(F)  use knowledge of syllabic sounds, word parts, word segmentation, and syllabication to spell;

(G)  become familiar with words that have a prosodic or orthographic accent on the last syllable (palabras agudas) (e.g., calor, ratón);

(H)  become familiar with the appropriate use of accents on words commonly used in questions and exclamations (e.g., cuál, dónde, cómo);

(I)  become familiar with creating the plural form of words ending in "z" by replacing the "z" with "c" before adding -es (e.g., lápiz, lápices, feliz, felices); and

(J)  use resources to find correct spellings.

(23)  Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to:

(A)  generate a list of topics of class-wide interest and formulate open-ended questions about one or two of the topics; and

(B)  decide what sources of information might be relevant to answer these questions.

(24)  Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to:

(A)  gather evidence from available sources (natural and personal) as well as from interviews with local experts;

(B)  use text features (e.g., table of contents, alphabetized index) in age-appropriate reference works (e.g., picture dictionaries) to locate information; and

(C)  record basic information in simple visual formats (e.g., notes, charts, picture graphs, diagrams).

(25)  Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to revise the topic as a result of answers to initial research questions.

(26)  Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to create a visual display or dramatization to convey the results of the research.

(27)  Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  listen attentively to speakers and ask relevant questions to clarify information; and

(B)  follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a short related sequence of actions.

(28)  Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to share information and ideas about the topic under discussion, speaking clearly at an appropriate pace, using the conventions of language.

(29)  Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to follow agreed-upon rules for discussion, including listening to others, speaking when recognized, and making appropriate contributions.

Source: The provisions of this §128.12 adopted to be effective November 26, 2008, 33 TexReg 9465.


§128.13. Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 2, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010.

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  The Spanish Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy, not mere translations from English. The Spanish Language Arts and Reading TEKS are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the Spanish language in speaking and writing. The Reading strand is structured to reflect major topic areas of the National Reading Panel Report as well as other current and relevant research on Spanish literacy development. In second grade, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should write, read, and be read to on a daily basis.

(2)  Research consistently shows that literacy development in the student's native language facilitates learning in English (Collier & Thomas, 1997; Cummins, 2001). Students can develop cognition, learn, and achieve best when they can understand the language of instruction (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2003). Students who have strong literacy skills in their primary language can be expected to transfer those skills to English and progress rapidly in learning in English. Although English and Spanish look very similar on the surface (i.e., similar alphabets; directionality; cognates) the conventions of each language presuppose the reading process in that language. Consequently, systematic instruction in the appropriate sequence of skills is critical. For this reason, the Spanish Language Arts and Reading TEKS reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and not mere translations from English.

(A)  Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. Spanish uses frequency words that are identified by the rate of occurrence in grade appropriate text and used to build on fluency and comprehension. However, in English, "sight" words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development.

(B)  Spanish instruction maximizes access to English content. Students with strong literacy skills in Spanish phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, and reading comprehension can be expected to transfer those skills to English. The "transfer" of knowledge and skills from one language to another refers to the metalinguistic and metacognitive processes and awareness that students gain in developing literacy in two languages. Current research on bilingual instruction (e.g., August & Shanahan, 2006; Genesse et al., 2006) shows how students use native literacy knowledge when learning to read and write in another language.

(C)  The effective transfer of skills transpires as students develop their metalinguistic skills and as they engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Transfer matters occur within fundamentals of language that are common to Spanish and English; within fundamentals that are similar, but not exact in both languages; and in fundamentals specific to each language and not applicable to the other language. The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer in English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2000; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). In other words, for transfer to occur, comprehension of the "rules" and the realization of their applicability to the new language specific tasks are necessary.

(D)  The concept of transfer necessitates the use of some of both languages in which both (Spanish and English) co-exist with flexibility. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages. This is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (See Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(3)  To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations at Grade 2 as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(4)  To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Print Awareness. Students understand how Spanish is written and printed. Students are expected to distinguish features of a sentence (e.g., capitalization of first word, beginning and ending punctuation, commas, quotation marks, and em dash to indicate dialogue).

(2)  Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Phonics. Students use the relationships between letters and sounds and spelling based on orthographic rules to decode written Spanish. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A)  decode words in context and in isolation by applying the knowledge of letter-sound relationships in different syllabic structures. including:

(i)  open syllable (CV) (e.g., la/la-ta; to/to-ma);

(ii)  closed syllable (CVC) (e.g., mes, sol);

(iii)  diphthongs (e.g., viernes, pie, fui);

(iv)  hiatus (e.g., fideo, poeta);

(v)  consonant blends (e.g., bra/bra-zo; glo/glo-bo); and

(vi)  consonant digraphs (e.g., ch/chi-le; ll/lla-ve; rr/pe-rro);

(B)  use orthographic rules to segment and combine syllables including vowel diphthongs (e.g., pue-de, sien-te, va-ca);

(C)  decode words with silent "h" with increasing accuracy;

(D)  become familiar with words that use syllables que-, qui-, as in queso and quito; gue-, gui-, as in guiso and juguete; and güe-, güi-, as in pingüino and agüita;

(E)  decode words that have same sounds represented by different letters with increased accuracy (e.g., "r" and "rr," as in ratón and perro; "ll" and "y," as in llave and yate; "g" and "j," as in gigante and jirafa; "c," "k," and "q," as in casa, kilo, and quince; "c," "s," and "z," as in cereal, semilla, and zapato; "j" and "x," as in cojín and México; "i" and "y," as in imán and doy; "b" and "v," as in burro and vela);

(F)  read words with common prefixes (e.g., in-, des-) and suffixes (e.g., -mente, -dad, -oso);

(G)  identify and read abbreviations (e.g., Sr., Dra.);

(H)  identify the stressed syllable (sílaba tónica);

(I)  decode words with an orthographic accent (e.g., papá, avión); and

(J)  use knowledge of the meaning of base words to identify and read common compound words (e.g., sacapuntas, abrelatas, sobrecama).

(3)  Reading/Beginning Reading/Strategies. Students comprehend a variety of texts drawing on useful strategies as needed. Students are expected to:

(A)  use ideas (e.g., illustrations, titles, topic sentences, key words, and foreshadowing) to make and confirm predictions;

(B)  ask relevant questions, seek clarification, and locate facts and details about stories and other texts and support answers with evidence from text; and

(C)  establish purpose for reading selected texts and monitor comprehension, making corrections and adjustments when that understanding breaks down (e.g., identifying clues, using background knowledge, generating questions, re-reading a portion aloud).

(4)  Reading/Fluency. Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are expected to read aloud grade-level appropriate text with accuracy, expression, appropriate phrasing, and comprehension.

(5)  Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A)  use prefixes and suffixes to determine the meaning of words (e.g., componer/descomponer; obedecer/desobedecer);

(B)  use context to determine the relevant meaning of unfamiliar words or multiple-meaning words;

(C)  identify and use common words that are opposite (antonyms) or similar (synonyms) in meaning; and

(D)  alphabetize a series of words and use a dictionary or a glossary to find words.

(6)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  identify moral lessons as themes in well-known fables, legends, myths, or stories; and

(B)  compare different versions of the same story in traditional and contemporary folktales with respect to their characters, settings, and plot.

(7)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to describe how rhyme, rhythm, and repetition interact to create images in poetry.

(8)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the elements of dialogue and use them in informal plays.

(9)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  describe similarities and differences in the plots and settings of several works by the same author; and

(B)  describe main characters in works of fiction, including their traits, motivations, and feelings.

(10)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and respond by providing evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to distinguish between fiction and nonfiction.

(11)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to recognize that some words and phrases have literal and non-literal meanings (e.g., take steps).

(12)  Reading/Comprehension of Text/Independent Reading. Students read independently for sustained periods of time and produce evidence of their reading. Students are expected to read independently for a sustained period of time and paraphrase what the reading was about, maintaining meaning.

(13)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the topic and explain the author's purpose in writing the text.

(14)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about and understand expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  identify the main idea in a text and distinguish it from the topic;

(B)  locate the facts that are clearly stated in a text;

(C)  describe the order of events or ideas in a text; and

(D)  use text features (e.g., table of contents, index, headings) to locate specific information in text.

(15)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Text. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A)  follow written multi-step directions; and

(B)  use common graphic features to assist in the interpretation of text (e.g., captions, illustrations).

(16)  Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A)  recognize different purposes of media (e.g., informational, entertainment);

(B)  describe techniques used to create media messages (e.g., sound, graphics); and

(C)  identify various written conventions for using digital media (e.g., e-mail, website, video game).

(17)  Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A)  plan a first draft by generating ideas for writing (e.g., drawing, sharing ideas, listing key ideas);

(B)  develop drafts by sequencing ideas through writing sentences;

(C)  revise drafts by adding or deleting words, phrases, or sentences;

(D)  edit drafts for grammar, punctuation, and spelling using a teacher-developed rubric; and

(E)  publish and share writing with others.

(18)  Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:

(A)  write brief stories that include a beginning, middle, and end; and

(B)  write short poems that convey sensory details.

(19)  Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A)  write brief compositions about topics of interest to the student;

(B)  write short letters that put ideas in a chronological or logical sequence and use appropriate conventions (e.g., date, salutation, closing); and

(C)  write brief comments on literary or informational texts.

(20)  Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write persuasive statements about issues that are important to the student for the appropriate audience in the school, home, or local community.

(21)  Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  understand and use the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:

(i)  regular and irregular verbs (past, present, and future in the indicative mode);

(ii)  nouns (singular/plural, common/proper);

(iii)  adjectives (e.g., descriptive: viejo, maravilloso);

(iv)  articles (e.g., un, una, la, el);

(v)  adverbs (e.g., time: antes, después; manner: cuidadosamente);

(vi)  prepositions and prepositional phrases;

(vii)  pronouns (e.g., él, su); and

(viii)  time-order transition words; and

(B)  distinguish among declarative, interrogative, exclamatory, and imperative sentences.

(22)  Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

(A)  write legibly leaving appropriate margins for readability;

(B)  use capitalization for:

(i)  proper nouns; and

(ii)  the salutation and closing of a letter;

(C)  understand that months and days of the week are not capitalized;

(D)  recognize and use punctuation marks, including beginning and ending punctuation in sentences; and

(E)  identify, read, and write abbreviations (e.g., Srta., Dr.).

(23)  Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to:

(A)  become familiar with words using orthographic patterns including:

(i)  words that use syllables with hard /r/ spelled as "r" or "rr," as in ratón and carro;

(ii)  words that use syllables with soft /r/ spelled as "r" and always between two vowels, as in loro and cara;

(iii)  words that use syllables with silent "h," as in hora and hoy;

(iv)  words that use syllables que-, qui-, as in queso and quito; gue-, gui-, as in guiso and juguete; and güe-, güi-, as in paragüero and agüita;

(v)  words that have the same sound represented by different letters (e.g., "r" and "rr," as in ratón and perro; "ll" and "y," as in llave and yate; "g" and "j," as in gigante and jirafa; "c," "k," and "q," as in casa, kilo, and quince; "c," "s," and "z," as in cereal, semilla, and zapato; "j" and "x," as in cojín and México; "i" and "y," as in imán and doy; "b" and "v," as in burro and vela); and

(vi)  words using "n" before "v" (e.g., invitación), "m" before "b" (e.g., cambiar), and "m" before "p" (e.g., comprar);

(B)  spell words with consonant blends (e.g., bra/bra-zo-, glo/glo-bo-);

(C)  spell the plural form of words ending in "z" by replacing the "z" with "c" before adding -es (e.g., lápiz, lápices, feliz, felices);

(D)  use knowledge of syllabic sounds, word parts, word segmentation, and syllabication to spell;

(E)  spell words that have a prosodic or orthographic accent on the last syllable (palabras agudas) (e.g., feliz, canción);

(F)  become familiar with words that have a prosodic or orthographic accent on the second-to-last syllable (palabras graves) (e.g., casa, árbol);

(G)  use accents appropriately on words commonly used in questions and exclamations (e.g., cuál, dónde, cómo);

(H)  mark accents appropriately when conjugating verbs in the simple past in the indicative mode (e.g., corrió, jugó);

(I)  identify, read, and write abbreviations (e.g., Sr., Dra.); and

(J)  use resources to find correct spellings.

(24)  Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

(A)  generate a list of topics of class-wide interest and formulate open-ended questions about one or two of the topics; and

(B)  decide what sources of information might be relevant to answer these questions.

(25)  Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

(A)  gather evidence from available sources (natural and personal) as well as from interviews with local experts;

(B)  use text features (e.g., table of contents, alphabetized index, headings) in age-appropriate reference works (e.g., picture dictionaries) to locate information; and

(C)  record basic information in simple visual formats (e.g., notes, charts, picture graphs, diagrams).

(26)  Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to revise the topic as a result of answers to initial research questions.

(27)  Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students (with adult assistance) are expected to create a visual display or dramatization to convey the results of the research.

(28)  Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  listen attentively to speakers and ask relevant questions to clarify information; and

(B)  follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a short related sequence of actions.

(29)  Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to share information and ideas that focus on the topic under discussion, speaking clearly at an appropriate pace, using the conventions of language.

(30)  Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to follow agreed-upon rules for discussion, including listening to others, speaking when recognized, and making appropriate contributions.

Source: The provisions of this §128.13 adopted to be effective November 26, 2008, 33 TexReg 9465.


§128.14. Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 3, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010.

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  The Spanish Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy, not mere translations from English. The Spanish Language Arts and Reading TEKS are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the Spanish language in speaking and writing. The standards are cumulative--students will continue to address earlier standards as needed while they attend to standards for their grade. In third grade, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should read, write, and be read to on a daily basis.

(2)  Research consistently shows that literacy development in the student's native language facilitates learning in English (Collier & Thomas, 1997; Cummins, 2001). Students can develop cognition, learn, and achieve best when they can understand the language of instruction (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2003). Students who have strong literacy skills in their primary language can be expected to transfer those skills to English and progress rapidly in learning in English. Although English and Spanish look very similar on the surface (i.e., similar alphabets; directionality; cognates) the conventions of each language presuppose the reading process in that language. Consequently, systematic instruction in the appropriate sequence of skills is critical. For this reason, the Spanish Language Arts and Reading TEKS reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and not mere translations from English.

(A)  Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. Spanish uses frequency words that are identified by the rate of occurrence in grade appropriate text and used to build on fluency and comprehension. However, in English, "sight" words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development.

(B)  Spanish instruction maximizes access to English content. Students with strong literacy skills in Spanish phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, and reading comprehension can be expected to transfer those skills to English. The "transfer" of knowledge and skills from one language to another refers to the metalinguistic and metacognitive processes and awareness that students gain in developing literacy in two languages. Current research on bilingual instruction (e.g., August & Shanahan, 2006; Genesse et al., 2006) shows how students use native literacy knowledge when learning to read and write in another language.

(C)  The effective transfer of skills transpires as students develop their metalinguistic skills and as they engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Transfer matters occur within fundamentals of language that are common to Spanish and English; within fundamentals that are similar, but not exact in both languages; and in fundamentals specific to each language and not applicable to the other language. The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer in English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2000; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). In other words, for transfer to occur, comprehension of the "rules" and the realization of their applicability to the new language specific tasks are necessary.

(D)  The concept of transfer necessitates the use of some of both languages in which both (Spanish and English) co-exist with flexibility. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages. This is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (See Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(3)  To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations at Grade 3 as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(4)  To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Phonics. Students use the relationships between letters and sounds and spelling based on orthographic rules to decode written Spanish. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A)  use orthographic rules to segment and combine syllables including diphthongs (e.g., na-die, ra-dio);

(B)  decode words with silent "h" with increasing accuracy;

(C)  decode words that use the syllables que-, qui-, as in queso and quito; gue-, gui-, as in guiso and juguete; and güe-, güi-, as in pingüino and agüita;

(D)  develop automatic recognition of words that have the same sounds represented by different letters with increased accuracy (e.g., "r" and "rr," as in ratón and perro; "ll" and "y," as in llave and yate; "g" and "j," as in gigante and jirafa; "c," "k," and "q," as in casa, kilo, and quince; "c," "s," and "z," as in cereal, semilla, and zapato; "j" and "x," as in cojín and México; "i" and "y," as in imán and doy; "b" and "v," as in burro and vela);

(E)  read words with common prefixes (e.g., in-, des-) and suffixes (e.g., -mente, -dad, -oso);

(F)  identify the syllable that is stressed (sílaba tónica);

(G)  decode words with an orthographic accent (e.g., día, también, después);

(H)  use knowledge of the meaning of base words to identify and read common compound words (e.g., sacapuntas, abrelatas, salvavidas); and

(I)  monitor accuracy in decoding words that have same sound represented by different letters.

(2)  Reading/Beginning Reading/Strategies. Students comprehend a variety of texts drawing on useful strategies as needed. Students are expected to:

(A)  use ideas (e.g., illustrations, titles, topic sentences, key words, and foreshadowing clues) to make and confirm predictions;

(B)  ask relevant questions, seek clarification, and locate facts and details about stories and other texts and support answers with evidence from text; and

(C)  establish purpose for reading selected texts and monitor comprehension, making corrections and adjustments when that understanding breaks down (e.g., identifying clues, using background knowledge, generating questions, re-reading a portion aloud).

(3)  Reading/Fluency. Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are expected to read aloud grade-level appropriate text with accuracy, expression, appropriate phrasing, and comprehension.

(4)  Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A)  identify the meaning of common prefixes (e.g., ex-, des-) and suffixes (e.g., -era, -oso), and know how they change the meaning of roots;

(B)  use context to determine the relevant meaning of unfamiliar words or distinguish among multiple meaning words and homographs (e.g., vino-la bebida; vino-del verbo venir);

(C)  identify and use antonyms, synonyms, and homophones (e.g., tubo, tuvo);

(D)  identify and apply playful uses of language (e.g., tongue twisters, palindromes, riddles); and

(E)  alphabetize a series of words to the third letter and use a dictionary or a glossary to determine the meanings and syllabication of unknown words.

(5)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  paraphrase the themes and supporting details of fables, legends, myths, or stories; and

(B)  compare and contrast the settings in myths and traditional folktales.

(6)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to describe the characteristics of various forms of poetry and how they create imagery (e.g., narrative poetry, lyrical poetry, humorous poetry, free verse).

(7)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the elements of plot and character as presented through dialogue in scripts that are read, viewed, written, or performed.

(8)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  sequence and summarize the plot's main events and explain their influence on future events;

(B)  describe the interaction of characters including their relationships and the changes they undergo; and

(C)  identify whether the narrator or speaker of a story is first or third person.

(9)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and respond by providing evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the difference in point of view between a biography and autobiography.

(10)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify language that creates a graphic visual experience and appeals to the senses.

(11)  Reading/Comprehension of Text/Independent Reading. Students read independently for sustained periods of time and produce evidence of their reading. Students are expected to read independently for a sustained period of time and paraphrase what the reading was about, maintaining meaning and logical order (e.g., generate a reading log or journal; participate in book talks).

(12)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the topic and locate the author's stated purposes in writing the text.

(13)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  identify the details or facts that support the main idea;

(B)  draw conclusions from the facts presented in text and support those assertions with textual evidence;

(C)  identify explicit cause and effect relationships among ideas in texts; and

(D)  use text features (e.g., bold print, captions, key words, italics) to locate information and make and verify predictions about contents of text.

(14)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to identify what the author is trying to persuade the reader to think or do.

(15)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A)  follow and explain a set of written multi-step directions; and

(B)  locate and use specific information in graphic features of text.

(16)  Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A)  understand how communication changes when moving from one genre of media to another;

(B)  explain how various design techniques used in media influence the message (e.g., shape, color, sound); and

(C)  compare various written conventions used for digital media (e.g., language in an informal e-mail vs. language in a web-based news article).

(17)  Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A)  plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for conveying the intended meaning to an audience and generating ideas through a range of strategies (e.g., brainstorming, graphic organizers, logs, journals);

(B)  develop drafts by categorizing ideas and organizing them into paragraphs;

(C)  revise drafts for coherence, organization, use of simple and compound sentences, and audience;

(D)  edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling using a teacher-developed rubric; and

(E)  publish written work for a specific audience.

(18)  Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:

(A)  write imaginative stories that build the plot to a climax and contain details about the characters and setting; and

(B)  write poems that convey sensory details using the conventions of poetry (e.g., rhyme, meter, patterns of verse).

(19)  Writing. Students write about their own experiences. Students are expected to write about important personal experiences.

(20)  Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A)  create brief compositions that:

(i)  establish a central idea in a topic sentence;

(ii)  include supporting sentences with simple facts, details, and explanations; and

(iii)  contain a concluding statement;

(B)  write letters whose language is tailored to the audience and purpose (e.g., a thank you note to a friend) and that use appropriate conventions (e.g., date, salutation, closing); and

(C)  write responses to literary or expository texts that demonstrate an understanding of the text.

(21)  Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write persuasive essays for appropriate audiences that establish a position and use supporting details.

(22)  Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:

(i)  regular and irregular verbs (past, present, future, and perfect tenses in the indicative mode);

(ii)  nouns (singular/plural, common/proper);

(iii)  adjectives (e.g., descriptive: dorado, rectangular; limiting: este, ese, aquel);

(iv)  articles (e.g., un, una, lo, la, el, los, las);

(v)  adverbs (e.g., time: luego, antes; manner: cuidadosamente);

(vi)  prepositions and prepositional phrases;

(vii)  possessive pronouns (e.g., su, sus, mi, mis, suyo);

(viii)  coordinating conjunctions (e.g., y, o, pero); and

(ix)  time-order transition words and transitions that indicate a conclusion (e.g., finalmente, por último);

(B)  use the complete subject and the complete predicate in a sentence;

(C)  use complete simple and compound sentences; and

(D)  identify, read, and write abbreviations (e.g., Ave, Dra., Atte.).

(23)  Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

(A)  write legibly in cursive script with spacing between words in a sentence;

(B)  use capitalization for:

(i)  geographical names and places;

(ii)  historical periods; and

(iii)  official titles of people;

(C)  recognize and use punctuation marks including commas; and

(D)  use correct mechanics including paragraph indentations or "sangrías."

(24)  Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to:

(A)  spell words with increased accuracy using orthographic rules, including:

(i)  words that use syllables with hard /r/ spelled as "r" or "rr," as in ratón and carro;

(ii)  words that use syllables with soft /r/ spelled as "r" and always between two vowels, as in pero and perro;

(iii)  words that use syllables with silent "h" (e.g., ahora, almohada);

(iv)  words that use syllables que-, qui-, as in queso and quito; gue-, gui-, as in guiso and juguete; and güe-, güi-, as in paragüero and agüita;

(v)  words that have the same sound represented by different letters (e.g., "r" and "rr," as in ratón and perro; "ll" and "y," as in llave and yate; "g" and "j," as in gigante and jirafa; "c," "k," and "q," as in casa, kilo, and quince; "c," "s," and "z," as in cereal, semilla, and zapato; "j" and "x," as in cojín and México; "i" and "y," as in imán and doy; "b" and "v," as in burro and vela); and

(vi)  words using "n" before "v" (e.g., invitación), "m" before "b" (e.g., cambiar), and "m" before "p" (e.g., comprar);

(B)  spell words with consonant blends with increased accuracy (e.g., bra/bra-zo-, glo/glo-bo-);

(C)  spell with increased accuracy the plural form of words ending in "z" by replacing the "z" with "c" before adding -es (e.g., capaz, capaces; raíz, raices);

(D)  use knowledge of syllabic sounds, word parts, word segmentation, and syllabication to spell;

(E)  write with increased accuracy using accent marks, including:

(i)  words that have a prosodic or orthographic accent on the last syllable (palabras agudas) (e.g., feliz, canción); and

(ii)  words that have a prosodic or orthographic accent on the second-to-last syllable (palabras graves) (e.g., casa, árbol);

(F)  become familiar with words that have an orthographic accent on the third-to-last syllable (palabras esdrújulas) (e.g., último, cómico, mecánico);

(G)  become familiar with the concept of hiatus and diphthongs and the implications for orthographic accents (e.g., le-er, rí-o; quie-ro, vio);

(H)  use with increased accuracy accents on words commonly used in questions and exclamations (e.g., cuál, dónde, cómo);

(I)  differentiate the meaning or function of a word based on the diacritical accent (e.g., se/sé, el/él, mas/más);

(J)  mark accents appropriately when conjugating verbs in simple and imperfect past, perfect, conditional, and future tenses (e.g., corrió, jugó, tenía, gustaría, vendrá); and

(K)  use print and electronic resources to find and check correct spellings.

(25)  Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

(A)  generate research topics from personal interests or by brainstorming with others, narrow to one topic, and formulate open-ended questions about the major research topic; and

(B)  generate a research plan for gathering relevant information (e.g., surveys, interviews, encyclopedias) about the major research question.

(26)  Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

(A)  follow the research plan to collect information from multiple sources of information, both oral and written, including:

(i)  student-initiated surveys, on-site inspections, and interviews;

(ii)  data from experts, reference texts, and online searches; and

(iii)  visual sources of information (e.g., maps, timelines, graphs) where appropriate;

(B)  use skimming and scanning techniques to identify data by looking at text features (e.g., bold print, captions, key words, italics);

(C)  take simple notes and sort evidence into provided categories or an organizer;

(D)  identify the author, title, publisher, and publication year of sources; and

(E)  differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism and identify the importance of citing valid and reliable sources.

(27)  Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to improve the focus of research as a result of consulting expert sources (e.g., reference librarians and local experts on the topic).

(28)  Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to draw conclusions through a brief written explanation and create a works-cited page from notes, including the author, title, publisher, and publication year for each source used.

(29)  Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  listen attentively to speakers, ask relevant questions, and make pertinent comments; and

(B)  follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a series of related sequences of action.

(30)  Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to speak coherently about the topic under discussion, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, and the conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

(31)  Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate in teacher- and student-led discussions by posing and answering questions with appropriate detail and by providing suggestions that build upon the ideas of others.

Source: The provisions of this §128.14 adopted to be effective November 26, 2008, 33 TexReg 9465.


§128.15. Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 4, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010.

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  The Spanish Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy, not mere translations from English. The Spanish Language Arts and Reading TEKS are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the Spanish language in speaking and writing. The standards are cumulative--students will continue to address earlier standards as needed while they attend to standards for their grade. In fourth grade, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should read, write, and be read to on a daily basis.

(2)  Research consistently shows that literacy development in the student's native language facilitates learning in English (Collier & Thomas, 1997; Cummins, 2001). Students can develop cognition, learn, and achieve best when they can understand the language of instruction (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2003). Students who have strong literacy skills in their primary language can be expected to transfer those skills to English and progress rapidly in learning in English. Although English and Spanish look very similar on the surface (i.e., similar alphabets; directionality; cognates) the conventions of each language presuppose the reading process in that language. Consequently, systematic instruction in the appropriate sequence of skills is critical. For this reason, the Spanish Language Arts and Reading TEKS reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and not mere translations from English.

(A)  Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process, and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. Spanish uses frequency words that are identified by the rate of occurrence in grade appropriate text and used to build on fluency and comprehension. However, in English, "sight" words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development.

(B)  Spanish instruction maximizes access to English content. Students with strong literacy skills in Spanish phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, and reading comprehension can be expected to transfer those skills to English. The "transfer" of knowledge and skills from one language to another refers to the metalinguistic and metacognitive processes and awareness that students gain in developing literacy in two languages. Current research on bilingual instruction (e.g., August & Shanahan, 2006; Genesse et al., 2006) shows how students use native literacy knowledge when learning to read and write in another language.

(C)  The effective transfer of skills transpires as students develop their metalinguistic skills and as they engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Transfer matters occur within fundamentals of language that are common to Spanish and English; within fundamentals that are similar, but not exact in both languages; and in fundamentals specific to each language and not applicable to the other language. The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer in English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2000; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). In other words, for transfer to occur, comprehension of the "rules" and the realization of their applicability to the new language specific tasks are necessary.

(D)  The concept of transfer necessitates the use of some of both languages in which both (Spanish and English) co-exist with flexibility. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages. This is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (See Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(3)  To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations at Grade 4 as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(4)  To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  Reading/Fluency. Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are expected to read aloud grade-level stories with accuracy, expression, appropriate phrasing, and comprehension.

(2)  Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A)  determine the meaning of grade-level academic Spanish words derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes;

(B)  use the context of the sentence (e.g., in-sentence example or definition) to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words or multiple meaning words;

(C)  complete analogies using knowledge of antonyms and synonyms (e.g., boy:girl as male:____ or girl:woman as boy:_____);

(D)  identify the meaning of common idioms; and

(E)  use a dictionary or glossary to determine the meanings, spelling, and syllabication of unknown words.

(3)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  summarize and explain the lesson or message of a work of fiction as its theme; and

(B)  compare and contrast the adventures or exploits of characters (e.g., the trickster) in traditional and classical literature.

(4)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain how the structural elements of poetry (e.g., rhyme, meter, stanzas, line breaks) relate to form (e.g., lyrical poetry, free verse).

(5)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to describe the structural elements particular to dramatic literature.

(6)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  sequence and summarize the plot's main events and explain their influence on future events;

(B)  describe the interaction of characters including their relationships and the changes they undergo; and

(C)  identify whether the narrator or speaker of a story is first or third person.

(7)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify similarities and differences between the events and characters' experiences in a fictional work and the actual events and experiences described in an author's biography or autobiography.

(8)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the author's use of similes and metaphors to produce imagery.

(9)  Reading/Comprehension of Text/Independent Reading. Students read independently for sustained periods of time and produce evidence of their reading. Students are expected to read independently for a sustained period of time and paraphrase what the reading was about, maintaining meaning and logical order (e.g., generate a reading log or journal; participate in book talks).

(10)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the difference between a stated and an implied purpose for an expository text.

(11)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  summarize the main idea and supporting details in text in ways that maintain meaning;

(B)  distinguish fact from opinion in a text and explain how to verify what is a fact;

(C)  describe explicit and implicit relationships among ideas in texts organized by cause-and-effect, sequence, or comparison; and

(D)  use multiple text features (e.g., guide words, topic and concluding sentences) to gain an overview of the contents of text and to locate information.

(12)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to explain how an author uses language to present information to influence what the reader thinks or does.

(13)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A)  determine the sequence of activities needed to carry out a procedure (e.g., following a recipe); and

(B)  explain factual information presented graphically (e.g., charts, diagrams, graphs, illustrations).

(14)  Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A)  explain the positive and negative impacts of advertisement techniques used in various genres of media to impact consumer behavior;

(B)  explain how various design techniques used in media influence the message (e.g., pacing, close-ups, sound effects); and

(C)  compare various written conventions used for digital media (e.g., language in an informal e-mail vs. language in a web-based news article).

(15)  Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A)  plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for conveying the intended meaning to an audience and generating ideas through a range of strategies (e.g., brainstorming, graphic organizers, logs, journals);

(B)  develop drafts by categorizing ideas and organizing them into paragraphs;

(C)  revise drafts for coherence, organization, use of simple and compound sentences, and audience;

(D)  edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling using a teacher-developed rubric; and

(E)  revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for a specific audience.

(16)  Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:

(A)  write imaginative stories that build the plot to a climax and contain details about the characters and setting; and

(B)  write poems that convey sensory details using the conventions of poetry (e.g., rhyme, meter, patterns of verse).

(17)  Writing. Students write about their own experiences. Students are expected to write about important personal experiences.

(18)  Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A)  create brief compositions that:

(i)  establish a central idea in a topic sentence;

(ii)  include supporting sentences with simple facts, details, and explanations; and

(iii)  contain a concluding statement;

(B)  write letters whose language is tailored to the audience and purpose (e.g., a thank you note to a friend) and that use appropriate conventions (e.g., date, salutation, closing); and

(C)  write responses to literary or expository texts and provide evidence from the text to demonstrate understanding.

(19)  Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write persuasive essays for appropriate audiences that establish a position and use supporting details.

(20)  Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:

(i)  regular and irregular verbs (past, present, future, and perfect tenses in the indicative mode);

(ii)  nouns (singular/plural, common/proper);

(iii)  adjectives (e.g., descriptive, including adjective phrases: vestido de domingo) and their comparative and superlative forms (e.g., más que, la más);

(iv)  adverbs (e.g., frequency: usualmente, a veces; intensity: casi, mucho);

(v)  prepositions and prepositional phrases to convey location, time, direction, or to provide details;

(vi)  reflexive pronouns (e.g., me, te, se, nos);

(vii)  correlative conjunctions (e.g., o/o, ni/ni); and

(viii)  time-order transition words and transitions that indicate a conclusion;

(B)  use the complete subject and the complete predicate in a sentence; and

(C)  use complete simple and compound sentences with correct subject-verb agreement.

(21)  Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

(A)  write legibly by selecting cursive script or manuscript printing as appropriate;

(B)  use capitalization for:

(i)  historical events and documents; and

(ii)  the first words of titles of books, stories, and essays;

(C)  recognize and use punctuation marks including commas in compound sentences; colons, semi-colons, ellipses, the hyphen, and em dash; and

(D)  identify and read abbreviations (e.g., Sr., Atte.).

(22)  Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to:

(A)  write with increasing accuracy using accent marks including:

(i)  words that have a prosodic or orthographic accent on the last syllable (palabras agudas) (e.g., feliz, canción);

(ii)  words that have a prosodic or orthographic accent on the second-to-last syllable (palabras graves) (e.g., casa, árbol); and

(iii)  words that have an orthographic accent on the third-to-last syllable (palabras esdrújulas) (e.g., último, cómico, mecánico);

(B)  spell words with hiatus and diphthongs (e.g., le-er, rí-o, quie-ro, vio);

(C)  spell base words and roots with affixes (e.g., ex-, pre-, post-, -able);

(D)  spell words with:

(i)  Greek roots (e.g., tele-, foto-, grafo-, metro-);

(ii)  Latin roots (e.g., spec, scrib, rupt, port, dict);

(iii)  Greek suffixes (e.g., -ología, -fobia, -ismo, -ista); and

(iv)  Latin derived suffixes (e.g., -able, -ible, -ancia);

(E)  differentiate the meaning or function of a word based on the diacritical accent (e.g., dé, de; tú, tu);

(F)  mark accents appropriately when conjugating verbs in simple and imperfect past, perfect, conditional, and future tenses (e.g., corrió, jugó, tenía, gustaría, vendrá); and

(G)  use spelling patterns, rules, and print and electronic resources to determine and check correct spellings.

(23)  Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

(A)  generate research topics from personal interests or by brainstorming with others, narrow to one topic, and formulate open-ended questions about the major research topic; and

(B)  generate a research plan for gathering relevant information (e.g., surveys, interviews, encyclopedias) about the major research question.

(24)  Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

(A)  follow the research plan to collect information from multiple sources of information both oral and written, including:

(i)  student-initiated surveys, on-site inspections, and interviews;

(ii)  data from experts, reference texts, and online searches; and

(iii)  visual sources of information (e.g., maps, timelines, graphs) where appropriate;

(B)  use skimming and scanning techniques to identify data by looking at text features (e.g., bold print, italics);

(C)  take simple notes and sort evidence into provided categories or an organizer;

(D)  identify the author, title, publisher, and publication year of sources; and

(E)  differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism and identify the importance of citing valid and reliable sources.

(25)  Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to improve the focus of research as a result of consulting expert sources (e.g., reference librarians and local experts on the topic).

(26)  Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to draw conclusions through a brief written explanation and create a works-cited page from notes, including the author, title, publisher, and publication year for each source used.

(27)  Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  listen attentively to speakers, ask relevant questions, and make pertinent comments; and

(B)  follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a series of related sequences of action.

(28)  Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to express an opinion supported by accurate information, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, and enunciation, and the conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

(29)  Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate in teacher- and student-led discussions by posing and answering questions with appropriate detail and by providing suggestions that build upon the ideas of others.

Source: The provisions of this §128.15 adopted to be effective November 26, 2008, 33 TexReg 9465.


§128.16. Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 5, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010.

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  The Spanish Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the Spanish language in speaking and writing. The standards are cumulative--students will continue to address earlier standards as needed while they attend to standards for their grade. In fifth grade, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should read, write, and be read to on a daily basis.

(2)  Research consistently shows that literacy development in the student's native language facilitates learning in English (Collier & Thomas, 1997; Cummins, 2001). Students can develop cognition, learn, and achieve best when they can understand the language of instruction (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2003). Students who have strong literacy skills in their primary language can be expected to transfer those skills to English and progress rapidly in learning in English. Although English and Spanish look very similar on the surface (i.e., similar alphabets; directionality; cognates) the conventions of each language presuppose the reading process in that language. Consequently, systematic instruction in the appropriate sequence of skills is critical. For this reason, the Spanish Language Arts and Reading TEKS reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and not mere translations from English.

(A)  Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. Spanish uses frequency words that are identified by the rate of occurrence in grade appropriate text and used to build on fluency and comprehension. However, in English, "sight" words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development.

(B)  Spanish instruction maximizes access to English content. Students with strong literacy skills in Spanish phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, and reading comprehension can be expected to transfer those skills to English. The "transfer" of knowledge and skills from one language to another refers to the metalinguistic and metacognitive processes and awareness that students gain in developing literacy in two languages. Current research on bilingual instruction (e.g., August & Shanahan, 2006; Genesse et al., 2006) shows how students use native literacy knowledge when learning to read and write in another language.

(C)  The effective transfer of skills transpires as students develop their metalinguistic skills and as they engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Transfer matters occur within fundamentals of language that are common to Spanish and English; within fundamentals that are similar, but not exact in both languages; and in fundamentals specific to each language and not applicable to the other language. The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer in English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2000; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). In other words, for transfer to occur, comprehension of the "rules" and the realization of their applicability to the new language specific tasks are necessary.

(D)  The concept of transfer necessitates the use of both languages in which both (Spanish and English) co-exist with flexibility. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages. This is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (See Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(3)  To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations at Grade 5 as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(4)  To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  Reading/Fluency. Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are expected to read aloud grade-level stories with accuracy, expression, appropriate phrasing, and comprehension.

(2)  Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A)  determine the meaning of grade-level academic Spanish words derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes;

(B)  use context (e.g., in-sentence restatement) to determine or clarify the meaning of unfamiliar or multiple meaning words;

(C)  produce analogies with known antonyms and synonyms;

(D)  identify and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and other sayings; and

(E)  use a dictionary, a glossary, or a thesaurus (printed or electronic) to determine the meanings, syllabication, spelling, alternate word choices, and parts of speech of words.

(3)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  compare and contrast the themes or moral lessons of several works of fiction from various cultures;

(B)  describe the phenomena explained in origin myths from various cultures; and

(C)  explain the effect of a historical event or movement on the theme of a work of literature.

(4)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze how poets use sound effects (e.g., alliteration, internal rhyme, onomatopoeia, rhyme scheme) to reinforce meaning in poems.

(5)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the similarities and differences between an original text and its dramatic adaptation.

(6)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  describe incidents that advance the story or novel, explaining how each incident gives rise to or foreshadows future events;

(B)  explain the roles and functions of characters in various plots, including their relationships and conflicts; and

(C)  explain different forms of third-person points of view in stories.

(7)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the literary language and devices used in biographies and autobiographies, including how authors present major events in a person's life.

(8)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to evaluate the impact of sensory details, imagery, and figurative language in literary text.

(9)  Reading/Comprehension of Text/Independent Reading. Students read independently for sustained periods of time and produce evidence of their reading. Students are expected to read independently for a sustained period of time and summarize or paraphrase what the reading was about, maintaining meaning and logical order (e.g., generate a reading log or journal; participate in book talks).

(10)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text, including culturally relevant texts, to support their understanding. Students are expected to draw conclusions from the information presented by an author and evaluate how well the author's purpose was achieved.

(11)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  summarize the main ideas and supporting details in a text in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(B)  determine the facts in text and verify them through established methods;

(C)  analyze how the organizational pattern of a text (e.g., cause-and-effect, compare-and-contrast, sequential order, logical order, classification schemes) influences the relationships among the ideas;

(D)  use multiple text features and graphics to gain an overview of the contents of text and to locate information; and

(E)  synthesize and make logical connections between ideas within a text and across two or three texts representing similar or different genres.

(12)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to:

(A)  identify the author's viewpoint or position and explain the basic relationships among ideas (e.g., parallelism, comparison, causality) in the argument; and

(B)  recognize exaggerated, contradictory, or misleading statements in text.

(13)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A)  interpret details from procedural text to complete a task, solve a problem, or perform procedures; and

(B)  interpret factual or quantitative information presented in maps, charts, illustrations, graphs, timelines, tables, and diagrams.

(14)  Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A)  explain how messages conveyed in various forms of media are presented differently (e.g., documentaries, online information, televised news);

(B)  consider the difference in techniques used in media (e.g., commercials, documentaries, news);

(C)  identify the point of view of media presentations; and

(D)  analyze various digital media venues for levels of formality and informality.

(15)  Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A)  plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for conveying the intended meaning to an audience, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea;

(B)  develop drafts by choosing an appropriate organizational strategy (e.g., sequence of events, cause-effect, compare-contrast) and building on ideas to create a focused, organized, and coherent piece of writing;

(C)  revise drafts to clarify meaning, enhance style, include simple and compound sentences, and improve transitions by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging sentences or larger units of text after rethinking how well questions of purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed;

(D)  edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and

(E)  revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(16)  Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:

(A)  write imaginative stories that include:

(i)  a clearly defined focus, plot, and point of view;

(ii)  a specific, believable setting created through the use of sensory details; and

(iii)  dialogue that develops the story; and

(B)  write poems using:

(i)  poetic techniques (e.g., alliteration, onomatopoeia);

(ii)  figurative language (e.g., similes, metaphors); and

(iii)  graphic elements (e.g., capital letters, line length).

(17)  Writing. Students write about their own experiences. Students are expected to write a personal narrative that conveys thoughts and feelings about an experience.

(18)  Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A)  create multi-paragraph essays to convey information about the topic that:

(i)  present effective introductions and concluding paragraphs;

(ii)  guide and inform the reader's understanding of key ideas and evidence;

(iii)  include specific facts, details, and examples in an appropriately organized structure; and

(iv)  use a variety of sentence structures and transitions to link paragraphs;

(B)  write formal and informal letters that convey ideas, include important information, demonstrate a sense of closure, and use appropriate conventions (e.g., date, salutation, closing); and

(C)  write responses to literary or expository texts and provide evidence from the text to demonstrate understanding.

(19)  Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write persuasive essays for appropriate audiences that establish a position and include sound reasoning, detailed and relevant evidence, and consideration of alternatives.

(20)  Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:

(i)  regular and irregular verbs (past, present, future, and perfect tenses in the indicative mode);

(ii)  collective nouns (e.g., manada, rebaño);

(iii)  adjectives (e.g., descriptive, including those expressing origin (gentilicios): auto francés, dólar americano) and their comparative and superlative forms (e.g., bueno, mejor, la mejor);

(iv)  adverbs (e.g., frequency: usualmente, a veces; intensity: casi, mucho);

(v)  prepositions and prepositional phrases to convey location, time, direction, or to provide details;

(vi)  indefinite pronouns (e.g., todos, juntos, nada, cualquier);

(vii)  subordinating conjunctions (e.g., mientras, porque, aunque, si); and

(viii)  transitional words (e.g., también, por lo tanto);

(B)  become familiar with regular and irregular verbs in the present and past tenses in the subjunctive mode (e.g., que diga; que dijera);

(C)  use the complete subject and the complete predicate in a sentence;

(D)  use complete simple and compound sentences with correct subject-verb agreement; and

(E)  identify and read abbreviations (e.g., Sr., Atte.).

(21)  Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

(A)  use capitalization for:

(i)  abbreviations;

(ii)  initials and acronyms; and

(iii)  organizations;

(B)  recognize and use punctuation marks including:

(i)  commas in compound sentences; and

(ii)  proper punctuation and spacing for quotations and em dash; and

(C)  use proper mechanics, including italics for titles of books.

(22)  Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to:

(A)  spell words with more advanced orthographic patterns and rules, including:

(i)  words that have a prosodic or orthographic accent on the last syllable (palabras agudas) (e.g., feliz, canción);

(ii)  words that have a prosodic or orthographic accent on the second-to-last syllable (palabras graves) (e.g., casa, árbol);

(iii)  words that have an orthographic accent on the third-to-last syllable (palabras esdrújulas) (e.g., último, cómico, mecánico); and

(iv)  words that have a prosodic or orthographic accent on the fourth-to-last syllable (palabras sobresdrújulas);

(B)  mark accents appropriately when conjugating verbs in simple and imperfect past, perfect, conditional, and future tenses (e.g., corrió, jugó, tenía, gustaría, vendrá);

(C)  spell words with:

(i)  Greek roots (e.g., tele-, foto-, grafo-, metro-);

(ii)  Latin roots (e.g., spec, scrib, rupt, port, dict);

(iii)  Greek suffixes (e.g., -ología, -fobia, -ismo, -ista); and

(iv)  Latin derived suffixes (e.g., -able, -ible, -ancia);

(D)  correctly spell words containing hiatus and diphthongs (e.g., le-er, rí-o, quie-ro, vio);

(E)  differentiate between commonly confused terms (e.g., porque, por qué; asimismo, así mismo; sino, si no; también, tan bien);

(F)  use spelling patterns, rules, and print and electronic resources to determine and check correct spellings; and

(G)  know how to use the spell-check function in word processing while understanding its limitations.

(23)  Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

(A)  brainstorm, consult with others, decide upon a topic, and formulate open-ended questions to address the major research topic; and

(B)  generate a research plan for gathering relevant information about the major research question.

(24)  Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

(A)  follow the research plan to collect data from a range of print and electronic resources in Spanish (e.g., reference texts, periodicals, web pages, online sources) and data from experts;

(B)  differentiate between primary and secondary sources;

(C)  record data, utilizing available technology (e.g., word processors) in order to see the relationships between ideas, and convert graphic/visual data (e.g., charts, diagrams, timelines) into written notes;

(D)  identify the source of notes (e.g., author, title, page number) and record bibliographic information concerning those sources according to a standard format; and

(E)  differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism and identify the importance of citing valid and reliable sources.

(25)  Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to:

(A)  refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions; and

(B)  evaluate the relevance, validity, and reliability of sources for the research.

(26)  Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into a written or an oral presentation that:

(A)  compiles important information from multiple sources;

(B)  develops a topic sentence, summarizes findings, and uses evidence to support conclusions;

(C)  presents the findings in a consistent format; and

(D)  uses quotations to support ideas and an appropriate form of documentation to acknowledge sources (e.g., bibliography, works cited).

(27)  Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  listen to and interpret a speaker's messages (both verbal and nonverbal) and ask questions to clarify the speaker's purpose or perspective;

(B)  follow, restate, and give oral instructions that include multiple action steps; and

(C)  determine both main and supporting ideas in the speaker's message.

(28)  Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to give organized presentations employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

(29)  Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate in student-led discussions by eliciting and considering suggestions from other group members and by identifying points of agreement and disagreement.

Source: The provisions of this §128.16 adopted to be effective November 26, 2008, 33 TexReg 9465.


Last updated: February 23, 2010

For additional information, email rules@tea.state.tx.us.