Chapter 128. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills
for Spanish Language Arts and Reading and English as a Second Language
Subchapter B. Middle School


Statutory Authority: The provisions of this Subchapter B issued under the Texas Education Code, §§7.102(c)(4), 28.002, 28.005, and 29.051, unless otherwise noted.


§128.17. Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Middle School, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010.

(a)  The provisions of §128.18 of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2009-2010 school year.

(b)  Students must develop the ability to comprehend and process material from a wide range of texts. Student expectations for Reading/Comprehension Skills as provided in this subsection are described for the appropriate grade level.

Figure: 19 TAC §128.17(b)

Source: The provisions of this §128.17 adopted to be effective November 26, 2008, 33 TexReg 9465; amended to be effective February 22, 2010, 35 TexReg 1463.


§128.18. Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 6, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010.

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  The Spanish Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy, not mere translations from English. The Spanish Language Arts and Reading TEKS are organized into the following strands: Reading, where students read and understand a wide variety of literary and informational texts; Writing, where students compose a variety of written texts with a clear controlling idea, coherent organization, and sufficient detail; Research, where students are expected to know how to locate a range of relevant sources and evaluate, synthesize, and present ideas and information; Listening and Speaking, where students listen and respond to the ideas of others while contributing their own ideas in conversations and in groups; and Oral and Written Conventions, where students learn how to use the oral and written conventions of the Spanish language in speaking and writing. The standards are cumulative--students will continue to address earlier standards as needed while they attend to standards for their grade. In sixth grade, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students should read, write, and be read to on a daily basis.

(2)  Research consistently shows that literacy development in the student's native language facilitates learning in English (Collier & Thomas, 1997; Cummins, 2001). Students can develop cognition, learn, and achieve best when they can understand the language of instruction (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2003). Students who have strong literacy skills in their primary language can be expected to transfer those skills to English and progress rapidly in learning in English. Although English and Spanish look very similar on the surface (i.e., similar alphabets; directionality; cognates) the conventions of each language presuppose the reading process in that language. Consequently, systematic instruction in the appropriate sequence of skills is critical. For this reason, the Spanish Language Arts and Reading TEKS reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and not mere translations from English.

(A)  Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. Spanish uses frequency words that are identified by the rate of occurrence in grade appropriate text and used to build on fluency and comprehension. However, in English, "sight" words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development.

(B)  Spanish instruction maximizes access to English content. Students with strong literacy skills in Spanish phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, and reading comprehension can be expected to transfer those skills to English. The "transfer" of knowledge and skills from one language to another refers to the metalinguistic and metacognitive processes and awareness that students gain in developing literacy in two languages. Current research on bilingual instruction (e.g., August & Shanahan, 2006; Genesse et al., 2006) shows how students use native literacy knowledge when learning to read and write in another language.

(C)  The effective transfer of skills transpires as students develop their metalinguistic skills and as they engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Transfer matters occur within fundamentals of language that are common to Spanish and English; within fundamentals that are similar, but not exact in both languages; and in fundamentals specific to each language and not applicable to the other language. The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer in English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2000; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). In other words, for transfer to occur, comprehension of the "rules" and the realization of their applicability to the new language specific tasks are necessary.

(D)  The concept of transfer necessitates the use of both languages in which both (Spanish and English) co-exist with flexibility. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages. This is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (See Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(3)  To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge, skills, and student expectations at Grade 6 as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(4)  To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  Reading/Fluency. Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are expected to:

(A)  read aloud grade-level text with accuracy, expression, appropriate phrasing, and comprehension; and

(B)  use prosody when reading aloud grade-level text based on the reading purpose and the nature of the text.

(2)  Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A)  determine the meaning of grade-level academic Spanish words derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes;

(B)  use context (e.g., cause and effect or compare and contrast organizational text structures) to determine or clarify the meaning of unfamiliar or multiple meaning words;

(C)  complete analogies that describe part to whole or whole to part (e.g., motor:carro como aire: ____ or carro:motor como llanta: ____); and

(D)  use a dictionary, a glossary, or a thesaurus (printed or electronic) to determine the meanings, syllabication, spelling, alternate word choices, and parts of speech of words.

(3)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  infer the implicit theme of a work of fiction, distinguishing theme from the topic;

(B)  analyze the function of stylistic elements (e.g., magic helper, rule of three) in traditional and classical literature from various cultures; and

(C)  compare and contrast the historical and cultural settings of two literary works.

(4)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain how figurative language (e.g., personification, metaphors, similes, hyperbole) contributes to the meaning of a poem.

(5)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the similarities and differences in the setting, characters, and plot of a play, including original works in Spanish, and those in a film based upon the same story line.

(6)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  summarize the elements of plot development (e.g., rising action, turning point, climax, falling action, denouement) in various works of fiction;

(B)  recognize dialect and conversational voice and explain how authors use dialect to convey character; and

(C)  describe different forms of point-of-view, including first- and third-person.

(7)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the literary language and devices used in memoirs and personal narratives and compare their characteristics with those of an autobiography.

(8)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain how authors create meaning through stylistic elements and figurative language emphasizing the use of personification, hyperbole, and refrains.

(9)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text, including culturally relevant texts, to support their understanding. Students are expected to compare and contrast the stated or implied purposes of different authors writing on the same topic.

(10)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  summarize the main ideas and supporting details in text, demonstrating an understanding that a summary does not include opinions;

(B)  explain whether facts included in an argument are used for or against an issue;

(C)  explain how different organizational patterns (e.g., proposition-and-support, problem-and-solution) develop the main idea and the author's viewpoint; and

(D)  synthesize and make logical connections between ideas within a text and across two or three texts representing similar or different genres.

(11)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to:

(A)  compare and contrast the structure and viewpoints of two different authors writing for the same purpose, noting the stated claim and supporting evidence; and

(B)  identify simply faulty reasoning used in persuasive texts.

(12)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A)  follow multi-tasked instructions to complete a task, solve a problem, or perform procedures; and

(B)  interpret factual, quantitative, or technical information presented in maps, charts, illustrations, graphs, timelines, tables, and diagrams.

(13)  Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A)  explain messages conveyed in various forms of media;

(B)  recognize how various techniques influence viewers' emotions;

(C)  critique persuasive techniques (e.g., testimonials, bandwagon appeal) used in media messages; and

(D)  analyze various digital media venues for levels of formality and informality.

(14)  Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A)  plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for conveying the intended meaning to an audience, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea;

(B)  develop drafts by choosing an appropriate organizational strategy (e.g., sequence of events, cause-effect, compare-contrast) and building on ideas to create a focused, organized, and coherent piece of writing;

(C)  revise drafts to clarify meaning, enhance style, include simple and compound sentences, and improve transitions by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging sentences or larger units of text after rethinking how well questions of purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed;

(D)  edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and

(E)  revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(15)  Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:

(A)  write imaginative stories that include:

(i)  a clearly defined focus, plot, and point of view;

(ii)  a specific, believable setting created through the use of sensory details; and

(iii)  dialogue that develops the story; and

(B)  write poems using:

(i)  poetic techniques (e.g., alliteration, onomatopoeia);

(ii)  figurative language (e.g., similes, metaphors); and

(iii)  graphic elements (e.g., capital letters, line length).

(16)  Writing. Students write about their own experiences. Students are expected to write a personal narrative that has a clearly defined focus and communicates the importance of or reasons for actions and/or consequences.

(17)  Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A)  create multi-paragraph essays to convey information about a topic that:

(i)  present effective introductions and concluding paragraphs;

(ii)  guide and inform the reader's understanding of key ideas and evidence;

(iii)  include specific facts, details, and examples in an appropriately organized structure; and

(iv)  use a variety of sentence structures and transitions to link paragraphs;

(B)  write informal letters that convey ideas, include important information, demonstrate a sense of closure, and use appropriate conventions (e.g., date, salutation, closing);

(C)  write responses to literary or expository texts and provide evidence from the text to demonstrate understanding; and

(D)  produce a multimedia presentation involving text and graphics using available technology.

(18)  Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write persuasive essays for appropriate audiences that establish a position and include sound reasoning, detailed and relevant evidence, and consideration of alternatives.

(19)  Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:

(i)  regular and irregular verbs (past, present, future, and perfect tenses in the indicative mode;

(ii)  non-count nouns (e.g., cardúmen, jaulía);

(iii)  predicate adjectives (Ella es inteligente.) and their comparative forms (e.g., muy, más);

(iv)  conjunctive adverbs (e.g., consecuentemente, además, de hecho);

(v)  prepositions and prepositional phrases to convey location, time, direction, or to provide details;

(vi)  indefinite pronouns (e.g., todos, juntos, nada, cualquier);

(vii)  subordinating conjunctions (e.g., mientras, porque, aunque, si); and

(viii)  transitional words and phrases that demonstrate an understanding of the function of the transition related to the organization of the writing (e.g., por el contrario, además de);

(B)  become familiar with regular and irregular verbs in the present and past tenses in the subjunctive mode (e.g., que haya, que hubiera);

(C)  differentiate between the active and passive voice and know how to use them both; and

(D)  use complete simple and compound sentences with correct subject-verb agreement.

(20)  Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

(A)  use capitalization for:

(i)  abbreviations;

(ii)  initials and acronyms; and

(iii)  organizations;

(B)  recognize and use punctuation marks including:

(i)  commas in compound sentences;

(ii)  proper punctuation and spacing for quotations and em dash; and

(iii)  parentheses, brackets, and ellipses (to indicate omissions and interruptions or incomplete statements); and

(C)  use proper mechanics, including italics for titles of books.

(21)  Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to:

(A)  spell words with more advanced orthographic patterns and rules, including:

(i)  words that have a prosodic or orthographic accent on the last syllable (palabras agudas) (e.g., feliz, canción);

(ii)  words that have a prosodic or orthographic accent on the second-to-last syllable (palabras graves) (e.g., casa, árbol);

(iii)  words that have an orthographic accent on the third-to-last syllable (palabras esdrújulas) (e.g., último, cómico, mecánico); and

(iv)  words that have a prosodic or orthographic accent on the fourth-to-last syllable (palabras sobresdrújulas);

(B)  mark accents appropriately when conjugating verbs in simple and imperfect past, perfect, conditional, and future tenses (e.g., corrió, jugó, tenía, gustaría, vendrá);

(C)  spell words with:

(i)  Greek roots (e.g., tele-, foto-, grafo-, metro-);

(ii)  Latin roots (e.g., spec, scrib, rupt, port, dict);

(iii)  Greek suffixes (e.g., -ología, -fobia, -ismo, -ista); and

(iv)  Latin derived suffixes (e.g., -able, -ible, -ancia);

(D)  correctly spell words containing hiatus and diphthongs (le-er, rí-o, quie-ro, vio);

(E)  differentiate between commonly confused terms (e.g., porque, por qué; tampoco, tan poco; mediodía, medio día; quehacer, que hacer);

(F)  use spelling patterns, rules, and print and electronic resources to determine and check correct spellings; and

(G)  know how to use the spell-check function in word processing while understanding its limitations.

(22)  Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

(A)  brainstorm, consult with others, decide upon a topic, and formulate open-ended questions to address the major research topic; and

(B)  generate a research plan for gathering relevant information about the major research question.

(23)  Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

(A)  follow the research plan to collect data from a range of print and electronic resources in Spanish (e.g., reference texts, periodicals, web pages, online sources) and data from experts;

(B)  differentiate between primary and secondary sources;

(C)  record data, utilizing available technology (e.g., word processors) in order to see the relationships between ideas, and convert graphic/visual data (e.g., charts, diagrams, timelines) into written notes;

(D)  identify the source of notes (e.g., author, title, page number) and record bibliographic information concerning those sources according to a standard format; and

(E)  differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism and identify the importance of citing valid and reliable sources.

(24)  Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to:

(A)  refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions; and

(B)  evaluate the relevance and reliability of sources for the research.

(25)  Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into a written or an oral presentation that:

(A)  compiles important information from multiple sources;

(B)  develops a topic sentence, summarizes findings, and uses evidence to support conclusions;

(C)  presents the findings in a consistent format; and

(D)  uses quotations to support ideas and an appropriate form of documentation to acknowledge sources (e.g., bibliography, works cited).

(26)  Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students will use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  listen to and interpret a speaker's messages (both verbal and nonverbal) and ask questions to clarify the speaker's purpose and perspective;

(B)  follow and give oral instructions that include multiple action steps; and

(C)  paraphrase the major ideas and supporting evidence in formal and informal presentations.

(27)  Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to give an organized presentation with a specific point of view, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

(28)  Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate in student-led discussions by eliciting and considering suggestions from other group members and by identifying points of agreement and disagreement.

Source: The provisions of this §128.18 adopted to be effective November 26, 2008, 33 TexReg 9465.


§128.20. Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Spanish Language Arts and Reading and English as a Second Language, Middle School, Adopted 2017.

(a)  The provisions of this section and §§128.21-128.23 of this title shall be implemented by school districts.

(b)  No later than August 31, 2018, the commissioner of education shall determine whether instructional materials funding has been made available to Texas public schools for materials that cover the essential knowledge and skills for Spanish language arts and reading and English as a Second Language as adopted in §§128.21-128.23 of this title.

(c)  If the commissioner makes the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under subsection (b) of this section, §§128.21-128.23 of this title shall be implemented beginning with the 2019-2020 school year and apply to the 2019-2020 and subsequent school years.

(d)  If the commissioner does not make the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under subsection (b) of this section, the commissioner shall determine no later than August 31 of each subsequent school year whether instructional materials funding has been made available. If the commissioner determines that instructional materials funding has been made available, the commissioner shall notify the State Board of Education and school districts that §§128.21-128.23 of this title shall be implemented for the following school year.

(e)  Section 128.18 of this title shall be superseded by the implementation of this section and §§128.21-128.23 of this title.

Source: The provisions of this §128.20 adopted to be effective September 25, 2017, 42 TexReg 5096.


§128.21. Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 6, Adopted 2017.

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  The Spanish language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy; they are neither translations nor modifications of the English language arts TEKS. The Spanish language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. They are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2)  The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for Spanish language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3)  Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process, and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. However, in English "sight" words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development.

(4)  Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(5)  Research consistently shows that language and literacy development in the student's native language not only facilitates learning English and English literacy, but is foundational to cognitive development and learning (Cummins, 2001; Thomas & Collier, 2002; Coelho, 2001). Emergent bilinguals (Sparrow et al., 2014; Slavin & Cheving, 2013) are students who are in the process of acquiring two or more linguistic codes, becoming bilingual, biliterate, and bicultural. Emergent bilinguals are often defined by their perceived deficits (semilinguals) (Escamilla, 2012). However, research has shown that bilinguals develop a unique interdependent system (Escamilla et al. 2007; Grosjean, 1989; Valdes and Figueroa, 1994) in which languages interconnect to increase linguistic functionality. This linguistic interdependence of language acquisition facilitates a transfer of literacy skills from the primary language (L1) to the second language (L2) (August & Shanahan, 2006; Bialystok, 2007; Miramontes, et al., 1997). The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer to English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2002; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). For transfer to be maximized, cross-linguistic connections between the two languages must be explicitly taught while students engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Continued strong literacy development in Spanish provides the foundation and scaffold for literacy development given that a Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) exists between the two languages (Cummins, 1991). Consequently, direct and systematic instruction (Genesee et al., 2005) in the appropriate sequence of Spanish skills with early English as a second language-based literacy instruction is critical to student success. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages (Escamilla et. al., 2014). The extent to which English and Spanish are used is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (see Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(6)  English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language, and their proficiency in English directly impacts their ability to meet these standards. The comprehension of text throughout the stages of English language acquisition requires scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected oral and written discourse so that it is meaningful.

(7)  Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency level to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(8)  Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(9)  Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A)  listen actively to interpret a message, ask clarifying questions, and respond appropriately;

(B)  follow and give oral instructions that include multiple action steps;

(C)  give an organized presentation with a specific stance and position, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D)  participate in student-led discussions by eliciting and considering suggestions from other group members, taking notes, and identifying points of agreement and disagreement.

(2)  Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i)  differentiating between commonly confused terms such as porque/porqué/por qué/por que, asimismo (adverbio)/así mismo (de la misma manera), sino/si no, and también/tan bien;

(ii)  decoding palabras agudas, graves, esdrújulas, and sobresdrújulas (words with the stress on the antepenultimate, penultimate, and ultimate/last syllable and words with the stress on the syllable before the antepenultimate);

(iii)  decoding words with hiatus and diphthongs; and

(iv)  using knowledge of syllable division patterns and morphemes to decode multisyllabic words;

(B)  demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i)  spelling palabras agudas, graves, esdrújulas, and sobresdrújulas (words with the stress on the antepenultimate, penultimate, and ultimate/last syllable and words with the stress on the syllable before the antepenultimate);

(ii)  marking accents appropriately when conjugating verbs in simple and imperfect past, perfect conditional, and future tenses; and

(iii)  spelling words with diphthongs and hiatus; and

(C)  write legibly in cursive.

(3)  Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A)  use print or digital resources to determine the meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, word origin, and part of speech;

(B)  use context such as definition, analogy, and examples to clarify the meaning of words;

(C)  determine the meaning and usage of grade-level academic Spanish words derived from Greek and Latin roots, including metro-, grafo-, scrib-, and port-; and

(D)  differentiate between and use homographs, homophones, and commonly confused terms such as porque/porqué/por qué/por que, sino/si no, and también/tan bien.

(4)  Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to adjust fluency when reading grade-level text based on the reading purpose.

(5)  Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6)  Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A)  establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected text;

(B)  generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C)  make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D)  create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E)  make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F)  make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G)  evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H)  synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I)  monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7)  Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B)  write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing sources within and across genres;

(C)  use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D)  paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E)  interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F)  respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate;

(G)  discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H)  respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice; and

(I)  reflect on and adjust responses as new evidence is presented.

(8)  Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A)  infer multiple themes within and across texts using text evidence;

(B)  analyze how the characters' internal and external responses develop the plot;

(C)  analyze plot elements, including rising action, climax, falling action, resolution, and non-linear elements such as flashback; and

(D)  analyze how the setting, including historical and cultural settings, influences character and plot development.

(9)  Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate knowledge of literary genres such as realistic fiction, adventure stories, historical fiction, mysteries, humor, and myths;

(B)  analyze the effect of meter and structural elements such as line breaks in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C)  analyze how playwrights develop characters through dialogue and staging;

(D)  analyze characteristics and structural elements of informational text, including:

(i)  the controlling idea or thesis with supporting evidence;

(ii)  features such as introduction, foreword, preface, references, or acknowledgements to gain background information; and

(iii)  organizational patterns such as definition, classification, advantage, and disadvantage;

(E)  analyze characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i)  identifying the claim;

(ii)  explaining how the author uses various types of evidence to support the argument; and

(iii)  identifying the intended audience or reader; and

(F)  analyze characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10)  Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B)  analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C)  analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D)  describe how the author's use of figurative language such as metaphor and personification achieves specific purposes;

(E)  identify the use of literary devices, including omniscient and limited point of view, to achieve a specific purpose;

(F)  analyze how the author's use of language contributes to mood and voice; and

(G)  explain the differences between rhetorical devices and logical fallacies.

(11)  Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A)  plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as discussion, background reading, and personal interests;

(B)  develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i)  organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, coherence within and across paragraphs, and a conclusion; and

(ii)  developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts and details;

(C)  revise drafts for clarity, development, organization, style, word choice, and sentence variety;

(D)  edit drafts using standard Spanish conventions, including:

(i)  complete complex sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments;

(ii)  consistent, appropriate use of verb tenses;

(iii)  conjunctive adverbs;

(iv)  prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

(v)  pronouns, including personal, possessive, objective, reflexive, prepositional, indefinite, and relative;

(vi)  subordinating conjunctions to form complex sentences and correlative conjunctions;

(vii)  capitalization of proper nouns, including abbreviations, initials, acronyms, and organizations;

(viii)  punctuation marks, including commas in complex sentences, transitions, and introductory elements; and

(ix) correct spelling, including commonly confused terms; and

(E)  publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12)  Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A)  compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B)  compose informational texts, including multi-paragraph essays that convey information about a topic, using a clear controlling idea or thesis statement and genre characteristics and craft;

(C)  compose multi-paragraph argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D)  compose correspondence that reflects an opinion, registers a complaint, or requests information in a business or friendly structure.

(13)  Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A)  generate student-selected and teacher-guided questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B)  develop and revise a plan;

(C)  refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions;

(D)  identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(E)  differentiate between primary and secondary sources;

(F)  synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(G)  differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(H)  examine sources for:

(i)  reliability, credibility, and bias; and

(ii)  faulty reasoning such as hyperbole, emotional appeals, and stereotype;

(I)  display academic citations and use source materials ethically; and

(J)  use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

Source: The provisions of this §128.21 adopted to be effective September 25, 2017, 42 TexReg 5096.


§128.22. English Learners Language Arts (ELLA), Grade 7, Adopted 2017.

(a)  General requirements.

(1)  The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for English Learners Language Arts (ELLA), Grade 7 are described in §74.4 of this title (relating to English Language Proficiency Standards) as well as subsection (b) of this section and are aligned to the knowledge and skills and student expectations in Chapter 110 of this title (relating to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading) with additional expectations for English language learners (ELLs).

(2)  English Learners Language Arts (ELLA), Grade 7 may be substituted for English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 7. All expectations apply to English Learners Language Arts (ELLA), Grade 7 students; however, it is imperative to recognize critical processes and features of second language acquisition and to provide appropriate instruction to enable students to meet these standards.

(b)  Introduction.

(1)  The ELLA Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2)  The seven strands of this course mirror the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading, which are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3)  Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4)  ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5)  Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6)  Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7)  Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A)  listen actively to interpret a message and ask clarifying questions that build on others' ideas;

(B)  follow, restate, and give increasingly complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, or solve problems;

(C)  present a critique of a literary work, film, or dramatic production, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, a variety of natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively;

(D)  engage in meaningful discourse and provide and accept constructive feedback from others; and

(E)  develop social communication and produce oral language in contextualized and purposeful ways.

(2)  Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge; and

(B)  write complete words, thoughts, and answers legibly.

(3)  Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A)  use print or digital resources to determine the meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, word origin, and part of speech;

(B)  use context such as contrast or cause and effect to clarify the meaning of words;

(C)  determine the meaning and usage of grade-level academic English words derived from Greek, Latin, and other languages, including omni, log/logue, gen, vid/vis, phil, luc, and sens/sent; un-, re-, -ly, and -er/or; and -ion/tion/sion, im- (into), non-, dis-, in- (not, non), pre-, -ness, -y, -er (comparative), -est, and -ful;

(D)  identify and use words that name actions, directions, positions, sequences, and locations;

(E)  use multiple-meaning words, homographs, homophones, and commonly confused terms correctly; and

(F)  investigate expressions such as idioms and word relationships such as antonyms, synonyms, and analogies.

(4)  Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) and adjust fluency when reading grade-level text based on the reading purpose.

(5)  Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6)  Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A)  establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B)  generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C)  make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D)  create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E)  make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F)  make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G)  evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H)  synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I)  monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7)  Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A)  describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B)  write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing sources within and across genres;

(C)  use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D)  paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E)  interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F)  respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate;

(G)  discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H)  respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice; and

(I)  reflect on and adjust responses as new evidence is presented.

(8)  Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A)  infer multiple themes within and across texts using text evidence;

(B)  analyze how characters' qualities influence events and resolution of the conflict;

(C)  analyze plot elements, including the use of foreshadowing and suspense, to advance the plot; and

(D)  analyze how the setting influences character and plot development.

(9)  Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate knowledge of literary genres such as realistic fiction, adventure stories, historical fiction, mysteries, humor, myths, fantasy, and science fiction;

(B)  analyze the effect of rhyme scheme, meter, and graphical elements such as punctuation and capitalization in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C)  analyze how playwrights develop characters through dialogue and staging;

(D)  analyze characteristics and structural elements of informational text, including:

(i)  the controlling idea or thesis with supporting evidence;

(ii)  features such as references or acknowledgements, chapters, sections, subsections, bibliography, tables, graphs, captions, bullets, and numbers; and

(iii)  organizational patterns that support multiple topics, categories, and subcategories;

(E)  analyze characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i)  identifying the claim;

(ii)  explaining how the author uses various types of evidence and consideration of alternatives to support the argument; and

(iii)  identifying the intended audience or reader; and

(F)  analyze characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10)  Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A)  explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B)  analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C)  analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D)  describe how the author's use of figurative language such as metaphor and personification achieves specific purposes;

(E)  identify the use of literary devices, including subjective and objective point of view;

(F)  analyze how the author's use of language contributes to mood, voice, and tone; and

(G)  explain the purpose of rhetorical devices such as direct address and rhetorical questions and logical fallacies such as loaded language and sweeping generalizations.

(11)  Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A)  plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as discussion, background reading, and personal interests;

(B)  develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i)  organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, coherence within and across paragraphs, and a conclusion; and

(ii)  developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts, details, and examples;

(C)  revise drafts for clarity, development, organization, style, word choice, and sentence variety;

(D)  edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i)  complete simple, compound, and complex sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments;

(ii)  consistent, appropriate use of verb tenses;

(iii)  conjunctive adverbs;

(iv)  prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

(v)  pronoun-antecedent agreement;

(vi)  subordinating conjunctions to form complex sentences and correlative conjunctions such as either/or and neither/nor;

(vii)  correct capitalization;

(viii)  punctuation, including commas to set off words, phrases, and clauses and semicolons; and

(ix)  correct spelling, including commonly confused terms such as its/it's, affect/effect, there/their/they're, and to/two/too; and

(E)  publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12)  Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A)  compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B)  compose informational texts, including multi-paragraph essays that convey information about a topic, using a clear controlling idea or thesis statement and genre characteristics and craft;

(C)  compose multi-paragraph argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D)  compose correspondence that reflects an opinion, registers a complaint, or requests information in a business or friendly structure.

(13)  Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A)  generate student-selected and teacher-guided questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B)  develop and revise a plan;

(C)  refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions;

(D)  identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(E)  differentiate between primary and secondary sources;

(F)  synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(G)  differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(H)  examine sources for:

(i)  reliability, credibility, and bias; and

(ii)  faulty reasoning such as hyperbole, emotional appeals, and stereotype;

(I)  display academic citations and use source materials ethically; and

(J)  use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

Source: The provisions of this §128.22 adopted to be effective September 25, 2017, 42 TexReg 5096.


§128.23. English Learners Language Arts (ELLA), Grade 8, Adopted 2017.

(a)  General requirements.

(1)  The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for English Learners Language Arts (ELLA), Grade 8 are described in §74.4 of this title (relating to English Language Proficiency Standards) as well as subsection (b) of this section and are aligned to the knowledge and skills and student expectations in Chapter 110 of this title (relating to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading) with additional expectations for English language learners (ELLs).

(2)  English Learners Language Arts (ELLA), Grade 8 may be substituted for English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 8. All expectations apply to English Learners Language Arts (ELLA), Grade 8 students; however, it is imperative to recognize critical processes and features of second language acquisition and to provide appropriate instruction to enable students to meet these standards.

(b)  Introduction.

(1)  The ELLA Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2)  The seven strands of this course mirror the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading, which are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3)  Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4)  ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5)  Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6)  Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7)  Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A)  listen actively to interpret a message by summarizing, asking questions, and making comments;

(B)  follow, restate, and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, or solve problems;

(C)  give an organized presentation with a specific point of view;

(D)  advocate a position using anecdotes, analogies, and/or illustrations employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, a variety of natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively;

(E)  participate collaboratively in discussions, plan agendas with clear goals and deadlines, set time limits for speakers, take notes, and vote on key issues; and

(F)  develop social communication and produce oral language in contextualized and purposeful ways.

(2)  Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge; and

(B)  write complete words, thoughts, and answers legibly.

(3)  Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A)  use print or digital resources to determine the meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, word origin, and part of speech;

(B)  use context within or beyond a paragraph to clarify the meaning of unfamiliar or ambiguous words;

(C)  determine the meaning and usage of grade-level academic English words derived from Greek, Latin, and other languages, including ast, qui, path, mand/mend, and duc; auto, bio, graph, meter, phon, port, and tele; and terr, chrono, audi, geo, dict, photo, and ject;

(D)  identify and use words that name actions, directions, positions, sequences, and locations;

(E)  use multiple-meaning words, homographs, homophones, and commonly confused terms correctly; and

(F)  investigate expressions such as idioms and word relationships such as antonyms, synonyms, and analogies.

(4)  Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to adjust fluency when reading grade-level text based on the reading purpose.

(5)  Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6)  Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A)  establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B)  generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C)  make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D)  create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E)  make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F)  make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G)  evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H)  synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I)  monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7)  Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A)  describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B)  write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing sources within and across genres;

(C)  use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D)  paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E)  interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F)  respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate;

(G)  discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H)  respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice;

(I)  reflect on and adjust responses as new evidence is presented; and

(J)  defend or challenge the claims using relevant text evidence.

(8)  Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A)  analyze how themes are developed through the interaction of characters and events;

(B)  analyze how characters' motivations and behaviors influence events and resolution of the conflict;

(C)  analyze non-linear plot development such as flashbacks, foreshadowing, subplots, and parallel plot structures and compare it to linear plot development; and

(D)  explain how the setting influences the values and beliefs of characters.

(9)  Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate knowledge of literary genres such as realistic fiction, adventure stories, historical fiction, mysteries, humor, fantasy, science fiction, and short stories;

(B)  identify structural elements such as rhyme, repetition, and alliteration and analyze how language contributes to the meaning of a poem;

(C)  analyze the effect of graphical elements such as punctuation and line length in poems across a variety of poetic forms such as epic, lyric, and humorous poetry;

(D)  analyze how playwrights develop dramatic action through the use of acts and scenes;

(E)  analyze characteristics and structural elements of informational text, including:

(i)  the controlling idea or thesis with supporting evidence;

(ii)  features such as footnotes, endnotes, and citations; and

(iii)  multiple organizational patterns within a text to develop the thesis;

(F)  analyze characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i)  identifying the claim and analyzing the argument;

(ii)  identifying and explaining the counter argument; and

(iii)  identifying the intended audience or reader; and

(G)  analyze characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10)  Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A)  explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B)  analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C)  analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D)  describe how the author's use of figurative language such as extended metaphor achieves specific purposes;

(E)  identify and analyze the use of literary devices, including multiple points of view and irony;

(F)  analyze how the author's use of language contributes to the mood, voice, and tone; and

(G)  explain the purpose of rhetorical devices such as analogy and juxtaposition and of logical fallacies such as bandwagon appeals and circular reasoning.

(11)  Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A)  plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as discussion, background reading, and personal interests;

(B)  develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i)  organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, coherence within and across paragraphs, and a conclusion; and

(ii)  developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts, details, and examples;

(C)  revise drafts for clarity, development, organization, style, word choice, and sentence variety;

(D)  edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i)  complete simple, compound, and complex sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments;

(ii)  consistent, appropriate use of verb tenses and active and passive voice;

(iii)  conjunctive adverbs;

(iv)  prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

(v)  pronoun-antecedent agreement;

(vi)  subordinating conjunctions to form complex sentences;

(vii)  correct capitalization;

(viii)  punctuation, including commas in nonrestrictive phrases and clauses, semicolons, colons, and parentheses; and

(ix)  correct spelling, including commonly confused terms such as its/it's, affect/effect, there/their/they're, and to/two/too; and

(E)  publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12)  Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A)  compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B)  compose informational texts, including multi-paragraph essays that convey information about a topic, using a clear controlling idea or thesis statement and genre characteristics and craft;

(C)  compose multi-paragraph argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D)  compose correspondence that reflects an opinion, registers a complaint, or requests information in a business or friendly structure.

(13)  Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A)  generate student-selected and teacher-guided questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B)  develop and revise a plan;

(C)  refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions;

(D)  identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(E)  differentiate between primary and secondary sources;

(F)  synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(G)  differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(H)  examine sources for:

(i)  reliability, credibility, and bias, including omission; and

(ii)  faulty reasoning such as bandwagon appeals, repetition, and loaded language;

(I)  display academic citations and use source materials ethically; and

(J)  use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

Source: The provisions of this §128.23 adopted to be effective September 25, 2017, 42 TexReg 5096.


For more information, email rules@tea.texas.gov.