Chapter 128. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills
for Spanish Language Arts and Reading and English as a Second Language
Subchapter C. High School


Statutory Authority: The provisions of this Subchapter C issued under the Texas Education Code, §§7.102(c)(4), 28.002, 28.005, 28.025, and 29.051, unless otherwise noted.


§128.30. Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English as a Second Language, High School, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010.

(a)  The provisions of §128.31 and §128.32 of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2009-2010 school year.

(b)  Students must develop the ability to comprehend and process material from a wide range of texts. Student expectations for Reading/Comprehension Skills as provided in this subsection are described for the appropriate grade level.

Figure: 19 TAC §128.30(b)

Source: The provisions of this §128.30 adopted to be effective November 26, 2008, 33 TexReg 9465; amended to be effective February 22, 2010, 35 TexReg 1463.


§128.31. English I for Speakers of Other Languages (One Credit), Beginning with School Year 2009-2010.

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for English I for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL I) are described in §74.4 of this title (relating to English Language Proficiency Standards) as well as subsection (b) of this section and are identical to the knowledge and skills and student expectations in Chapter 110 of this title (relating to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading) with additional expectations for English language learners (ELLs).

(2)  ESOL I may be substituted for English I as provided by Chapter 74, Subchapter B, of this title (relating to Graduation Requirements). All expectations apply to ESOL I students; however, it is imperative to recognize critical processes and features of second language acquisition and to provide appropriate instruction to enable students to meet these standards.

(3)  ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language that many monolingual English speakers find difficult to meet in their native language. In addition, ELLs are acquiring English at the same time they are learning content in English. ELLs' abilities to meet these standards will be influenced by their proficiency in English. While ELLs can analyze, synthesize, and evaluate, their level of English proficiency may impede their ability to demonstrate this knowledge during the initial stages of English language acquisition. For this reason, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds that include adapted text (e.g., appropriate for student proficiency level; translations), pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesaurus, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use their knowledge of their first language (e.g., cognates) to enhance their vocabulary development, and vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(4)  Research consistently shows that a strong foundation in the native language of an ELL facilitates learning in English (Collier & Thomas, 1997; Cummins, 2001). Students can develop cognition, learn, and achieve best when they can understand the language of instruction (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2003). Students can be expected to transfer those skills to English and progress rapidly in learning in English.

(5)  For newcomers in secondary schooling, the challenge then is not only learning English, but learning in English. ELLs are challenged in working with linguistic, cognitive, and academic development in all of their coursework and in a new language. Some newcomers exhibit additional first language and/or academic needs due to their previous educational experiences that may include interrupted and/or limited schooling. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English, especially for students who are newcomers and at beginning levels of English language proficiency. Their academic success depends on their ability to use academic language.

(6)  Second language acquisition is a complex process that even under optimal conditions takes a long time (Collier, 1997). It is important to understand that limited knowledge of English structure and vocabulary is neither related to the students' intellectual capabilities nor their ability to use higher-order thinking skills. The development of receptive (listening/reading) and expressive (speaking/writing) skills in second language learners may be at different stages. In some instances, second language learners undergo silent periods of varying durations when they first begin to learn a new language. Students often understand more than they can produce and may repeat words in sentences that they do not entirely understand. Second language learners may also draw upon the resources of their language and culture as they acquire a new language and culture.

(7)  In order for ELLs to be successful, they must acquire both social and academic language proficiency in English. Social language proficiency in English consists of the English needed for daily social interactions. Academic language proficiency consists of the English needed to think critically, understand and learn new concepts, process complex academic material, and interact and communicate in English academic settings.

(8)  Academic language is a major factor in academic success. Academic language and grammatical structures are used across all subject areas and is specific to the content area, such as language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies. Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. This must also be provided in a manner that is linguistically accommodated (contextualized, communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.

(9)  ELLs require focused, targeted, and systematic second language acquisition to provide them with the foundation of English language vocabulary, grammar, syntax, and English mechanics necessary to support content-based instruction and accelerated learning of English. Literacy development across the content areas is essential in building academic skills in a second language and can accelerate the learning of both English language skills and higher-order thinking skills.

(10)  ELL students are at different stages of language acquisition. Proficiency levels are not grade specific: Beginning, Intermediate, Advanced, and Advanced High. The ELL student may exhibit different proficiency levels within the four language components: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. A student may exhibit oral skills at the advanced level, reading skills at the intermediate level, and writing skills at the beginning level. Understanding the level of English language proficiency of the student is critical in order for the student to have access to the curriculum. The proficiency level of the student determines the accommodations in language that must be made (e.g., adapted text appropriate for student proficiency level; translations) as well as, determines additional scaffolds (e.g., pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesaurus) in order to learn the academic content. Any combination of the language components is possible and is affected by opportunities for interaction in and outside of school. For further guidance in second language acquisition, refer to the English language proficiency standards (ELPS) described in §74.4 of this title.

(A)  Beginning: Students associate utterances with meaning as they make inferences based on actions, visuals, text, tone of voice, and inflections. Receptive language with some comprehension is acquired earlier than oral production. Beginning students produce spoken English with increasing accuracy and fluency to convey appropriate meaning. They read English using graphophonic cues, syntax, visuals, the context of the text, and their prior knowledge of language and structure of text.

(B)  Intermediate: Students use the listening process to improve comprehension and oral skills in English. Through listening and speaking in meaningful interactions, they clarify, distinguish, and evaluate ideas and responses in a variety of situations. Intermediate students participate successfully in academic, social, and work contexts in English using the process of speaking to create, clarify, critique, and evaluate ideas and responses. Intermediate students read English using and applying developmental vocabulary to increase comprehension and produce written text to address a variety of audiences and purposes.

(C)  Advanced: Students, through developmental listening skills, actively expand their vocabulary to evaluate and analyze spoken English for a variety of situations and purposes. These students participate in a variety of situations using spoken English to create, clarify, critique, and evaluate ideas and responses. Advanced students continually develop reading skills for increasing reading proficiency in content area texts for a variety of purposes and generate written text for different audiences in a variety of modes to convey appropriate meaning according to their level of proficiency.

(D)  Advanced High: Students' reading, speaking, and writing abilities are comparable to those of their native English speaking peers. They understand grade appropriate English as it is used in academic and social settings. These students use language skills on their grade level in the academic subject areas with minimal interruptions and they use abstract and content based vocabulary effectively. Advanced High students continually use the English language to build additional foundational reading skills such as fluency and prosody as well as higher-order comprehension skills. These students have a strong command of English language structures necessary to address writing at appropriate grade levels.

(11)  Students enrolled in ESOL I continue to increase and refine their communication skills. High school students are expected to plan, draft, and complete written compositions on a regular basis. Students edit their papers for clarity, engaging language, and the correct use of the conventions and mechanics of written English and, with increasing accuracy, produce final, error-free drafts. In English I, students practice all forms of writing. An emphasis is placed on organizing logical arguments with clearly expressed related definitions, thesis, and evidence. Students write to persuade and to report and describe. English I students read extensively in multiple genres from world literature such as reading selected stories, dramas, novels, and poetry originally written in English or translated to English from oriental, classical Greek, European, African, South American, and North American cultures. Students learn literary forms and terms associated with selections being read. Students interpret the possible influences of the historical context on a literary work.

(12)  The knowledge and skills and/or student expectations that are applicable specifically to ELLs are indicated in §74.4 of this title as well as in subsection (b) of this section.

(13)  To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations in English I as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(14)  To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A)  determine the meaning of grade-level technical academic English words in multiple content areas (e.g., science, mathematics, social studies, the arts) derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes;

(B)  analyze textual context (within a sentence and in larger sections of text) to distinguish between the denotative and connotative meanings of words;

(C)  produce analogies that describe a function of an object or its description;

(D)  describe the origins and meanings of foreign words or phrases used frequently in written English (e.g., caveat emptor, carte blanche, tete a tete, pas de deux, bon appetit, quid pro quo); and

(E)  use a dictionary, a glossary, or a thesaurus (printed or electronic) to determine or confirm the meanings of words and phrases, including their connotations and denotations, and their etymology.

(2)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  analyze how the genre of texts with similar themes shapes meaning;

(B)  analyze the influence of mythic, classical and traditional literature on 20th and 21st century literature; and

(C)  relate the figurative language of a literary work to its historical and cultural setting.

(3)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the effects of diction and imagery (e.g., controlling images, figurative language, understatement, overstatement, irony, paradox) in poetry.

(4)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain how dramatic conventions (e.g., monologues, soliloquies, dramatic irony) enhance dramatic text.

(5)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  analyze non-linear plot development (e.g., flashbacks, foreshadowing, sub-plots, parallel plot structures) and compare it to linear plot development;

(B)  analyze how authors develop complex yet believable characters in works of fiction through a range of literary devices, including character foils;

(C)  analyze the way in which a work of fiction is shaped by the narrator's point of view; and

(D)  demonstrate familiarity with works by authors from non-English-speaking literary traditions with emphasis on classical literature.

(6)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze how literary essays interweave personal examples and ideas with factual information to explain, present a perspective, or describe a situation or event.

(7)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the role of irony, sarcasm, and paradox in literary works.

(8)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the controlling idea and specific purpose of an expository text and distinguish the most important from the less important details that support the author's purpose.

(9)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  summarize text and distinguish between a summary that captures the main ideas and elements of a text and a critique that takes a position and expresses an opinion;

(B)  differentiate between opinions that are substantiated and unsubstantiated in the text;

(C)  make subtle inferences and draw complex conclusions about the ideas in text and their organizational patterns; and

(D)  synthesize and make logical connections between ideas and details in several texts selected to reflect a range of viewpoints on the same topic and support those findings with textual evidence.

(10)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to:

(A)  analyze the relevance, quality, and credibility of evidence given to support or oppose an argument for a specific audience; and

(B)  analyze famous speeches for the rhetorical structures and devices used to convince the reader of the authors' propositions.

(11)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A)  analyze the clarity of the objective(s) of procedural text (e.g., consider reading instructions for software, warranties, consumer publications); and

(B)  analyze factual, quantitative, or technical data presented in multiple graphical sources.

(12)  Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A)  compare and contrast how events are presented and information is communicated by visual images (e.g., graphic art, illustrations, news photographs) versus non-visual texts;

(B)  analyze how messages in media are conveyed through visual and sound techniques (e.g., editing, reaction shots, sequencing, background music);

(C)  compare and contrast coverage of the same event in various media (e.g., newspapers, television, documentaries, blogs, Internet); and

(D)  evaluate changes in formality and tone within the same medium for specific audiences and purposes.

(13)  Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A)  plan a first draft by selecting the correct genre for conveying the intended meaning to multiple audiences, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea;

(B)  structure ideas in a sustained and persuasive way (e.g., using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, lists) and develop drafts in timed and open-ended situations that include transitions and the rhetorical devices used to convey meaning;

(C)  revise drafts to improve style, word choice, figurative language, sentence variety, and subtlety of meaning after rethinking how well questions of purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed;

(D)  edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and

(E)  revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(14)  Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are responsible for at least two forms of literary writing. Students are expected to:

(A)  write an engaging story with a well-developed conflict and resolution, interesting and believable characters, and a range of literary strategies (e.g., dialogue, suspense) and devices to enhance the plot;

(B)  write a poem using a variety of poetic techniques (e.g., structural elements, figurative language) and a variety of poetic forms (e.g., sonnets, ballads); and

(C)  write a script with an explicit or implicit theme and details that contribute to a definite mood or tone.

(15)  Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A)  write an analytical essay of sufficient length that includes:

(i)  effective introductory and concluding paragraphs and a variety of sentence structures;

(ii)  rhetorical devices and transitions between paragraphs;

(iii)  a controlling idea or thesis;

(iv)  an organizing structure appropriate to purpose, audience, and context; and

(v)  relevant information and valid inferences;

(B)  write procedural or work-related documents (e.g., instructions, e-mails, correspondence, memos, project plans) that include:

(i)  organized and accurately conveyed information; and

(ii)  reader-friendly formatting techniques;

(C)  write an interpretative response to an expository or a literary text (e.g., essay or review) that:

(i)  extends beyond a summary and literal analysis;

(ii)  addresses the writing skills for an analytical essay and provides evidence from the text using embedded quotations; and

(iii)  analyzes the aesthetic effects of an author's use of stylistic or rhetorical devices; and

(D)  produce a multimedia presentation (e.g., documentary, class newspaper, docudrama, infomercial, visual or textual parodies, theatrical production) with graphics, images, and sound that conveys a distinctive point of view and appeals to a specific audience.

(16)  Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write an argumentative essay to the appropriate audience that includes:

(A)  a clear thesis or position based on logical reasons supported by precise and relevant evidence;

(B)  consideration of the whole range of information and views on the topic and accurate and honest representation of these views;

(C)  counter-arguments based on evidence to anticipate and address objections;

(D)  an organizing structure appropriate to the purpose, audience, and context; and

(E)  an analysis of the relative value of specific data, facts, and ideas.

(17)  Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:

(i)  more complex active and passive tenses and verbals (gerunds, infinitives, participles);

(ii)  restrictive and nonrestrictive relative clauses; and

(iii)  reciprocal pronouns (e.g., each other, one another);

(B)  identify and use the subjunctive mood to express doubts, wishes, and possibilities; and

(C)  use a variety of correctly structured sentences (e.g., compound, complex, compound-complex).

(18)  Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

(A)  use conventions of capitalization; and

(B)  use correct punctuation marks including:

(i)  quotation marks to indicate sarcasm or irony;

(ii)  comma placement in nonrestrictive phrases, clauses, and contrasting expressions; and

(iii)  dashes to emphasize parenthetical information.

(19)  Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to spell correctly, including using various resources to determine and check correct spellings.

(20)  Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

(A)  brainstorm, consult with others, decide upon a topic, and formulate a major research question to address the major research topic; and

(B)  formulate a plan for engaging in research on a complex, multi-faceted topic.

(21)  Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

(A)  follow the research plan to compile data from authoritative sources in a manner that identifies the major issues and debates within the field of inquiry;

(B)  organize information gathered from multiple sources to create a variety of graphics and forms (e.g., notes, learning logs); and

(C)  paraphrase, summarize, quote, and accurately cite all researched information according to a standard format (e.g., author, title, page number).

(22)  Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to:

(A)  modify the major research question as necessary to refocus the research plan;

(B)  evaluate the relevance of information to the topic and determine the reliability, validity, and accuracy of sources (including Internet sources) by examining their authority and objectivity; and

(C)  critique the research process at each step to implement changes as the need occurs and is identified.

(23)  Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into a written or an oral presentation that:

(A)  marshals evidence in support of a clear thesis statement and related claims;

(B)  provides an analysis for the audience that reflects a logical progression of ideas and a clearly stated point of view;

(C)  uses graphics and illustrations to help explain concepts where appropriate;

(D)  uses a variety of evaluative tools (e.g., self-made rubrics, peer reviews, teacher and expert evaluations) to examine the quality of the research; and

(E)  uses a style manual (e.g., Modern Language Association, Chicago Manual of Style) to document sources and format written materials.

(24)  Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students will use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  listen responsively to a speaker by taking notes that summarize, synthesize, or highlight the speaker's ideas for critical reflection and by asking questions related to the content for clarification and elaboration;

(B)  follow and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, solve problems, and complete processes; and

(C)  evaluate the effectiveness of a speaker's main and supporting ideas.

(25)  Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to give presentations using informal, formal, and technical language effectively to meet the needs of audience, purpose, and occasion, employing eye contact, speaking rate (e.g., pauses for effect), volume, enunciation, purposeful gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

(26)  Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate productively in teams, building on the ideas of others, contributing relevant information, developing a plan for consensus-building, and setting ground rules for decision-making.

(27)  Second language acquisition/learning strategies. The ESOL I student uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his/her own learning processes in language arts and all content areas. The following expectations apply to the second language learner at his/her level of proficiency in English. Students are expected to:

(A)  use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English;

(B)  monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources;

(C)  use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary;

(D)  speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known);

(E)  internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment;

(F)  use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process;

(G)  demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations;

(H)  develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations; and

(I)  make connections across content areas and use and reuse language and concepts in different ways.

(28)  Second language acquisition/listening. The ESOL I student listens to a variety of speakers, including teachers, peers, and electronic media, to gain an increasing level of comprehension and appreciation for newly acquired language in language arts and all content areas. The following expectations apply to the second language learner at his/her level of proficiency in English. Students are expected to:

(A)  distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease;

(B)  recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters;

(C)  learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions;

(D)  monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed;

(E)  use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language;

(F)  listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment;

(G)  understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar;

(H)  understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations;

(I)  demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs;

(J)  understand basic structures, expressions, and vocabulary such as school environment, greetings, questions, and directions;

(K)  analyze and evaluate spoken discourse for appropriateness of purpose with a variety of audiences such as formal, consultative, casual, and intimate language registers; and

(L)  infer meaning by making associations of utterances with actions, visuals, and the context of the situation.

(29)  Second language acquisition/speaking. The ESOL I student speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using developmental vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. The following expectations apply to the second language learner at his/her level of proficiency in English. Students are expected to:

(A)  practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible;

(B)  expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, objects, events, and basic concepts such as numbers, days of the week, food, occupations, and time by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication;

(C)  speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired;

(D)  speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency;

(E)  share information in cooperative learning interactions;

(F)  ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts such as directions and address as well as name, age, and nationality, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments;

(G)  express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics;

(H)  narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired;

(I)  adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes;

(J)  respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment;

(K)  share prior knowledge with peers and others to facilitate communication and to foster respect for others; and

(L)  describe the immediate surroundings such as classroom, school, and home.

(30)  Second language acquisition/reading. The ESOL I student reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in language arts and all content areas. The following expectations apply to the second language learner at his/her level of proficiency in English. Students are expected to:

(A)  learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words;

(B)  recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom;

(C)  develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials;

(D)  use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pre-taught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text;

(E)  read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned;

(F)  use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language;

(G)  demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs;

(H)  read silently with increasing ease for longer periods;

(I)  demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs;

(J)  demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs;

(K)  demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs;

(L)  read authentic literature and use kinesthetic visual support to develop vocabulary, structures, and build background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly-challenging language;

(M)  use verbal cueing strategies such as pauses and exaggerated intonation for key words and non-verbal cueing strategies such as facial expressions and gestures to enhance the reading experience; and

(N)  retell, role-play, and/or visually illustrate the order of events.

(31)  Second language acquisition/writing. The ESOL I student writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in language arts and all content areas. The following expectations apply to the second language learner at his/her level of proficiency in English. Students are expected to:

(A)  learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English;

(B)  write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary;

(C)  spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired;

(D)  edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired;

(E)  employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations such as:

(i)  using correct verbs, tenses, auxiliaries, and pronouns/antecedents;

(ii)  using nominative, objective, and possessive case (apostrophe s) correctly;

(iii)  demonstrating knowledge of parts of speech; and

(iv)  using negatives and contractions correctly;

(F)  write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired;

(G)  narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired;

(H)  use basic capitalization and punctuation correctly such as capitalizing names and first letters in sentences and using periods, question marks, and exclamation points;

(I)  use graphic organizers as pre-writing activity to demonstrate prior knowledge, to add new information, and to prepare to write;

(J)  write with more proficient use of orthographic patterns such as digraphs and consonant blends with the initial s- and rules such as "qu" together, consonant doubling, dropping final "e," and changing "y" to "i"; and

(K)  develop drafts by categorizing ideas, organizing them into sentences and paragraphs, and blending paragraphs within larger units of text.

Source: The provisions of this §128.31 adopted to be effective November 26, 2008, 33 TexReg 9465.


§128.32. English II for Speakers of Other Languages (One Credit), Beginning with School Year 2009-2010.

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for English II for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL II) are described in §74.4 of this title (relating to English Language Proficiency Standards) as well as subsection (b) of this section and are identical to the knowledge and skills and student expectations in Chapter 110 of this title (relating to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading) with additional expectations for English language learners (ELLs).

(2)  ESOL II may be substituted for English II as provided by Chapter 74, Subchapter B, of this title (relating to Graduation Requirements). All expectations apply to ESOL II students; however, it is imperative to recognize critical processes and features of second language acquisition and to provide appropriate instruction to enable students to meet these standards.

(3)  ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language that many monolingual English speakers find difficult to meet in their native language. In addition, ELLs are acquiring English at the same time they are learning content in English. ELLs' abilities to meet these standards will be influenced by their proficiency in English. While ELLs can analyze, synthesize, and evaluate, their level of English proficiency may impede their ability to demonstrate this knowledge during the initial stages of English language acquisition. For this reason, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds that include adapted text (e.g., appropriate for student proficiency level; translations), pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesaurus, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELL students can and should be encouraged to use their knowledge of their first language (e.g., cognates) to enhance their vocabulary development, and vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(4)  Research consistently shows that a strong foundation in the native language of an ELL facilitates learning in English (Collier & Thomas, 1997; Cummins, 2001). Students can develop cognition, learn, and achieve best when they can understand the language of instruction (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2003). Students can be expected to transfer those skills to English and progress rapidly in learning in English.

(5)  For newcomers in secondary schooling, the challenge then is not only learning English, but learning in English. ELLs are challenged in working with linguistic, cognitive, and academic development in all of their coursework and in a new language. Some newcomers exhibit additional first language and/or academic needs due to their previous educational experiences that may include interrupted and/or limited schooling. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English, especially for students who are newcomers and at beginning levels of English language proficiency. Their academic success depends on their ability to use academic language.

(6)  Second language acquisition is a complex process that even under optimal conditions takes a long time (Collier, 1997). It is important to understand that limited knowledge of English structure and vocabulary is neither related to the students' intellectual capabilities nor their ability to use higher-order thinking skills. The development of receptive (listening/reading) and expressive (speaking/writing) skills in second language learners may be at different stages. In some instances, second language learners undergo silent periods of varying durations when they first begin to learn a new language. Students often understand more than they can produce and may repeat words in sentences that they do not entirely understand. Second language learners may also draw upon the resources of their language and culture as they acquire a new language and culture.

(7)  In order for ELLs to be successful, they must acquire both social and academic language proficiency in English. Social language proficiency in English consists of the English needed for daily social interactions. Academic language proficiency consists of the English needed to think critically, understand and learn new concepts, process complex academic material, and interact and communicate in English academic settings.

(8)  Academic language is a major factor in academic success. Academic language and grammatical structures are used across all subject areas and is specific to the content area, such as language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies. Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. This must also be provided in a manner that is linguistically accommodated (contextualized, communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.

(9)  ELLs require focused, targeted, and systematic second language acquisition to provide them with the foundation of English language vocabulary, grammar, syntax, and English mechanics necessary to support content-based instruction and accelerated learning of English. Literacy development across the content areas is essential in building academic skills in a second language and can accelerate the learning of both English language skills and higher-order thinking skills.

(10)  ELL students are at different stages of language acquisition. Proficiency levels are not grade specific: Beginning, Intermediate, Advanced, and Advanced High. The ELL student may exhibit different proficiency levels within the four language components: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. A student may exhibit oral skills at the advanced level, reading skills at the intermediate level, and writing skills at the beginning level. Understanding the level of English language proficiency of the student is critical in order for the student to have access to the curriculum. The proficiency level of the student determines the accommodations in language that must be made (e.g., adapted text appropriate for student proficiency level; translations) as well as, determines additional scaffolds (e.g., pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesaurus) in order to learn the academic content. Any combination of the language components is possible and is affected by opportunities for interaction in and outside of school. For further guidance in second language acquisition, refer to the English language proficiency standards (ELPS) described in §74.4 of this title.

(A)  Beginning: Students associate utterances with meaning as they make inferences based on actions, visuals, text, tone of voice, and inflections. Receptive language with some comprehension is acquired earlier than oral production. Beginning students produce spoken English with increasing accuracy and fluency to convey appropriate meaning. They read English using graphophonic cues, syntax, visuals, the context of the text, and their prior knowledge of language and structure of text.

(B)  Intermediate: Students use the listening process to improve comprehension and oral skills in English. Through listening and speaking in meaningful interactions, they clarify, distinguish, and evaluate ideas and responses in a variety of situations. Intermediate students participate successfully in academic, social, and work contexts in English using the process of speaking to create, clarify, critique, and evaluate ideas and responses. Intermediate students read English using and applying developmental vocabulary to increase comprehension and produce written text to address a variety of audiences and purposes.

(C)  Advanced: Students, through developmental listening skills, actively expand their vocabulary to evaluate and analyze spoken English for a variety of situations and purposes. These students participate in a variety of situations using spoken English to create, clarify, critique, and evaluate ideas and responses. Advanced students continually develop reading skills for increasing reading proficiency in content area texts for a variety of purposes and generate written text for different audiences in a variety of modes to convey appropriate meaning according to their level of proficiency.

(D)  Advanced High: Students' reading, speaking, and writing abilities are comparable to those of their native English speaking peers. They understand grade appropriate English as it is used in academic and social settings. These students use language skills on their grade level in the academic subject areas with minimal interruptions and they use abstract and content based vocabulary effectively. Advanced High students continually use the English language to build additional foundational reading skills such as fluency and prosody as well as higher-order comprehension skills. These students have a strong command of English language structures necessary to address writing at appropriate grade levels.

(11)  Students enrolled in ESOL II continue to increase and refine their communication skills. High school students are expected to plan, draft, and complete written compositions on a regular basis. Students edit their papers for clarity, engaging language, and the correct use of the conventions and mechanics of written English and, with increasing accuracy, produce final, error-free drafts. In English II, students practice all forms of writing. An emphasis is placed on organizing logical arguments with clearly expressed related definitions, thesis, and evidence. Students write to persuade and to report and describe. English II students read extensively in multiple genres from world literature such as reading selected stories, dramas, novels, and poetry originally written in English or translated to English from oriental, classical Greek, European, African, South American, and North American cultures. Students learn literary forms and terms associated with selections being read. Students interpret the possible influences of the historical context on a literary work.

(12)  The knowledge and skills and/or student expectations that are applicable specifically to ELLs are indicated in §74.4 of this title as well as in subsection (b) of this section.

(13)  To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations in English II as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(14)  To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A)  determine the meaning of grade-level technical academic English words in multiple content areas (e.g., science, mathematics, social studies, the arts) derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes;

(B)  analyze textual context (within a sentence and in larger sections of text) to distinguish between the denotative and connotative meanings of words;

(C)  infer word meaning through the identification and analysis of analogies and other word relationships;

(D)  show the relationship between the origins and meaning of foreign words or phrases used frequently in written English and historical events or developments (e.g., glasnost, avant-garde, coup d'état); and

(E)  use a dictionary, a glossary, or a thesaurus (printed or electronic) to determine or confirm the meanings of words and phrases, including their connotations and denotations, and their etymology.

(2)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  compare and contrast differences in similar themes expressed in different time periods;

(B)  analyze archetypes (e.g., journey of a hero, tragic flaw) in mythic, traditional and classical literature; and

(C)  relate the figurative language of a literary work to its historical and cultural setting.

(3)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the structure or prosody (e.g., meter, rhyme scheme) and graphic elements (e.g., line length, punctuation, word position) in poetry.

(4)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze how archetypes and motifs in drama affect the plot of plays.

(5)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  analyze isolated scenes and their contribution to the success of the plot as a whole in a variety of works of fiction;

(B)  analyze differences in the characters' moral dilemmas in works of fiction across different countries or cultures;

(C)  evaluate the connection between forms of narration (e.g., unreliable, omniscient) and tone in works of fiction; and

(D)  demonstrate familiarity with works by authors from non-English-speaking literary traditions with emphasis on 20th century world literature.

(6)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to evaluate the role of syntax and diction and the effect of voice, tone, and imagery on a speech, literary essay, or other forms of literary nonfiction.

(7)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the function of symbolism, allegory, and allusions in literary works.

(8)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the controlling idea and specific purpose of a passage and the textual elements that support and elaborate it, including both the most important details and the less important details.

(9)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  summarize text and distinguish between a summary and a critique and identify non-essential information in a summary and unsubstantiated opinions in a critique;

(B)  distinguish among different kinds of evidence (e.g., logical, empirical, anecdotal) used to support conclusions and arguments in texts;

(C)  make and defend subtle inferences and complex conclusions about the ideas in text and their organizational patterns; and

(D)  synthesize and make logical connections between ideas and details in several texts selected to reflect a range of viewpoints on the same topic and support those findings with textual evidence.

(10)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to:

(A)  explain shifts in perspective in arguments about the same topic and evaluate the accuracy of the evidence used to support the different viewpoints within those arguments; and

(B)  analyze contemporary political debates for such rhetorical and logical fallacies as appeals to commonly held opinions, false dilemmas, appeals to pity, and personal attacks.

(11)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A)  evaluate text for the clarity of its graphics and its visual appeal; and

(B)  synthesize information from multiple graphical sources to draw conclusions about the ideas presented (e.g., maps, charts, schematics).

(12)  Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A)  evaluate how messages presented in media reflect social and cultural views in ways different from traditional texts;

(B)  analyze how messages in media are conveyed through visual and sound techniques (e.g., editing, reaction shots, sequencing, background music);

(C)  examine how individual perception or bias in coverage of the same event influences the audience; and

(D)  evaluate changes in formality and tone within the same medium for specific audiences and purposes.

(13)  Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A)  plan a first draft by selecting the correct genre for conveying the intended meaning to multiple audiences, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea;

(B)  structure ideas in a sustained and persuasive way (e.g., using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, lists) and develop drafts in timed and open-ended situations that include transitions and rhetorical devices used to convey meaning;

(C)  revise drafts to improve style, word choice, figurative language, sentence variety, and subtlety of meaning after rethinking how well questions of purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed;

(D)  edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and

(E)  revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(14)  Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are responsible for at least two forms of literary writing. Students are expected to:

(A)  write an engaging story with a well-developed conflict and resolution, interesting and believable characters, a range of literary strategies (e.g., dialogue, suspense) and devices to enhance the plot, and sensory details that define the mood or tone;

(B)  write a poem using a variety of poetic techniques (e.g., structural elements, figurative language) and a variety of poetic forms (e.g., sonnets, ballads); and

(C)  write a script with an explicit or implicit theme and details that contribute to a definite mood or tone.

(15)  Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A)  write an analytical essay of sufficient length that includes:

(i)  effective introductory and concluding paragraphs and a variety of sentence structures;

(ii)  rhetorical devices and transitions between paragraphs;

(iii)  a thesis or controlling idea;

(iv)  an organizing structure appropriate to purpose, audience, and context;

(v)  relevant evidence and well-chosen details; and

(vi)  distinctions about the relative value of specific data, facts, and ideas that support the thesis statement;

(B)  write procedural or work-related documents (e.g., instructions, e-mails, correspondence, memos, project plans) that include:

(i)  organized and accurately conveyed information;

(ii)  reader-friendly formatting techniques; and

(iii)  anticipation of readers' questions;

(C)  write an interpretative response to an expository or a literary text (e.g., essay or review) that:

(i)  extends beyond a summary and literal analysis;

(ii)  addresses the writing skills for an analytical essay and provides evidence from the text using embedded quotations; and

(iii)  analyzes the aesthetic effects of an author's use of stylistic and rhetorical devices; and

(D)  produce a multimedia presentation (e.g., documentary, class newspaper, docudrama, infomercial, visual or textual parodies, theatrical production) with graphics, images, and sound that conveys a distinctive point of view and appeals to a specific audience.

(16)  Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write an argumentative essay to the appropriate audience that includes:

(A)  a clear thesis or position based on logical reasons supported by precise and relevant evidence;

(B)  consideration of the whole range of information and views on the topic and accurate and honest representation of these views (i.e., in the author's own words and not out of context);

(C)  counter-arguments based on evidence to anticipate and address objections;

(D)  an organizing structure appropriate to the purpose, audience, and context;

(E)  an analysis of the relative value of specific data, facts, and ideas; and

(F)  a range of appropriate appeals (e.g., descriptions, anecdotes, case studies, analogies, illustrations).

(17)  Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:

(i)  more complex active and passive tenses and verbals (gerunds, infinitives, participles);

(ii)  restrictive and nonrestrictive relative clauses; and

(iii)  reciprocal pronouns (e.g., each other, one another);

(B)  identify and use the subjunctive mood to express doubts, wishes, and possibilities; and

(C)  use a variety of correctly structured sentences (e.g., compound, complex, compound-complex).

(18)  Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

(A)  use conventions of capitalization; and

(B)  use correct punctuation marks including:

(i)  comma placement in nonrestrictive phrases, clauses, and contrasting expressions;

(ii)  quotation marks to indicate sarcasm or irony; and

(iii)  dashes to emphasize parenthetical information.

(19)  Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to spell correctly, including using various resources to determine and check correct spellings.

(20)  Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

(A)  brainstorm, consult with others, decide upon a topic, and formulate a major research question to address the major research topic; and

(B)  formulate a plan for engaging in research on a complex, multi-faceted topic.

(21)  Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

(A)  follow the research plan to compile data from authoritative sources in a manner that identifies the major issues and debates within the field of inquiry;

(B)  organize information gathered from multiple sources to create a variety of graphics and forms (e.g., notes, learning logs); and

(C)  paraphrase, summarize, quote, and accurately cite all researched information according to a standard format (e.g., author, title, page number).

(22)  Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to:

(A)  modify the major research question as necessary to refocus the research plan;

(B)  evaluate the relevance of information to the topic and determine the reliability, validity, and accuracy of sources (including Internet sources) by examining their authority and objectivity; and

(C)  critique the research process at each step to implement changes as the need occurs and is identified.

(23)  Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into a written or an oral presentation that:

(A)  marshals evidence in support of a clear thesis statement and related claims;

(B)  provides an analysis for the audience that reflects a logical progression of ideas and a clearly stated point of view;

(C)  uses graphics and illustrations to help explain concepts where appropriate;

(D)  uses a variety of evaluative tools (e.g., self-made rubrics, peer reviews, teacher and expert evaluations) to examine the quality of the research; and

(E)  uses a style manual (e.g., Modern Language Association, Chicago Manual of Style) to document sources and format written materials.

(24)  Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students will use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  listen responsively to a speaker by taking notes that summarize, synthesize, or highlight the speaker's ideas for critical reflection and by asking questions related to the content for clarification and elaboration;

(B)  follow and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, solve problems, and complete processes; and

(C)  evaluate how the style and structure of a speech support or undermine its purpose or meaning.

(25)  Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to advance a coherent argument that incorporates a clear thesis and a logical progression of valid evidence from reliable sources and that employs eye contact, speaking rate (e.g., pauses for effect), volume, enunciation, purposeful gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

(26)  Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate productively in teams, building on the ideas of others, contributing relevant information, developing a plan for consensus-building, and setting ground rules for decision-making.

(27)  Second language acquisition/learning strategies. The ESOL II student uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his/her own learning processes in language arts and all content areas. The following expectations apply to the second language learner at his/her level of proficiency in English. Students are expected to:

(A)  use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English;

(B)  monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources;

(C)  use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary;

(D)  speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known);

(E)  internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment;

(F)  use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process;

(G)  demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations;

(H)  develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations; and

(I)  make connections across content areas and use and reuse language and concepts in different ways.

(28)  Second language acquisition/listening. The ESOL II student listens to a variety of speakers, including teachers, peers, and electronic media, to gain an increasing level of comprehension and appreciation for newly acquired language in language arts and all content areas. The following expectations apply to the second language learner at his/her level of proficiency in English. Students are expected to:

(A)  distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease;

(B)  recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters;

(C)  learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions;

(D)  monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed;

(E)  use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language;

(F)  listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment;

(G)  understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar;

(H)  understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations;

(I)  demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs;

(J)  understand basic structures, expressions, and vocabulary such as school environment, greetings, questions, and directions;

(K)  analyze and evaluate spoken discourse for appropriateness of purpose with a variety of audiences such as formal, consultative, casual, and intimate language registers; and

(L)  infer meaning by making associations of utterances with actions, visuals, and the context of the situation.

(29)  Second language acquisition/speaking. The ESOL II student speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using developmental vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. The following expectations apply to the second language learner at his/her level of proficiency in English. Students are expected to:

(A)  practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible;

(B)  expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, objects, events, and basic concepts such as numbers, days of the week, food, occupations, and time by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication;

(C)  speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired;

(D)  speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency;

(E)  share information in cooperative learning interactions;

(F)  ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts such as directions and address as well as name, age, and nationality, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments;

(G)  express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics;

(H)  narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired;

(I)  adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes;

(J)  respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment;

(K)  share prior knowledge with peers and others to facilitate communication and to foster respect for others; and

(L)  describe the immediate surroundings such as classroom, school, and home.

(30)  Second language acquisition/reading. The ESOL II student reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in language arts and all content areas. The following expectations apply to the second language learner at his/her level of proficiency in English. Students are expected to:

(A)  learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words;

(B)  recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom;

(C)  develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials;

(D)  use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pre-taught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text;

(E)  read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned;

(F)  use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language;

(G)  demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs;

(H)  read silently with increasing ease for longer periods;

(I)  demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs;

(J)  demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs;

(K)  demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs;

(L)  read authentic literature and use kinesthetic visual support to develop vocabulary, structures, and build background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly-challenging language;

(M)  use verbal cueing strategies such as pauses and exaggerated intonation for key words and non-verbal cueing strategies such as facial expressions and gestures to enhance the reading experience; and

(N)  retell, role-play, and/or visually illustrate the order of events.

(31)  Second language acquisition/writing. The ESOL II student writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in language arts and all content areas. The following expectations apply to the second language learner at his/her level of proficiency in English. Students are expected to:

(A)  learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English;

(B)  write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary;

(C)  spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired;

(D)  edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired;

(E)  employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations such as:

(i)  using correct verbs, tenses, auxiliaries, and pronouns/antecedents;

(ii)  using nominative, objective, and possessive case (apostrophe s) correctly;

(iii)  demonstrating knowledge of parts of speech; and

(iv)  using negatives and contractions correctly;

(F)  write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired;

(G)  narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired;

(H)  use basic capitalization and punctuation correctly such as capitalizing names and first letters in sentences and using periods, question marks, and exclamation points;

(I)  use graphic organizers as pre-writing activity to demonstrate prior knowledge, to add new information, and to prepare to write;

(J)  write with more proficient use of orthographic patterns such as digraphs and consonant blends with the initial s- and rules such as "qu" together, consonant doubling, dropping final "e," and changing "y" to "i"; and

(K)  develop drafts by categorizing ideas, organizing them into sentences and paragraphs, and blending paragraphs within larger units of text.

Source: The provisions of this §128.32 adopted to be effective November 26, 2008, 33 TexReg 9465.


§128.33. Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English as a Second Language, High School, Adopted 2017.

(a)  The provisions of §§128.34-128.36 of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts.

(b)  No later than August 31, 2019, the commissioner of education shall determine whether instructional materials funding has been made available to Texas public schools for materials that cover the essential knowledge and skills for English as a Second Language as adopted in §§128.34-128.36 of this subchapter.

(c)  If the commissioner makes the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under subsection (b) of this section, §§128.34-128.36 of this subchapter shall be implemented beginning with the 2020-2021 school year and apply to the 2020-2021 and subsequent school years.

(d)  If the commissioner does not make the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under subsection (b) of this section, the commissioner shall determine no later than August 31 of each subsequent school year whether instructional materials funding has been made available. If the commissioner determines that instructional materials funding has been made available, the commissioner shall notify the State Board of Education and school districts that §§128.34-128.36 of this subchapter shall be implemented for the following school year.

(e)  Section 128.31 and §128.32 of this subchapter shall be superseded by the implementation of §§128.34-128.36 of this section.

Source: The provisions of this §128.33 adopted to be effective November 12, 2017, 42 TexReg 6164.


§128.34. English I for Speakers of Other Languages (One Credit), Adopted 2017.

(a)  General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Recommended corequisite: English Language Development and Acquisition (ELDA).

(1)  The essential knowledge and skills for English I for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL I) are described in §74.4 of this title (relating to English Language Proficiency Standards) as well as subsection (b) of this section and are aligned to the knowledge and skills and student expectations in Chapter 110 of this title (relating to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading) with additional expectations for English language learners (ELLs).

(2)  ESOL I may be substituted for English I as provided by Chapter 74, Subchapter B, of this title (relating to Graduation Requirements). All expectations apply to ESOL I students; however, it is imperative to recognize critical processes and features of second language acquisition and to provide appropriate instruction to enable students to meet these standards.

(b)  Introduction.

(1)  The ESOL Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. They are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2)  The seven strands of this course mirror the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading, which are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3)  Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4)  ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5)  Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6)  Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7)  Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A)  engage in meaningful and respectful discourse by listening actively, responding appropriately, and adjusting communication to audiences and purposes;

(B)  share prior knowledge with peers and others to facilitate communication;

(C)  follow, restate, and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, or solve problems and complex processes;

(D)  give a presentation using informal, formal, and technical language effectively to meet the needs of audience, purpose, and occasion, employing eye contact, speaking rate such as pauses for effect, volume, enunciation, purposeful gestures, and increasing mastery of conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively;

(E)  participate collaboratively, building on the ideas of others, contributing relevant information, developing a plan for consensus building, and setting ground rules for decision making;

(F)  develop social communication and produce oral language in contextualized and purposeful ways; and

(G)  conduct an interview, including social and informative.

(2)  Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A)  acquire, demonstrate, and apply phonetic knowledge; and

(B)  write complete words, thoughts, and answers legibly.

(3)  Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A)  use print or digital resources such as glossaries or technical dictionaries to clarify and validate understanding of the precise and appropriate meaning of technical or discipline-based vocabulary;

(B)  discuss and analyze context and use cognates to distinguish between the denotative and connotative meanings of words and phrases;

(C)  determine the meaning of foreign words or phrases used frequently in English such as bona fide, caveat, carte blanche, tête-à-tête, bon appétit, and quid pro quo;

(D)  identify and use words that name actions, directions, positions, sequences, and locations;

(E)  identify, understand, and use multiple-meaning words, homographs, homophones, and commonly confused terms correctly; and

(F)  investigate expressions such as idioms and word relationships such as antonyms, synonyms, and analogies.

(4)  Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to adjust fluency when reading grade-level and language proficiency-level text based on the reading purpose.

(5)  Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade- and language proficiency-appropriate texts with increasing independence. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6)  Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and comprehend increasingly complex texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A)  establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B)  answer and generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to acquire and deepen understanding and gain information;

(C)  make and correct or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D)  create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E)  make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F)  make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G)  actively participate in discussions to identify, understand, and evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H)  synthesize information from two texts to create new understanding; and

(I)  monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7)  Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A)  describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B)  write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing texts within and across genres;

(C)  use text evidence and original commentary to support a comprehensive response;

(D)  paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E)  interact with sources in meaningful ways such as labeling, notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F)  respond using acquired content and academic vocabulary as appropriate;

(G)  discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H)  respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice;

(I)  reflect on and adjust responses when valid evidence warrants;

(J)  defend or challenge the authors' claims using relevant text evidence; and

(K)  express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions.

(8)  Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A)  identify and analyze how themes are developed through characterization and plot in a variety of literary texts;

(B)  identify and analyze how authors develop complex yet believable characters in works of fiction through a range of literary devices, including character foils;

(C)  identify and analyze non-linear plot development such as flashbacks, foreshadowing, subplots, and parallel plot structures and compare it to linear plot development; and

(D)  identify and analyze how the setting influences the theme.

(9)  Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A)  read and respond to American, British, and world literature;

(B)  identify and analyze the structure, prosody, and graphic elements such as line length and word position in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C)  identify and analyze the function of dramatic conventions such as asides, soliloquies, dramatic irony, and satire;

(D)  identify and analyze characteristics and structural elements of informational texts such as:

(i)  controlling idea and clear thesis, relevant supporting evidence, pertinent examples, and conclusion;

(ii)  chapters, sections, subsections, bibliography, tables, graphs, captions, bullets, and numbers; and

(iii)  multiple organizational patterns within a text to develop the thesis;

(E)  identify and analyze characteristics and structural elements of argumentative texts such as:

(i)  clear arguable claim, appeals, and convincing conclusion;

(ii)  various types of evidence and treatment of counterarguments, including concessions and rebuttals; and

(iii)  identifiable audience or reader; and

(F)  identify and analyze characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10)  Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A)  identify and analyze the author's purpose, audience, and message within a text;

(B)  identify and analyze use of text structure to achieve the author's purpose;

(C)  identify and evaluate the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D)  identify and analyze how the author's use of language achieves specific purposes;

(E)  identify and analyze the use of literary devices such as irony and oxymoron to achieve specific purposes;

(F)  identify and analyze how the author's diction and syntax contribute to the mood, voice, and tone of a text;

(G)  identify and analyze the use of rhetorical devices, including allusion, repetition, appeals, and rhetorical questions; and

(H)  identify and explain the purpose of rhetorical devices such as understatement and overstatement and the effect of logical fallacies such as straw man and red herring arguments.

(11)  Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A)  plan a piece of writing appropriate for various purposes and audiences by generating ideas through a range of strategies such as brainstorming, journaling, reading, or discussing;

(B)  develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing in timed and open-ended situations by:

(i)  using an organizing structure appropriate to purpose, audience, topic, and context; and

(ii)  developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific details, examples, and commentary;

(C)  revise drafts to improve clarity, development, organization, style, diction, and sentence effectiveness, including use of parallel constructions and placement of phrases and dependent clauses;

(D)  edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i)  a variety of complete, controlled sentences and avoidance of unintentional splices, run-ons, and fragments;

(ii)  consistent, appropriate use of verb tense and active and passive voice;

(iii)  subject-verb agreement;

(iv)  pronoun-antecedent agreement;

(v)  apostrophes to show possession;

(vi)  accurate usage of homonyms;

(vii)  correct capitalization;

(viii)  punctuation, including commas, semicolons, colons, and dashes to set off phrases and clauses as appropriate; and

(ix)  correct spelling, including abbreviations;

(E)  use sentence-combining techniques to create a variety of sentence structures and lengths;

(F)  develop voice; and

(G)  publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12)  Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A)  compose literary texts such as fiction and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B)  compose informational texts such as explanatory essays, reports, and personal essays using genre characteristics and craft;

(C)  compose argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D)  compose correspondence in a professional or friendly structure.

(13)  Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A)  develop questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B)  critique the research process at each step to implement changes as needs occur and are identified;

(C)  develop and revise a plan;

(D)  modify the major research question as necessary to refocus the research plan;

(E)  locate relevant sources;

(F)  synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(G)  examine sources for:

(i)  credibility and bias, including omission; and

(ii)  faulty reasoning such as ad hominem, loaded language, and slippery slope;

(H)  display academic citations, including for paraphrased and quoted text, and use source materials ethically to avoid plagiarism;

(I)  incorporate digital technology when appropriate; and

(J)  use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, pictorial, or multimodal, to present results.

Source: The provisions of this §128.34 adopted to be effective November 12, 2017, 42 TexReg 6164.


§128.35. English II for Speakers of Other Languages (One Credit), Adopted 2017.

(a)  General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Recommended corequisite: English Language Development and Acquisition (ELDA).

(1)  The essential knowledge and skills for English II for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL II) are described in §74.4 of this title (relating to English Language Proficiency Standards) as well as subsection (b) of this section and are aligned to the knowledge and skills and student expectations in Chapter 110 of this title (relating to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading) with additional expectations for English language learners (ELLs).

(2)  ESOL II may be substituted for English II as provided by Chapter 74, Subchapter B, of this title (relating to Graduation Requirements). All expectations apply to ESOL II students; however, it is imperative to recognize critical processes and features of second language acquisition and to provide appropriate instruction to enable students to meet these standards.

(b)  Introduction.

(1)  The ESOL Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2)  The seven strands of this course mirror the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading, which are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3)  Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4)  ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5)  Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6)  Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7)  Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A)  engage in meaningful and respectful discourse by listening actively, responding appropriately, and adjusting communication to audiences and purposes;

(B)  share prior knowledge with peers and others to facilitate communication;

(C)  follow, restate, and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, or solve problems and complex processes;

(D)  give a formal presentation that incorporates a clear thesis and a logical progression of valid evidence from reliable sources and that employs eye contact, speaking rate such as pauses for effect, volume, enunciation, purposeful gestures, and increasing mastery of conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively;

(E)  participate collaboratively, building on the ideas of others, contributing relevant information, developing a plan for consensus building, and setting ground rules for decision making;

(F)  develop social communication and produce oral language in contextualized and purposeful ways; and

(G)  listen and respond to critique from peers after an oral presentation.

(2)  Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge; and

(B)  write complete words, thoughts, and answers legibly.

(3)  Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A)  use print or digital resources such as glossaries or technical dictionaries to clarify and validate understanding of the precise and appropriate meaning of technical or discipline-based vocabulary;

(B)  analyze context to distinguish among denotative, connotative, and figurative meanings of words;

(C)  determine the meaning of foreign words or phrases used frequently in English such as pas de deux, status quo, déjà vu, avant-garde, and coup d'état;

(D)  identify and use words that name actions, directions, positions, sequences, and locations;

(E)  use multiple-meaning words, homographs, homophones, and commonly confused terms correctly; and

(F)  investigate expressions such as idioms and word relationships such as antonyms, synonyms, and analogies.

(4)  Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to adjust fluency when reading grade-level and language proficiency-level text based on the reading purpose.

(5)  Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6)  Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A)  establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B)  generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to acquire and deepen understanding and gain information;

(C)  make and correct or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D)  create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E)  make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F)  make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G)  evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H)  synthesize information from multiple texts to create new understanding; and

(I)  monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7)  Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A)  describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B)  write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing texts within and across genres;

(C)  use text evidence and original commentary to support an interpretive response;

(D)  paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E)  interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F)  respond using acquired content and academic vocabulary as appropriate;

(G)  discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H)  respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice;

(I)  reflect on and adjust responses when valid evidence warrants;

(J)  defend or challenge the authors' claims using relevant text evidence; and

(K)  express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating in single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions.

(8)  Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A)  analyze how themes are developed through characterization and plot, including comparing similar themes in a variety of literary texts representing different cultures;

(B)  analyze how authors develop complex yet believable characters, including archetypes, through historical and cultural settings and events;

(C)  analyze isolated scenes and their contribution to the success of the plot as a whole; and

(D)  analyze how historical and cultural settings influence characterization, plot, and theme across texts.

(9)  Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A)  read and analyze world literature across literary periods;

(B)  analyze the effects of metrics; rhyme schemes; types of rhymes such as end, internal, slant, and eye; and other conventions in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C)  analyze the function of dramatic conventions such as asides, soliloquies, dramatic irony, and satire;

(D)  analyze characteristics and structural elements of informational texts such as:

(i)  clear thesis, relevant supporting evidence, pertinent examples, and conclusion;

(ii)  chapters, sections, subsections, bibliography, tables, graphs, captions, bullets, and numbers to locate, explain, or use information and gain understanding of text;

(iii)  organizational patterns such as description, temporal sequence, cause and effect, compare and contrast, and problem and solution; and

(iv)  the relationship between organizational design and thesis;

(E)  analyze characteristics and structural elements of argumentative texts such as:

(i)  controlling idea and clear arguable claim, appeals, and convincing conclusion;

(ii)  various types of evidence and treatment of counterarguments, including concessions and rebuttals; and

(iii)  identifiable audience or reader; and

(F)  analyze characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10)  Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A)  analyze the author's purpose, audience, and message within a text;

(B)  analyze use of text structure to achieve the author's purpose;

(C)  evaluate the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D)  analyze how the author's use of language informs and shapes the perception of readers;

(E)  analyze the use of literary devices such as irony, sarcasm, and motif to achieve specific purposes;

(F)  analyze how the author's diction and syntax contribute to the mood, voice, and tone of a text; and

(G)  analyze the purpose of rhetorical devices such as appeals, antithesis, parallelism, and shifts and the effects of logical fallacies.

(11)  Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A)  plan a piece of writing appropriate for various purposes and audiences by generating ideas through a range of strategies such as brainstorming, journaling, reading, or discussing;

(B)  develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing in timed and open-ended situations by:

(i)  using an organizing structure appropriate to purpose, audience, topic, and context; and

(ii)  developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific details, examples, and commentary;

(C)  revise drafts to improve clarity, development, organization, style, diction, and sentence effectiveness, including use of parallel constructions and placement of phrases and dependent clauses;

(D)  edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i)  a variety of complete, controlled sentences and avoidance of unintentional splices, run-ons, and fragments;

(ii)  consistent, appropriate use of verb tense and active and passive voice;

(iii)  subject-verb agreement;

(iv)  pronoun-antecedent agreement;

(v)  apostrophes to show possession;

(vi)  accurate usage of homonyms;

(vii)  correct capitalization;

(viii)  punctuation, including commas, semicolons, colons, dashes, and parentheses, to set off phrases and clauses as appropriate; and

(ix)  correct spelling, including abbreviations;

(E)  use sentence-combining techniques to create an increasingly complex variety of sentence structures and lengths;

(F)  develop voice; and

(G)  publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12)  Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A)  compose literary texts such as fiction and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B)  compose informational texts such as explanatory essays, reports, and personal essays using genre characteristics and craft;

(C)  compose argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D)  compose correspondence in a professional or friendly structure.

(13)  Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A)  develop questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B)  critique the research process at each step to implement changes as needs occur and are identified;

(C)  develop and revise a plan;

(D)  modify the major research question as necessary to refocus the research plan;

(E)  locate relevant sources;

(F)  synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(G)  examine sources for:

(i)  credibility and bias, including omission; and

(ii)  faulty reasoning such as incorrect premise, hasty generalizations, and either-or;

(H)  display academic citations, including for paraphrased and quoted text, and use source materials ethically to avoid plagiarism;

(I)  incorporate digital technology when appropriate; and

(J)  use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

Source: The provisions of this §128.35 adopted to be effective November 12, 2017, 42 TexReg 6164.


§128.36. English Language Development and Acquisition (ELDA) (One Credit), Adopted 2017.

(a)  General requirements.

(1)  Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. This course must be taken concurrently with a corequisite language arts course as outlined in Chapter 110 of this title (relating to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading) or this chapter. Recommended corequisites: English I for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL I) and English II for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL II).

(2)  Students may take this course with a different corequisite for a maximum of two credits.

(b)  Introduction.

(1)  English Language Development and Acquisition (ELDA) is designed to provide instructional opportunities for secondary recent immigrant students with little or no English proficiency. These students have scored at the negligible/very limited academic language level of the state-approved English oral language proficiency tests. This course enables students to become increasingly more proficient in English in all four language domains. It addresses cognitive, linguistic, and affective needs in compliance with federal requirements and the provisions of Chapter 89, Subchapter BB, of this title (relating to Commissioner's Rules Concerning State Plan for Educating English Language Learners) under the Texas Education Code, §§29.051-29.064.

(2)  The English Language Development and Acquisition (ELDA) course will validate a student's native language and culture as a valuable resource and as a foundation to attain the English language. It will develop social language, survival vocabulary, and the basic building blocks of literacy for newly arrived and preliterate students.

(3)  Through comprehensible input, students have access to curriculum that accelerates second language acquisition. Students are challenged to apply higher-order thinking skills in all four language domains.

(4)  Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that English language learners acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(5)  The development of communicative competence occurs through targeted lessons based on students' needs, although academic language proficiency is the focus of instruction.

(6)  Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. Students develop oral language and word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and encode. Students apply knowledge and relationships found in the structures, origins, and contextual meanings of words. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A)  distinguish and produce sounds and intonation patterns of English;

(B)  recognize print directionality of the English language such as reading left to right or top to bottom;

(C)  develop knowledge of relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English;

(D)  process and use basic academic English language interdisciplinary vocabulary;

(E)  understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from universally familiar to unfamiliar topics;

(F)  identify people, places, objects, events, and basic concepts such as numbers, days of the week, food, occupations, clothing, colors, and time;

(G)  learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words;

(H)  identify and use words that name actions, directions, positions, sequences, and locations;

(I)  develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning from environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely;

(J)  use print or digital resources such as glossaries, English dictionaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and available technology to determine meanings and usage;

(K)  listen actively and ask relevant questions to clarify understanding; and

(L)  share prior knowledge with peers and others to facilitate communication and foster respect for others.

(2)  Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. Students use metacognitive skills both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A)  summarize texts and retell in English or the native language (L1) as needed;

(B)  self-monitor using pre-reading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pre-taught topic-related vocabulary to enhance comprehension of input from various sources;

(C)  demonstrate comprehension of English by participating in shared reading, responding to questions, and taking notes that are commensurate with language acquisition;

(D)  make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and the larger community;

(E)  listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as video, DVD, CD, or other technology to build and reinforce concepts and language; and

(F)  make inferences and use evidence to support understanding.

(3)  Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. Students react and respond to a variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A)  formulate and provide effective verbal and non-verbal feedback;

(B)  speak using a variety of increasingly complex grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired;

(C)  ask for and give information such as directions, address, name, age, and nationality;

(D)  express ideas and feelings such as gratitude, needs, opinion, and greetings;

(E)  communicate non-verbally to effectively and appropriately engage in formal and social interactions;

(F)  express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in short discussions;

(G)  respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to reinforce concept and language attainment; and

(H)  organize information in a variety of ways such as graphics, conceptual maps, and learning logs.

(4)  Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. Students recognize and analyze genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse multicultural texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A)  compare characteristics of cultures represented in various linguistic and non-linguistic sources;

(B)  read and listen to adapted or linguistically accommodated modified classical, traditional, contemporary, and multicultural works in English or native language (L1) in alignment with grade-level student expectations;

(C)  use text features, including titles, headings, subheadings, paragraphs, fonts, styles, index, glossary, table of contents, and graphics to locate, explain, or use information; and

(D)  compare and contrast how events are presented and information is communicated by visual images such as graphic art, illustrations, or photographs versus non-visual text.

(5)  Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. Students use critical inquiry to analyze the purpose of authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a text. Students will analyze and apply author's craft purposefully in order to develop their own products and performances. Based on the student's proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A)  determine and interpret an author's or speaker's intended message;

(B)  determine the target audience; and

(C)  determine the purpose of the message.

(6)  Composition: listening, speaking, reading writing, and thinking using multiple texts. Students use the modes of writing/discourse and the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are meaningful and legible and use appropriate conventions. Based on the student's proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A)  produce legible work that demonstrates increasing accuracy in the use of the English alphabet, spelling, and the correct use of the conventions of punctuation and capitalization;

(B)  spell familiar words with increasing accuracy and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired;

(C)  demonstrate increasing control over grammatical elements such as subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and verb forms;

(D)  use prewriting strategies to generate ideas, develop voice, and plan;

(E)  write effectively in first person;

(F)  apply oral and written conventions in English with increasing fluency during classroom presentations, compositions, and dialogue;

(G)  arrange phrases, clauses, and sentences into correct and meaningful patterns;

(H)  compile written ideas to form complete sentences and paragraphs;

(I)  organize and convert information into different forms such as charts, graphs, and drawings;

(J)  convey intended meaning while recognizing the meanings and uses of the other registers in English that are often expressed through colloquialisms, idioms, and other language forms;

(K)  create, revise, edit, and publish using various technology applications;

(L)  use study tools, including writing, labeling, and sketching, to clarify and remember information;

(M)  evaluate writing for both mechanics and content; and

(N)  use cohesive devices with increasing accuracy.

(7)  Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. Students engage in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A)  locate appropriate print and non-print information using texts and technical resources, periodicals, and the internet;

(B)  compile information using available technology;

(C)  discover, organize, and support in writing what is known and what needs to be learned about a topic; and

(D)  compare and contrast coverage of the same event in various media such as newspapers, television, documentaries, blogs, and the internet.

Source: The provisions of this §128.36 adopted to be effective November 12, 2017, 42 TexReg 6164.

 


For more information, email rules@tea.texas.gov.