Chapter 128. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills
for Spanish Language Arts and Reading and English as a Second Language
Subchapter C. High School


Statutory Authority: The provisions of this Subchapter C issued under the Texas Education Code, §§7.102(c)(4), 28.002, 28.005, 28.025, and 29.051, unless otherwise noted.


§128.30. Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English as a Second Language, High School, Beginning with School Year 2009-2010.

(a)  The provisions of §128.31 and §128.32 of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2009-2010 school year.

(b)  Students must develop the ability to comprehend and process material from a wide range of texts. Student expectations for Reading/Comprehension Skills as provided in this subsection are described for the appropriate grade level.

Figure: 19 TAC §128.30(b)

Source: The provisions of this §128.30 adopted to be effective November 26, 2008, 33 TexReg 9465; amended to be effective February 22, 2010, 35 TexReg 1463.


§128.31. English I for Speakers of Other Languages (One Credit), Beginning with School Year 2009-2010.

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for English I for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL I) are described in §74.4 of this title (relating to English Language Proficiency Standards) as well as subsection (b) of this section and are identical to the knowledge and skills and student expectations in Chapter 110 of this title (relating to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading) with additional expectations for English language learners (ELLs).

(2)  ESOL I may be substituted for English I as provided by Chapter 74, Subchapter B, of this title (relating to Graduation Requirements). All expectations apply to ESOL I students; however, it is imperative to recognize critical processes and features of second language acquisition and to provide appropriate instruction to enable students to meet these standards.

(3)  ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language that many monolingual English speakers find difficult to meet in their native language. In addition, ELLs are acquiring English at the same time they are learning content in English. ELLs' abilities to meet these standards will be influenced by their proficiency in English. While ELLs can analyze, synthesize, and evaluate, their level of English proficiency may impede their ability to demonstrate this knowledge during the initial stages of English language acquisition. For this reason, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds that include adapted text (e.g., appropriate for student proficiency level; translations), pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesaurus, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use their knowledge of their first language (e.g., cognates) to enhance their vocabulary development, and vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(4)  Research consistently shows that a strong foundation in the native language of an ELL facilitates learning in English (Collier & Thomas, 1997; Cummins, 2001). Students can develop cognition, learn, and achieve best when they can understand the language of instruction (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2003). Students can be expected to transfer those skills to English and progress rapidly in learning in English.

(5)  For newcomers in secondary schooling, the challenge then is not only learning English, but learning in English. ELLs are challenged in working with linguistic, cognitive, and academic development in all of their coursework and in a new language. Some newcomers exhibit additional first language and/or academic needs due to their previous educational experiences that may include interrupted and/or limited schooling. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English, especially for students who are newcomers and at beginning levels of English language proficiency. Their academic success depends on their ability to use academic language.

(6)  Second language acquisition is a complex process that even under optimal conditions takes a long time (Collier, 1997). It is important to understand that limited knowledge of English structure and vocabulary is neither related to the students' intellectual capabilities nor their ability to use higher-order thinking skills. The development of receptive (listening/reading) and expressive (speaking/writing) skills in second language learners may be at different stages. In some instances, second language learners undergo silent periods of varying durations when they first begin to learn a new language. Students often understand more than they can produce and may repeat words in sentences that they do not entirely understand. Second language learners may also draw upon the resources of their language and culture as they acquire a new language and culture.

(7)  In order for ELLs to be successful, they must acquire both social and academic language proficiency in English. Social language proficiency in English consists of the English needed for daily social interactions. Academic language proficiency consists of the English needed to think critically, understand and learn new concepts, process complex academic material, and interact and communicate in English academic settings.

(8)  Academic language is a major factor in academic success. Academic language and grammatical structures are used across all subject areas and is specific to the content area, such as language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies. Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. This must also be provided in a manner that is linguistically accommodated (contextualized, communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.

(9)  ELLs require focused, targeted, and systematic second language acquisition to provide them with the foundation of English language vocabulary, grammar, syntax, and English mechanics necessary to support content-based instruction and accelerated learning of English. Literacy development across the content areas is essential in building academic skills in a second language and can accelerate the learning of both English language skills and higher-order thinking skills.

(10)  ELL students are at different stages of language acquisition. Proficiency levels are not grade specific: Beginning, Intermediate, Advanced, and Advanced High. The ELL student may exhibit different proficiency levels within the four language components: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. A student may exhibit oral skills at the advanced level, reading skills at the intermediate level, and writing skills at the beginning level. Understanding the level of English language proficiency of the student is critical in order for the student to have access to the curriculum. The proficiency level of the student determines the accommodations in language that must be made (e.g., adapted text appropriate for student proficiency level; translations) as well as, determines additional scaffolds (e.g., pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesaurus) in order to learn the academic content. Any combination of the language components is possible and is affected by opportunities for interaction in and outside of school. For further guidance in second language acquisition, refer to the English language proficiency standards (ELPS) described in §74.4 of this title.

(A)  Beginning: Students associate utterances with meaning as they make inferences based on actions, visuals, text, tone of voice, and inflections. Receptive language with some comprehension is acquired earlier than oral production. Beginning students produce spoken English with increasing accuracy and fluency to convey appropriate meaning. They read English using graphophonic cues, syntax, visuals, the context of the text, and their prior knowledge of language and structure of text.

(B)  Intermediate: Students use the listening process to improve comprehension and oral skills in English. Through listening and speaking in meaningful interactions, they clarify, distinguish, and evaluate ideas and responses in a variety of situations. Intermediate students participate successfully in academic, social, and work contexts in English using the process of speaking to create, clarify, critique, and evaluate ideas and responses. Intermediate students read English using and applying developmental vocabulary to increase comprehension and produce written text to address a variety of audiences and purposes.

(C)  Advanced: Students, through developmental listening skills, actively expand their vocabulary to evaluate and analyze spoken English for a variety of situations and purposes. These students participate in a variety of situations using spoken English to create, clarify, critique, and evaluate ideas and responses. Advanced students continually develop reading skills for increasing reading proficiency in content area texts for a variety of purposes and generate written text for different audiences in a variety of modes to convey appropriate meaning according to their level of proficiency.

(D)  Advanced High: Students' reading, speaking, and writing abilities are comparable to those of their native English speaking peers. They understand grade appropriate English as it is used in academic and social settings. These students use language skills on their grade level in the academic subject areas with minimal interruptions and they use abstract and content based vocabulary effectively. Advanced High students continually use the English language to build additional foundational reading skills such as fluency and prosody as well as higher-order comprehension skills. These students have a strong command of English language structures necessary to address writing at appropriate grade levels.

(11)  Students enrolled in ESOL I continue to increase and refine their communication skills. High school students are expected to plan, draft, and complete written compositions on a regular basis. Students edit their papers for clarity, engaging language, and the correct use of the conventions and mechanics of written English and, with increasing accuracy, produce final, error-free drafts. In English I, students practice all forms of writing. An emphasis is placed on organizing logical arguments with clearly expressed related definitions, thesis, and evidence. Students write to persuade and to report and describe. English I students read extensively in multiple genres from world literature such as reading selected stories, dramas, novels, and poetry originally written in English or translated to English from oriental, classical Greek, European, African, South American, and North American cultures. Students learn literary forms and terms associated with selections being read. Students interpret the possible influences of the historical context on a literary work.

(12)  The knowledge and skills and/or student expectations that are applicable specifically to ELLs are indicated in §74.4 of this title as well as in subsection (b) of this section.

(13)  To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations in English I as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(14)  To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A)  determine the meaning of grade-level technical academic English words in multiple content areas (e.g., science, mathematics, social studies, the arts) derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes;

(B)  analyze textual context (within a sentence and in larger sections of text) to distinguish between the denotative and connotative meanings of words;

(C)  produce analogies that describe a function of an object or its description;

(D)  describe the origins and meanings of foreign words or phrases used frequently in written English (e.g., caveat emptor, carte blanche, tete a tete, pas de deux, bon appetit, quid pro quo); and

(E)  use a dictionary, a glossary, or a thesaurus (printed or electronic) to determine or confirm the meanings of words and phrases, including their connotations and denotations, and their etymology.

(2)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  analyze how the genre of texts with similar themes shapes meaning;

(B)  analyze the influence of mythic, classical and traditional literature on 20th and 21st century literature; and

(C)  relate the figurative language of a literary work to its historical and cultural setting.

(3)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the effects of diction and imagery (e.g., controlling images, figurative language, understatement, overstatement, irony, paradox) in poetry.

(4)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain how dramatic conventions (e.g., monologues, soliloquies, dramatic irony) enhance dramatic text.

(5)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  analyze non-linear plot development (e.g., flashbacks, foreshadowing, sub-plots, parallel plot structures) and compare it to linear plot development;

(B)  analyze how authors develop complex yet believable characters in works of fiction through a range of literary devices, including character foils;

(C)  analyze the way in which a work of fiction is shaped by the narrator's point of view; and

(D)  demonstrate familiarity with works by authors from non-English-speaking literary traditions with emphasis on classical literature.

(6)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze how literary essays interweave personal examples and ideas with factual information to explain, present a perspective, or describe a situation or event.

(7)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the role of irony, sarcasm, and paradox in literary works.

(8)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the controlling idea and specific purpose of an expository text and distinguish the most important from the less important details that support the author's purpose.

(9)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  summarize text and distinguish between a summary that captures the main ideas and elements of a text and a critique that takes a position and expresses an opinion;

(B)  differentiate between opinions that are substantiated and unsubstantiated in the text;

(C)  make subtle inferences and draw complex conclusions about the ideas in text and their organizational patterns; and

(D)  synthesize and make logical connections between ideas and details in several texts selected to reflect a range of viewpoints on the same topic and support those findings with textual evidence.

(10)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to:

(A)  analyze the relevance, quality, and credibility of evidence given to support or oppose an argument for a specific audience; and

(B)  analyze famous speeches for the rhetorical structures and devices used to convince the reader of the authors' propositions.

(11)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A)  analyze the clarity of the objective(s) of procedural text (e.g., consider reading instructions for software, warranties, consumer publications); and

(B)  analyze factual, quantitative, or technical data presented in multiple graphical sources.

(12)  Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A)  compare and contrast how events are presented and information is communicated by visual images (e.g., graphic art, illustrations, news photographs) versus non-visual texts;

(B)  analyze how messages in media are conveyed through visual and sound techniques (e.g., editing, reaction shots, sequencing, background music);

(C)  compare and contrast coverage of the same event in various media (e.g., newspapers, television, documentaries, blogs, Internet); and

(D)  evaluate changes in formality and tone within the same medium for specific audiences and purposes.

(13)  Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A)  plan a first draft by selecting the correct genre for conveying the intended meaning to multiple audiences, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea;

(B)  structure ideas in a sustained and persuasive way (e.g., using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, lists) and develop drafts in timed and open-ended situations that include transitions and the rhetorical devices used to convey meaning;

(C)  revise drafts to improve style, word choice, figurative language, sentence variety, and subtlety of meaning after rethinking how well questions of purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed;

(D)  edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and

(E)  revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(14)  Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are responsible for at least two forms of literary writing. Students are expected to:

(A)  write an engaging story with a well-developed conflict and resolution, interesting and believable characters, and a range of literary strategies (e.g., dialogue, suspense) and devices to enhance the plot;

(B)  write a poem using a variety of poetic techniques (e.g., structural elements, figurative language) and a variety of poetic forms (e.g., sonnets, ballads); and

(C)  write a script with an explicit or implicit theme and details that contribute to a definite mood or tone.

(15)  Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A)  write an analytical essay of sufficient length that includes:

(i)  effective introductory and concluding paragraphs and a variety of sentence structures;

(ii)  rhetorical devices and transitions between paragraphs;

(iii)  a controlling idea or thesis;

(iv)  an organizing structure appropriate to purpose, audience, and context; and

(v)  relevant information and valid inferences;

(B)  write procedural or work-related documents (e.g., instructions, e-mails, correspondence, memos, project plans) that include:

(i)  organized and accurately conveyed information; and

(ii)  reader-friendly formatting techniques;

(C)  write an interpretative response to an expository or a literary text (e.g., essay or review) that:

(i)  extends beyond a summary and literal analysis;

(ii)  addresses the writing skills for an analytical essay and provides evidence from the text using embedded quotations; and

(iii)  analyzes the aesthetic effects of an author's use of stylistic or rhetorical devices; and

(D)  produce a multimedia presentation (e.g., documentary, class newspaper, docudrama, infomercial, visual or textual parodies, theatrical production) with graphics, images, and sound that conveys a distinctive point of view and appeals to a specific audience.

(16)  Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write an argumentative essay to the appropriate audience that includes:

(A)  a clear thesis or position based on logical reasons supported by precise and relevant evidence;

(B)  consideration of the whole range of information and views on the topic and accurate and honest representation of these views;

(C)  counter-arguments based on evidence to anticipate and address objections;

(D)  an organizing structure appropriate to the purpose, audience, and context; and

(E)  an analysis of the relative value of specific data, facts, and ideas.

(17)  Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:

(i)  more complex active and passive tenses and verbals (gerunds, infinitives, participles);

(ii)  restrictive and nonrestrictive relative clauses; and

(iii)  reciprocal pronouns (e.g., each other, one another);

(B)  identify and use the subjunctive mood to express doubts, wishes, and possibilities; and

(C)  use a variety of correctly structured sentences (e.g., compound, complex, compound-complex).

(18)  Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

(A)  use conventions of capitalization; and

(B)  use correct punctuation marks including:

(i)  quotation marks to indicate sarcasm or irony;

(ii)  comma placement in nonrestrictive phrases, clauses, and contrasting expressions; and

(iii)  dashes to emphasize parenthetical information.

(19)  Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to spell correctly, including using various resources to determine and check correct spellings.

(20)  Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

(A)  brainstorm, consult with others, decide upon a topic, and formulate a major research question to address the major research topic; and

(B)  formulate a plan for engaging in research on a complex, multi-faceted topic.

(21)  Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

(A)  follow the research plan to compile data from authoritative sources in a manner that identifies the major issues and debates within the field of inquiry;

(B)  organize information gathered from multiple sources to create a variety of graphics and forms (e.g., notes, learning logs); and

(C)  paraphrase, summarize, quote, and accurately cite all researched information according to a standard format (e.g., author, title, page number).

(22)  Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to:

(A)  modify the major research question as necessary to refocus the research plan;

(B)  evaluate the relevance of information to the topic and determine the reliability, validity, and accuracy of sources (including Internet sources) by examining their authority and objectivity; and

(C)  critique the research process at each step to implement changes as the need occurs and is identified.

(23)  Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into a written or an oral presentation that:

(A)  marshals evidence in support of a clear thesis statement and related claims;

(B)  provides an analysis for the audience that reflects a logical progression of ideas and a clearly stated point of view;

(C)  uses graphics and illustrations to help explain concepts where appropriate;

(D)  uses a variety of evaluative tools (e.g., self-made rubrics, peer reviews, teacher and expert evaluations) to examine the quality of the research; and

(E)  uses a style manual (e.g., Modern Language Association, Chicago Manual of Style) to document sources and format written materials.

(24)  Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students will use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  listen responsively to a speaker by taking notes that summarize, synthesize, or highlight the speaker's ideas for critical reflection and by asking questions related to the content for clarification and elaboration;

(B)  follow and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, solve problems, and complete processes; and

(C)  evaluate the effectiveness of a speaker's main and supporting ideas.

(25)  Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to give presentations using informal, formal, and technical language effectively to meet the needs of audience, purpose, and occasion, employing eye contact, speaking rate (e.g., pauses for effect), volume, enunciation, purposeful gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

(26)  Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate productively in teams, building on the ideas of others, contributing relevant information, developing a plan for consensus-building, and setting ground rules for decision-making.

(27)  Second language acquisition/learning strategies. The ESOL I student uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his/her own learning processes in language arts and all content areas. The following expectations apply to the second language learner at his/her level of proficiency in English. Students are expected to:

(A)  use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English;

(B)  monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources;

(C)  use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary;

(D)  speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known);

(E)  internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment;

(F)  use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process;

(G)  demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations;

(H)  develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations; and

(I)  make connections across content areas and use and reuse language and concepts in different ways.

(28)  Second language acquisition/listening. The ESOL I student listens to a variety of speakers, including teachers, peers, and electronic media, to gain an increasing level of comprehension and appreciation for newly acquired language in language arts and all content areas. The following expectations apply to the second language learner at his/her level of proficiency in English. Students are expected to:

(A)  distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease;

(B)  recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters;

(C)  learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions;

(D)  monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed;

(E)  use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language;

(F)  listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment;

(G)  understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar;

(H)  understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations;

(I)  demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs;

(J)  understand basic structures, expressions, and vocabulary such as school environment, greetings, questions, and directions;

(K)  analyze and evaluate spoken discourse for appropriateness of purpose with a variety of audiences such as formal, consultative, casual, and intimate language registers; and

(L)  infer meaning by making associations of utterances with actions, visuals, and the context of the situation.

(29)  Second language acquisition/speaking. The ESOL I student speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using developmental vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. The following expectations apply to the second language learner at his/her level of proficiency in English. Students are expected to:

(A)  practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible;

(B)  expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, objects, events, and basic concepts such as numbers, days of the week, food, occupations, and time by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication;

(C)  speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired;

(D)  speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency;

(E)  share information in cooperative learning interactions;

(F)  ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts such as directions and address as well as name, age, and nationality, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments;

(G)  express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics;

(H)  narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired;

(I)  adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes;

(J)  respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment;

(K)  share prior knowledge with peers and others to facilitate communication and to foster respect for others; and

(L)  describe the immediate surroundings such as classroom, school, and home.

(30)  Second language acquisition/reading. The ESOL I student reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in language arts and all content areas. The following expectations apply to the second language learner at his/her level of proficiency in English. Students are expected to:

(A)  learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words;

(B)  recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom;

(C)  develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials;

(D)  use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pre-taught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text;

(E)  read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned;

(F)  use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language;

(G)  demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs;

(H)  read silently with increasing ease for longer periods;

(I)  demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs;

(J)  demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs;

(K)  demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs;

(L)  read authentic literature and use kinesthetic visual support to develop vocabulary, structures, and build background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly-challenging language;

(M)  use verbal cueing strategies such as pauses and exaggerated intonation for key words and non-verbal cueing strategies such as facial expressions and gestures to enhance the reading experience; and

(N)  retell, role-play, and/or visually illustrate the order of events.

(31)  Second language acquisition/writing. The ESOL I student writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in language arts and all content areas. The following expectations apply to the second language learner at his/her level of proficiency in English. Students are expected to:

(A)  learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English;

(B)  write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary;

(C)  spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired;

(D)  edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired;

(E)  employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations such as:

(i)  using correct verbs, tenses, auxiliaries, and pronouns/antecedents;

(ii)  using nominative, objective, and possessive case (apostrophe s) correctly;

(iii)  demonstrating knowledge of parts of speech; and

(iv)  using negatives and contractions correctly;

(F)  write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired;

(G)  narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired;

(H)  use basic capitalization and punctuation correctly such as capitalizing names and first letters in sentences and using periods, question marks, and exclamation points;

(I)  use graphic organizers as pre-writing activity to demonstrate prior knowledge, to add new information, and to prepare to write;

(J)  write with more proficient use of orthographic patterns such as digraphs and consonant blends with the initial s- and rules such as "qu" together, consonant doubling, dropping final "e," and changing "y" to "i"; and

(K)  develop drafts by categorizing ideas, organizing them into sentences and paragraphs, and blending paragraphs within larger units of text.

Source: The provisions of this §128.31 adopted to be effective November 26, 2008, 33 TexReg 9465.


§128.32. English II for Speakers of Other Languages (One Credit), Beginning with School Year 2009-2010.

(a)  Introduction.

(1)  The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for English II for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL II) are described in §74.4 of this title (relating to English Language Proficiency Standards) as well as subsection (b) of this section and are identical to the knowledge and skills and student expectations in Chapter 110 of this title (relating to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading) with additional expectations for English language learners (ELLs).

(2)  ESOL II may be substituted for English II as provided by Chapter 74, Subchapter B, of this title (relating to Graduation Requirements). All expectations apply to ESOL II students; however, it is imperative to recognize critical processes and features of second language acquisition and to provide appropriate instruction to enable students to meet these standards.

(3)  ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language that many monolingual English speakers find difficult to meet in their native language. In addition, ELLs are acquiring English at the same time they are learning content in English. ELLs' abilities to meet these standards will be influenced by their proficiency in English. While ELLs can analyze, synthesize, and evaluate, their level of English proficiency may impede their ability to demonstrate this knowledge during the initial stages of English language acquisition. For this reason, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds that include adapted text (e.g., appropriate for student proficiency level; translations), pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesaurus, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELL students can and should be encouraged to use their knowledge of their first language (e.g., cognates) to enhance their vocabulary development, and vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(4)  Research consistently shows that a strong foundation in the native language of an ELL facilitates learning in English (Collier & Thomas, 1997; Cummins, 2001). Students can develop cognition, learn, and achieve best when they can understand the language of instruction (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2003). Students can be expected to transfer those skills to English and progress rapidly in learning in English.

(5)  For newcomers in secondary schooling, the challenge then is not only learning English, but learning in English. ELLs are challenged in working with linguistic, cognitive, and academic development in all of their coursework and in a new language. Some newcomers exhibit additional first language and/or academic needs due to their previous educational experiences that may include interrupted and/or limited schooling. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English, especially for students who are newcomers and at beginning levels of English language proficiency. Their academic success depends on their ability to use academic language.

(6)  Second language acquisition is a complex process that even under optimal conditions takes a long time (Collier, 1997). It is important to understand that limited knowledge of English structure and vocabulary is neither related to the students' intellectual capabilities nor their ability to use higher-order thinking skills. The development of receptive (listening/reading) and expressive (speaking/writing) skills in second language learners may be at different stages. In some instances, second language learners undergo silent periods of varying durations when they first begin to learn a new language. Students often understand more than they can produce and may repeat words in sentences that they do not entirely understand. Second language learners may also draw upon the resources of their language and culture as they acquire a new language and culture.

(7)  In order for ELLs to be successful, they must acquire both social and academic language proficiency in English. Social language proficiency in English consists of the English needed for daily social interactions. Academic language proficiency consists of the English needed to think critically, understand and learn new concepts, process complex academic material, and interact and communicate in English academic settings.

(8)  Academic language is a major factor in academic success. Academic language and grammatical structures are used across all subject areas and is specific to the content area, such as language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies. Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. This must also be provided in a manner that is linguistically accommodated (contextualized, communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.

(9)  ELLs require focused, targeted, and systematic second language acquisition to provide them with the foundation of English language vocabulary, grammar, syntax, and English mechanics necessary to support content-based instruction and accelerated learning of English. Literacy development across the content areas is essential in building academic skills in a second language and can accelerate the learning of both English language skills and higher-order thinking skills.

(10)  ELL students are at different stages of language acquisition. Proficiency levels are not grade specific: Beginning, Intermediate, Advanced, and Advanced High. The ELL student may exhibit different proficiency levels within the four language components: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. A student may exhibit oral skills at the advanced level, reading skills at the intermediate level, and writing skills at the beginning level. Understanding the level of English language proficiency of the student is critical in order for the student to have access to the curriculum. The proficiency level of the student determines the accommodations in language that must be made (e.g., adapted text appropriate for student proficiency level; translations) as well as, determines additional scaffolds (e.g., pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesaurus) in order to learn the academic content. Any combination of the language components is possible and is affected by opportunities for interaction in and outside of school. For further guidance in second language acquisition, refer to the English language proficiency standards (ELPS) described in §74.4 of this title.

(A)  Beginning: Students associate utterances with meaning as they make inferences based on actions, visuals, text, tone of voice, and inflections. Receptive language with some comprehension is acquired earlier than oral production. Beginning students produce spoken English with increasing accuracy and fluency to convey appropriate meaning. They read English using graphophonic cues, syntax, visuals, the context of the text, and their prior knowledge of language and structure of text.

(B)  Intermediate: Students use the listening process to improve comprehension and oral skills in English. Through listening and speaking in meaningful interactions, they clarify, distinguish, and evaluate ideas and responses in a variety of situations. Intermediate students participate successfully in academic, social, and work contexts in English using the process of speaking to create, clarify, critique, and evaluate ideas and responses. Intermediate students read English using and applying developmental vocabulary to increase comprehension and produce written text to address a variety of audiences and purposes.

(C)  Advanced: Students, through developmental listening skills, actively expand their vocabulary to evaluate and analyze spoken English for a variety of situations and purposes. These students participate in a variety of situations using spoken English to create, clarify, critique, and evaluate ideas and responses. Advanced students continually develop reading skills for increasing reading proficiency in content area texts for a variety of purposes and generate written text for different audiences in a variety of modes to convey appropriate meaning according to their level of proficiency.

(D)  Advanced High: Students' reading, speaking, and writing abilities are comparable to those of their native English speaking peers. They understand grade appropriate English as it is used in academic and social settings. These students use language skills on their grade level in the academic subject areas with minimal interruptions and they use abstract and content based vocabulary effectively. Advanced High students continually use the English language to build additional foundational reading skills such as fluency and prosody as well as higher-order comprehension skills. These students have a strong command of English language structures necessary to address writing at appropriate grade levels.

(11)  Students enrolled in ESOL II continue to increase and refine their communication skills. High school students are expected to plan, draft, and complete written compositions on a regular basis. Students edit their papers for clarity, engaging language, and the correct use of the conventions and mechanics of written English and, with increasing accuracy, produce final, error-free drafts. In English II, students practice all forms of writing. An emphasis is placed on organizing logical arguments with clearly expressed related definitions, thesis, and evidence. Students write to persuade and to report and describe. English II students read extensively in multiple genres from world literature such as reading selected stories, dramas, novels, and poetry originally written in English or translated to English from oriental, classical Greek, European, African, South American, and North American cultures. Students learn literary forms and terms associated with selections being read. Students interpret the possible influences of the historical context on a literary work.

(12)  The knowledge and skills and/or student expectations that are applicable specifically to ELLs are indicated in §74.4 of this title as well as in subsection (b) of this section.

(13)  To meet Public Education Goal 1 of the Texas Education Code, §4.002, which states, "The students in the public education system will demonstrate exemplary performance in the reading and writing of the English language," students will accomplish the essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations in English II as described in subsection (b) of this section.

(14)  To meet Texas Education Code, §28.002(h), which states, "... each school district shall foster the continuation of the tradition of teaching United States and Texas history and the free enterprise system in regular subject matter and in reading courses and in the adoption of textbooks," students will be provided oral and written narratives as well as other informational texts that can help them to become thoughtful, active citizens who appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation.

(b)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

(A)  determine the meaning of grade-level technical academic English words in multiple content areas (e.g., science, mathematics, social studies, the arts) derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes;

(B)  analyze textual context (within a sentence and in larger sections of text) to distinguish between the denotative and connotative meanings of words;

(C)  infer word meaning through the identification and analysis of analogies and other word relationships;

(D)  show the relationship between the origins and meaning of foreign words or phrases used frequently in written English and historical events or developments (e.g., glasnost, avant-garde, coup d'état); and

(E)  use a dictionary, a glossary, or a thesaurus (printed or electronic) to determine or confirm the meanings of words and phrases, including their connotations and denotations, and their etymology.

(2)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  compare and contrast differences in similar themes expressed in different time periods;

(B)  analyze archetypes (e.g., journey of a hero, tragic flaw) in mythic, traditional and classical literature; and

(C)  relate the figurative language of a literary work to its historical and cultural setting.

(3)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the structure or prosody (e.g., meter, rhyme scheme) and graphic elements (e.g., line length, punctuation, word position) in poetry.

(4)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze how archetypes and motifs in drama affect the plot of plays.

(5)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  analyze isolated scenes and their contribution to the success of the plot as a whole in a variety of works of fiction;

(B)  analyze differences in the characters' moral dilemmas in works of fiction across different countries or cultures;

(C)  evaluate the connection between forms of narration (e.g., unreliable, omniscient) and tone in works of fiction; and

(D)  demonstrate familiarity with works by authors from non-English-speaking literary traditions with emphasis on 20th century world literature.

(6)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to evaluate the role of syntax and diction and the effect of voice, tone, and imagery on a speech, literary essay, or other forms of literary nonfiction.

(7)  Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the function of symbolism, allegory, and allusions in literary works.

(8)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the controlling idea and specific purpose of a passage and the textual elements that support and elaborate it, including both the most important details and the less important details.

(9)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

(A)  summarize text and distinguish between a summary and a critique and identify non-essential information in a summary and unsubstantiated opinions in a critique;

(B)  distinguish among different kinds of evidence (e.g., logical, empirical, anecdotal) used to support conclusions and arguments in texts;

(C)  make and defend subtle inferences and complex conclusions about the ideas in text and their organizational patterns; and

(D)  synthesize and make logical connections between ideas and details in several texts selected to reflect a range of viewpoints on the same topic and support those findings with textual evidence.

(10)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to:

(A)  explain shifts in perspective in arguments about the same topic and evaluate the accuracy of the evidence used to support the different viewpoints within those arguments; and

(B)  analyze contemporary political debates for such rhetorical and logical fallacies as appeals to commonly held opinions, false dilemmas, appeals to pity, and personal attacks.

(11)  Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

(A)  evaluate text for the clarity of its graphics and its visual appeal; and

(B)  synthesize information from multiple graphical sources to draw conclusions about the ideas presented (e.g., maps, charts, schematics).

(12)  Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

(A)  evaluate how messages presented in media reflect social and cultural views in ways different from traditional texts;

(B)  analyze how messages in media are conveyed through visual and sound techniques (e.g., editing, reaction shots, sequencing, background music);

(C)  examine how individual perception or bias in coverage of the same event influences the audience; and

(D)  evaluate changes in formality and tone within the same medium for specific audiences and purposes.

(13)  Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A)  plan a first draft by selecting the correct genre for conveying the intended meaning to multiple audiences, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea;

(B)  structure ideas in a sustained and persuasive way (e.g., using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, lists) and develop drafts in timed and open-ended situations that include transitions and rhetorical devices used to convey meaning;

(C)  revise drafts to improve style, word choice, figurative language, sentence variety, and subtlety of meaning after rethinking how well questions of purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed;

(D)  edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and

(E)  revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(14)  Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are responsible for at least two forms of literary writing. Students are expected to:

(A)  write an engaging story with a well-developed conflict and resolution, interesting and believable characters, a range of literary strategies (e.g., dialogue, suspense) and devices to enhance the plot, and sensory details that define the mood or tone;

(B)  write a poem using a variety of poetic techniques (e.g., structural elements, figurative language) and a variety of poetic forms (e.g., sonnets, ballads); and

(C)  write a script with an explicit or implicit theme and details that contribute to a definite mood or tone.

(15)  Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

(A)  write an analytical essay of sufficient length that includes:

(i)  effective introductory and concluding paragraphs and a variety of sentence structures;

(ii)  rhetorical devices and transitions between paragraphs;

(iii)  a thesis or controlling idea;

(iv)  an organizing structure appropriate to purpose, audience, and context;

(v)  relevant evidence and well-chosen details; and

(vi)  distinctions about the relative value of specific data, facts, and ideas that support the thesis statement;

(B)  write procedural or work-related documents (e.g., instructions, e-mails, correspondence, memos, project plans) that include:

(i)  organized and accurately conveyed information;

(ii)  reader-friendly formatting techniques; and

(iii)  anticipation of readers' questions;

(C)  write an interpretative response to an expository or a literary text (e.g., essay or review) that:

(i)  extends beyond a summary and literal analysis;

(ii)  addresses the writing skills for an analytical essay and provides evidence from the text using embedded quotations; and

(iii)  analyzes the aesthetic effects of an author's use of stylistic and rhetorical devices; and

(D)  produce a multimedia presentation (e.g., documentary, class newspaper, docudrama, infomercial, visual or textual parodies, theatrical production) with graphics, images, and sound that conveys a distinctive point of view and appeals to a specific audience.

(16)  Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write an argumentative essay to the appropriate audience that includes:

(A)  a clear thesis or position based on logical reasons supported by precise and relevant evidence;

(B)  consideration of the whole range of information and views on the topic and accurate and honest representation of these views (i.e., in the author's own words and not out of context);

(C)  counter-arguments based on evidence to anticipate and address objections;

(D)  an organizing structure appropriate to the purpose, audience, and context;

(E)  an analysis of the relative value of specific data, facts, and ideas; and

(F)  a range of appropriate appeals (e.g., descriptions, anecdotes, case studies, analogies, illustrations).

(17)  Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:

(i)  more complex active and passive tenses and verbals (gerunds, infinitives, participles);

(ii)  restrictive and nonrestrictive relative clauses; and

(iii)  reciprocal pronouns (e.g., each other, one another);

(B)  identify and use the subjunctive mood to express doubts, wishes, and possibilities; and

(C)  use a variety of correctly structured sentences (e.g., compound, complex, compound-complex).

(18)  Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

(A)  use conventions of capitalization; and

(B)  use correct punctuation marks including:

(i)  comma placement in nonrestrictive phrases, clauses, and contrasting expressions;

(ii)  quotation marks to indicate sarcasm or irony; and

(iii)  dashes to emphasize parenthetical information.

(19)  Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to spell correctly, including using various resources to determine and check correct spellings.

(20)  Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

(A)  brainstorm, consult with others, decide upon a topic, and formulate a major research question to address the major research topic; and

(B)  formulate a plan for engaging in research on a complex, multi-faceted topic.

(21)  Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

(A)  follow the research plan to compile data from authoritative sources in a manner that identifies the major issues and debates within the field of inquiry;

(B)  organize information gathered from multiple sources to create a variety of graphics and forms (e.g., notes, learning logs); and

(C)  paraphrase, summarize, quote, and accurately cite all researched information according to a standard format (e.g., author, title, page number).

(22)  Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to:

(A)  modify the major research question as necessary to refocus the research plan;

(B)  evaluate the relevance of information to the topic and determine the reliability, validity, and accuracy of sources (including Internet sources) by examining their authority and objectivity; and

(C)  critique the research process at each step to implement changes as the need occurs and is identified.

(23)  Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into a written or an oral presentation that:

(A)  marshals evidence in support of a clear thesis statement and related claims;

(B)  provides an analysis for the audience that reflects a logical progression of ideas and a clearly stated point of view;

(C)  uses graphics and illustrations to help explain concepts where appropriate;

(D)  uses a variety of evaluative tools (e.g., self-made rubrics, peer reviews, teacher and expert evaluations) to examine the quality of the research; and

(E)  uses a style manual (e.g., Modern Language Association, Chicago Manual of Style) to document sources and format written materials.

(24)  Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students will use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

(A)  listen responsively to a speaker by taking notes that summarize, synthesize, or highlight the speaker's ideas for critical reflection and by asking questions related to the content for clarification and elaboration;

(B)  follow and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, solve problems, and complete processes; and

(C)  evaluate how the style and structure of a speech support or undermine its purpose or meaning.

(25)  Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to advance a coherent argument that incorporates a clear thesis and a logical progression of valid evidence from reliable sources and that employs eye contact, speaking rate (e.g., pauses for effect), volume, enunciation, purposeful gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

(26)  Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate productively in teams, building on the ideas of others, contributing relevant information, developing a plan for consensus-building, and setting ground rules for decision-making.

(27)  Second language acquisition/learning strategies. The ESOL II student uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his/her own learning processes in language arts and all content areas. The following expectations apply to the second language learner at his/her level of proficiency in English. Students are expected to:

(A)  use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English;

(B)  monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources;

(C)  use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary;

(D)  speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known);

(E)  internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment;

(F)  use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process;

(G)  demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations;

(H)  develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations; and

(I)  make connections across content areas and use and reuse language and concepts in different ways.

(28)  Second language acquisition/listening. The ESOL II student listens to a variety of speakers, including teachers, peers, and electronic media, to gain an increasing level of comprehension and appreciation for newly acquired language in language arts and all content areas. The following expectations apply to the second language learner at his/her level of proficiency in English. Students are expected to:

(A)  distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease;

(B)  recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters;

(C)  learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions;

(D)  monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed;

(E)  use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language;

(F)  listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment;

(G)  understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar;

(H)  understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations;

(I)  demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs;

(J)  understand basic structures, expressions, and vocabulary such as school environment, greetings, questions, and directions;

(K)  analyze and evaluate spoken discourse for appropriateness of purpose with a variety of audiences such as formal, consultative, casual, and intimate language registers; and

(L)  infer meaning by making associations of utterances with actions, visuals, and the context of the situation.

(29)  Second language acquisition/speaking. The ESOL II student speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using developmental vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. The following expectations apply to the second language learner at his/her level of proficiency in English. Students are expected to:

(A)  practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible;

(B)  expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, objects, events, and basic concepts such as numbers, days of the week, food, occupations, and time by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication;

(C)  speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired;

(D)  speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency;

(E)  share information in cooperative learning interactions;

(F)  ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts such as directions and address as well as name, age, and nationality, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments;

(G)  express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics;

(H)  narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired;

(I)  adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes;

(J)  respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment;

(K)  share prior knowledge with peers and others to facilitate communication and to foster respect for others; and

(L)  describe the immediate surroundings such as classroom, school, and home.

(30)  Second language acquisition/reading. The ESOL II student reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in language arts and all content areas. The following expectations apply to the second language learner at his/her level of proficiency in English. Students are expected to:

(A)  learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words;

(B)  recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom;

(C)  develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials;

(D)  use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pre-taught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text;

(E)  read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned;

(F)  use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language;

(G)  demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs;

(H)  read silently with increasing ease for longer periods;

(I)  demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs;

(J)  demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs;

(K)  demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs;

(L)  read authentic literature and use kinesthetic visual support to develop vocabulary, structures, and build background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly-challenging language;

(M)  use verbal cueing strategies such as pauses and exaggerated intonation for key words and non-verbal cueing strategies such as facial expressions and gestures to enhance the reading experience; and

(N)  retell, role-play, and/or visually illustrate the order of events.

(31)  Second language acquisition/writing. The ESOL II student writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in language arts and all content areas. The following expectations apply to the second language learner at his/her level of proficiency in English. Students are expected to:

(A)  learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English;

(B)  write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary;

(C)  spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired;

(D)  edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired;

(E)  employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations such as:

(i)  using correct verbs, tenses, auxiliaries, and pronouns/antecedents;

(ii)  using nominative, objective, and possessive case (apostrophe s) correctly;

(iii)  demonstrating knowledge of parts of speech; and

(iv)  using negatives and contractions correctly;

(F)  write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired;

(G)  narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired;

(H)  use basic capitalization and punctuation correctly such as capitalizing names and first letters in sentences and using periods, question marks, and exclamation points;

(I)  use graphic organizers as pre-writing activity to demonstrate prior knowledge, to add new information, and to prepare to write;

(J)  write with more proficient use of orthographic patterns such as digraphs and consonant blends with the initial s- and rules such as "qu" together, consonant doubling, dropping final "e," and changing "y" to "i"; and

(K)  develop drafts by categorizing ideas, organizing them into sentences and paragraphs, and blending paragraphs within larger units of text.

Source: The provisions of this §128.32 adopted to be effective November 26, 2008, 33 TexReg 9465.


Last updated: February 23, 2010

For additional information, email rules@tea.state.tx.us.