Chapter 130. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Career and Technical Education

Subchapter A. Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources


Statutory Authority: The provisions of this Subchapter A issued under the Texas Education Code, §§7.102(c)(4), 28.002, 28.0022, and 28.025, unless otherwise noted.


§130.1. Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources.

The provisions of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2010-2011 school year.

Source: The provisions of this §130.1 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5914.


§130.2. Principles of Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources (One-Half to One Credit).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 9-12.

(b)  Introduction. To be prepared for careers in agriculture, food, and natural resources, students must attain academic skills and knowledge in agriculture. This course allows students to develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, personal development, globalization, industry standards, details, practices, and expectations. To prepare for success, students need to have opportunities to learn, reinforce, experience, apply, and transfer their knowledge and skills in a variety of settings.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student learns the employability characteristics of a successful employee. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify career development and entrepreneurship opportunities in the field of agriculture, food, and natural resources, including how to search for and obtain employment, what qualifications are required for varying career fields, and how to advance in a position;

(B)  identify careers in agriculture, food, and natural resources with required aptitudes in science, mathematics, language arts, and social studies;

(C)  apply competencies related to resources, information, interpersonal skills, problem solving, critical thinking, and systems of operation in agriculture, food, and natural resources;

(D)  demonstrate knowledge of personal and occupational safety, health, and first-aid policy in the workplace;

(E)  develop response plans to emergency situations; and

(F)  identify employers' expectations, including appropriate work habits, ethical conduct, legal responsibilities, and good citizenship skills.

(2)  The student develops a supervised agriculture experience program as it relates to agriculture, food, and natural resources. The student is expected to:

(A)  plan, propose, conduct, and evaluate entrepreneurship; placement; exploratory; research, either experimental or analytical; improvement; supplementary; laboratory-based; or other identified, supervised agricultural experience as an experiential learning activity;

(B)  apply proper record-keeping skills as they relate to the supervised agricultural experience;

(C)  design and use a customized record-keeping system for the individual supervised agricultural experience;

(D)  participate in youth leadership opportunities to create a well-rounded-experience program in agriculture; and

(E)  produce a challenging approach for a local program of activities in agriculture, food, and natural resources.

(3)  The student identifies concepts related to cultural diversity. The student is expected to:

(A)  discuss significant similarities and differences in international agriculture;

(B)  explain the variety of world markets; and

(C)  describe marketing factors and practices that impact other cultures.

(4)  The student describes the historical, current, and future significance of the agricultural industry. The student is expected to:

(A)  define agriculture;

(B)  identify the scope of agriculture and its effect upon society;

(C)  identify significant historical and current agriculture, food, and natural resource developments;

(D)  identify potential future scenarios for agriculture, food, and natural resource systems;

(E)  describe how emerging technologies and globalization impacts agriculture, food, and natural resources; and

(F)  compare and contrast issues impacting agriculture, food, and natural resources such as biotechnology, employment, safety, environmental, and animal welfare.

(5)  The student analyzes the structure of agricultural leadership in organizations. The student is expected to:

(A)  develop premiere leadership skills and collaborate with others to accomplish organizational goals and objectives through the demonstration of characteristics such as empowerment, risk, communication, focusing on results, decision making, problem solving, investment in individuals, resource use and access, service, listening, coaching, developing others, team development, understanding and appreciating others, enthusiasm, creativity, conviction, mission, courage, focus, principles, change, integrity, values, ethics, humility, perseverance, self-discipline, responsibility, community, diversity, global awareness and knowledge, innovation, intuition, adaptation, lifelong learning, and coachability;

(B)  develop personal growth skills and collaborate with others to accomplish organizational goals and objectives through the demonstration of characteristics such as attitude, exercise, goal setting, planning, self-discipline, sense of balance, persistence, respect, friendship, integrity, morals, values, etiquette, citizenship, cross-cultural awareness, acceptance of change, respect for differences, decision making, principles, dependability, loyalty, trustworthiness, communication, learning, critical thinking, reasoning, creative thinking, problem solving, self-discovery, coping, friendship, self-reliance, sense of balance, empathy, compassion, ethics, coping, courage, and self-image or worth;

(C)  identify opportunities for leadership development and personal growth;

(D)  demonstrate democratic principles in conducting effective meetings;

(E)  describe team dynamics; and

(F)  describe the development of organizational vision, mission, and goals through strategic planning processes.

(6)  The student explains agriculture, food, and natural resource systems at the local, state, national, and international levels. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify reasons for world trade;

(B)  identify the political impact of agriculture, food, and natural resources;

(C)  identify the interdependency of agriculture and the environment;

(D)  explain ethical stewardship practices that reduce negative impacts of agriculture upon land, air, and water resources;

(E)  review regulations and major laws to evaluate their impact on agriculture, food, and natural resources management;

(F)  analyze appropriate written material to stay abreast of current issues impacting agriculture, food, and natural resources management;

(G)  collect and analyze public opinion and data in order to make informed decisions; and

(H)  use critical-thinking skills to identify, organize alternatives, and evaluate public policy issues related to agriculture, food, and natural resources.

(7)  The student demonstrates appropriate personal and communication skills. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe professional, ethical, and legal responsibilities;

(B)  demonstrate the uses of proper etiquette and behavior;

(C)  identify appropriate personal appearance and health habits;

(D)  practice written and oral communication skills and employ effective listening skills in formal and informal situations;

(E)  analyze written materials common to the agricultural industry;

(F)  demonstrate sound writing and preparation skills for oral presentations, including prepared and extemporaneous presentations; and

(G)  demonstrate effective speaking skills.

(8)  The student applies appropriate research methods to agriculture, food, and natural resources topics. The student is expected to:

(A)  define major research and development fields of agriculture, food, and natural resources;

(B)  identify and apply research in the food and fiber products industries;

(C)  use a variety of resources for both research and development; and

(D)  describe scientific methods of research.

(9)  The student applies problem-solving, mathematical, and organizational skills in order to plan and propose supervised agricultural experience programs as well as maintain financial and logistical records. The student is expected to:

(A)  develop project proposals by using business strategies which may include identifying learning objectives; describing project logistics, methodologies, and background; forecasting expenses and potential income through budgeting; and planning for major project timeline events through calendar implementation and documentation;

(B)  develop and maintain records appropriate to project type following project approval;

(C)  maintain appropriate financial records through use and management of appropriate journals, inventories, income and expense logs, financial statements, and balance sheets; and

(D)  conduct formative and summative reflective and financial analyses on project learning objectives and records in order to plan for the future.

(10)  The student uses information technology tools specific to agriculture, food, and natural resource to access, manage, integrate, and create information. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify personal management software, electronic mail applications, and Internet applications;

(B)  use word-processing, spreadsheet, and presentation software;

(C)  identify collaborative, groupware, and virtual meeting software;

(D)  explain the benefits of Geographic Information Systems and Global Positioning Systems; and

(E)  recognize other computer-based equipment in agriculture, food, and natural resources.

(11)  The student develops technical knowledge and skills related to plant systems. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the components and properties of soils;

(B)  describe the process of soil formation;

(C)  classify soil formations;

(D)  describe the structure and functions of plant parts;

(E)  discuss plant germination, growth, and development;

(F)  describe plant reproduction, genetics, and breeding;

(G)  identify plants of importance to agriculture, food, and natural resources;

(H)  identify technological needs for improved capacity in transportation, improved production, increased product quality and operation, and specialized skills specific to plant systems; and

(I)  select, maintain, operate, and use tools, equipment, and personal protective equipment common to plant systems.

(12)  The student develops technical knowledge and skills related to animal systems. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe animal growth and development;

(B)  identify animal anatomy and physiology;

(C)  identify breeds and classes of livestock; and

(D)  discuss animal selection, reproduction, breeding, and genetics.

(13)  The student describes the principles of food products and processing systems. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the importance of food products and processing systems;

(B)  determine trends in world food production;

(C)  identify technological needs for improved capacity in transportation, improved production, increased product quality and operation, and specialized skills specific to food products and processing systems; and

(D)  select, maintain, operate, and use tools, equipment, and personal protective equipment common to food products and processing systems.

(14)  The student safely performs basic power, structural, and technical system skills in agricultural applications. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify major areas of power, structural, and technical systems as well as their impact on world agricultural production;

(B)  understand safe and appropriate laboratory procedures and policies;

(C)  create proposals that include bill of materials, budget, schedule, drawings, and technical skills developed for basic power, structural, and technical system projects or structures;

(D)  identify building materials and fasteners common to power, structural, and technical systems;

(E)  use basic tools, skills, and common building materials to construct projects or structures;

(F)  select, maintain, operate, and use tools, equipment, and personal protective equipment common to power, structural, and technical systems; and

(G)  identify technological needs for improved capacity in transportation, improved production, increased product quality and operation, and specialized skills specific to power, structural, and technical systems.

(15)  The student explains the relationship between agriculture and safety, health, and the environment. The student is expected to:

(A)  determine the effects of agriculture, food, and natural resources upon safety, health, and the environment;

(B)  identify regulations relating to safety, health, and environmental systems in agriculture, food, and natural resources;

(C)  describe methods to maintain and improve safety, health, and environmental systems in agriculture, food, and natural resources;

(D)  identify alternative energy sources that stem from or impact agriculture, food, and natural resources;

(E)  evaluate energy and water conservation methods; and

(F)  describe the importance of safety, health, and environmental regulations and procedures in the workplace.

Source: The provisions of this §130.2 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5914.


§130.3. Livestock Production (One-Half to One Credit).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10-12.

(b)  Introduction. To be prepared for careers in the field of animal science, students need to attain academic skills and knowledge, acquire knowledge and skills related to animal systems and the workplace, and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, and industry expectations. To prepare for success, students need opportunities to learn, reinforce, apply, and transfer their knowledge and skills in a variety of settings. Animal species to be addressed in this course may include, but are not limited to, beef cattle, dairy cattle, swine, sheep, goats, and poultry.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student learns the employability characteristics of a successful employee. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify career development and entrepreneurship opportunities in the field of animal systems;

(B)  apply competencies related to resources, information, interpersonal skills, and systems of operation in animal systems;

(C)  demonstrate knowledge of personal and occupational safety and health practices in the workplace; and

(D)  identify employers' expectations, including appropriate work habits, ethical conduct, legal responsibilities, and good citizenship skills.

(2)  The student demonstrates technical skills relating to the interrelated human, scientific, and technological dimensions of animal systems. The student is expected to:

(A)  assess the importance of the United States impact on world commodity markets;

(B)  apply the principles of livestock breeding and nutrition in predicting the impact of current advances in genetics; and

(C)  examine the interrelationship of plants and animals.

(3)  The student performs technical skills related to livestock production. The student is expected to:

(A)  gather performance data;

(B)  describe common veterinary procedures and skills;

(C)  practice proper animal restraint techniques;

(D)  demonstrate identification techniques; and

(E)  demonstrate effective management strategies.

(4)  The student explains anatomy and physiology related to nutrition, reproduction, health, and management of domesticated animals. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the skeletal, muscular, respiratory, reproductive, and circulatory systems of animals; and

(B)  evaluate vital signs and normal behavior.

(5)  The student determines nutritional requirements of ruminant and non-ruminant animals, including poultry. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe the digestive system;

(B)  identify sources of nutrients and classes of feed;

(C)  identify vitamins, minerals, and feed additives;

(D)  formulate rations; and

(E)  discuss feeding practices and feed quality issues.

(6)  The student explains animal genetics and reproduction. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe the reproductive system;

(B)  explain the use of genetics in animal agriculture;

(C)  identify systems of animal breeding; and

(D)  research current and emerging technologies in animal reproduction.

(7)  The student identifies animal pests and diseases. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe the role of bacteria, fungi, viruses, genetics, and nutrition in disease; and

(B)  identify methods of disease control, treatment, and prevention.

(8)  The student knows the factors impacting commodity prices and costs. The student is expected to:

(A)  evaluate the relationship between commodity markets;

(B)  formulate rations based on least-cost factors; and

(C)  design and conduct experiments to support known principles of genetics and feed efficiency.

(9)  The student plans for dynamic changes in business operation. The student is expected to:

(A)  design, conduct, and complete research to solve self-identified problems; and

(B)  use charts, tables, or graphs to prepare written summaries of data obtained in a laboratory activity and an individual scientific research project.

(10)  The student develops an improved supervised agriculture experience program as it relates to agriculture, food, and natural resources. The student is expected to:

(A)  plan, propose, conduct, and evaluate entrepreneurship; placement; exploratory; research, either experimental or analytical; improvement; supplementary; laboratory-based; or other identified, supervised agricultural experience as an experiential learning activity;

(B)  apply proper record-keeping skills as they relate to a supervised experience;

(C)  design and use a customized record-keeping system for the individual supervised experience;

(D)  participate in youth leadership opportunities to create a well-rounded experience program in agriculture; and

(E)  produce a challenging approach for a local program of activities in agriculture.

Source: The provisions of this §130.3 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5914.


§130.4. Small Animal Management (One-Half to One Credit).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 9-12.

(b)  To be prepared for careers in the field of animal science, students need to enhance academic knowledge and skills, acquire knowledge and skills related to animal systems, and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, and industry expectations. To prepare for success, students need opportunities to learn, reinforce, apply, and transfer knowledge and skills in a variety of settings. Suggested small animals which may be included in the course of study include, but are not limited to, small mammals, amphibians, reptiles, avian, dogs, and cats.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student describes the importance of responsible small animal ownership. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the domestication and use of small animals;

(B)  identify the influence small animals have on society;

(C)  describe the importance of the small animal industry;

(D)  describe the obligations and benefits of small animal ownership; and

(E)  discuss the use and services provided by small animals.

(2)  The student learns the hazards associated with working in the small animal industry. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the importance of safe practices when working with small animals;

(B)  identify diseases that can be transmitted from small animals to humans;

(C)  describe methods of preventing the spread of disease;

(D)  follow guidelines for safety when handling dangerous chemicals and when working with small animals; and

(E)  demonstrate the proper use of laboratory equipment.

(3)  The student evaluates current topics in animal rights and animal welfare. The student is expected to:

(A)  compare and contrast animal rights and animal welfare;

(B)  research important persons, organizations, and groups involved in the animal rights movement;

(C)  create a timeline of dates and acts of legislation related to animal welfare; and

(D)  analyze current issues in animal rights and animal welfare.

(4)  The student knows the care and management requirements for a variety of small animals. The student is expected to:

(A)  discuss the physical characteristics for each species studied;

(B)  list the breeds or types of each species studied as appropriate;

(C)  discuss the habitat, housing, and equipment needs for each species studied;

(D)  compare and contrast nutritional requirements for each species studied;

(E)  explain health maintenance in each species studied, including the prevention and control of diseases and parasites;

(F)  describe and practice common methods of handling each species studied; and

(G)  use available laboratory equipment to perform procedures such as fecal test, blood testing, and basic grooming procedures.

(5)  The student examines career opportunities in small animal care. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify, describe, and compare career opportunities in small animal care and management; and

(B)  describe the nature of the work, salaries, and educational requirements for careers in small animal care.

(6)  The student learns the employability characteristics of a successful employee. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify career development and entrepreneurship opportunities in the field of specialty agricultural enterprises;

(B)  apply competencies related to resources, information, interpersonal skills, and systems of operation in specialty agricultural enterprises;

(C)  demonstrate knowledge of personal and mechanical safety and health practices in the workplace; and

(D)  identify employers' expectations, including appropriate work habits, ethical conduct, legal responsibilities, and good citizenship skills.

(7)  The student develops a supervised agriculture experience program as it relates to agriculture, food, and natural resources. The student is expected to:

(A)  plan, propose, conduct, and evaluate entrepreneurship; placement; exploratory; research, either experimental or analytical; improvement; supplementary; laboratory-based; or other identified, supervised agricultural experience as an experiential learning activity;

(B)  apply proper record-keeping skills as they relate to a supervised experience;

(C)  design and use a customized record-keeping system for the individual supervised experience;

(D)  participate in youth leadership opportunities to create a well-rounded experience program in agriculture; and

(E)  produce a challenging approach for a local program of activities in agriculture.

Source: The provisions of this §130.4 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5914.


§130.5. Equine Science (One-Half to One Credit).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10-12.

(b)  Introduction. To be prepared for careers in the field of animal science, students need to enhance academic knowledge and skills, acquire knowledge and skills related to animal systems, and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, and industry expectations. To prepare for success, students need opportunities to learn, reinforce, apply, and transfer their knowledge and skills in a variety of settings. Suggested animals which may be included in the course of study include, but are not limited to, horses, donkeys, and mules.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student analyzes equine science as it relates to the selection of horses. The student is expected to:

(A)  recognize the importance of the equine industry; and

(B)  evaluate and select horses.

(2)  The student knows how to provide proper nutrition using accepted protocols and processes to maintain animal performance. The student is expected to:

(A)  determine nutritional requirements of horses;

(B)  describe the anatomy and physiology of horses; and

(C)  explain methods of maintaining horse health and soundness.

(3)  The student analyzes equine science as it relates to the management of horses. The student is expected to:

(A)  select equipment and facilities for horses;

(B)  demonstrate methods of handling horses safely; and

(C)  identify the procedures for breeding horses.

(4)  The student compares and contrasts issues affecting the equine industry. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe issues concerning biotechnology related to the equine industry; and

(B)  identify animal welfare policy pertaining to the equine industry.

(5)  The student learns the employability characteristics of a successful employee. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify career development and entrepreneurship opportunities in the field of equine science;

(B)  demonstrate competencies related to resources, information, interpersonal skills, and systems of operation in equine science;

(C)  demonstrate knowledge of personal and occupational health and safety practices in the workplace;

(D)  identify employers' expectations, including appropriate work habits, ethical conduct, legal responsibilities, and good citizenship skills; and

(E)  access and navigate the Internet for research.

(6)  The student develops an improved supervised agricultural experience program as it relates to agriculture, food, and natural resources. The student is expected to:

(A)  plan, propose, conduct, and evaluate entrepreneurship; placement; exploratory; research, either experimental or analytical; improvement; supplementary; laboratory-based; or other identified, supervised agricultural experience as an experiential learning activity;

(B)  apply proper record-keeping skills as they relate to a supervised experience;

(C)  design and use a customized record-keeping system for the individual supervised experience;

(D)  participate in youth leadership opportunities to create a well-rounded experience program in agriculture; and

(E)  produce a challenging approach for a local program of activities in agriculture.

Source: The provisions of this §130.5 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5914.


§130.6. Veterinary Medical Applications (One Credit).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 11-12.

(b)  Introduction.

(1)  Veterinary Medical Applications. To be prepared for careers in the field of animal science, students need to attain academic skills and knowledge, acquire technical knowledge and skills related to animal systems and the workplace, and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, and industry expectations. To prepare for success, students need opportunities to learn, reinforce, apply, and transfer knowledge and skills and technologies in a variety of settings. Topics covered in this course include, but are not limited to, veterinary practices as they relate to both large and small animal species.

(2)  Nature of science. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

(3)  Scientific inquiry. Scientific inquiry is the planned and deliberate investigation of the natural world. Scientific methods of investigation are experimental, descriptive, or comparative. The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked.

(4)  Science and social ethics. Scientific decision making is a way of answering questions about the natural world. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods (scientific methods) and ethical and social decisions that involve science (the application of scientific information).

(5)  Science, systems, and models. A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. All systems have basic properties that can be described in space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems as patterns and can be observed, measured, and modeled. These patterns help to make predictions that can be scientifically tested. Students should analyze a system in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other, to the whole, and to the external environment.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations; and

(B)  demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.

(2)  The student uses scientific methods and equipment during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:

(A)  know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section;

(B)  know that hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power which have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories;

(C)  know scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly-reliable explanations, but they may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed;

(D)  distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories;

(E)  plan and implement descriptive, comparative, and experimental investigations, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

(F)  collect and organize qualitative and quantitative data and make measurements with accuracy and precision using tools such as spreadsheet software, data-collecting probes, computers, standard laboratory glassware, microscopes, various prepared slides, animal restraints, stereoscopes, electronic balances, micropipettors, hand lenses, surgical and imagining equipment, thermometers, hot plates, lab notebooks or journals, timing devices, Petri dishes, lab incubators, dissection equipment, and models, diagrams, or samples of biological specimens or structures;

(G)  analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and

(H)  communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

(3)  The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A)  in all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student;

(B)  communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, news reports, published journal articles, and marketing materials;

(C)  draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(D)  evaluate the impact of scientific research on society and the environment;

(E)  evaluate models according to their limitations in representing objects or events; and

(F)  research and describe the history of veterinary medicine and contributions of scientists in that field.

(4)  The student learns the employability characteristics of a successful employee. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify career development and entrepreneurship opportunities in the field of veterinary science;

(B)  demonstrate competencies related to resources, information, interpersonal skills, and systems of operation in veterinary science;

(C)  demonstrate knowledge of personal and occupational health and safety practices in the workplace; and

(D)  identify employers' expectations, including appropriate work habits, ethical conduct, legal responsibilities, and good citizenship skills.

(5)  The student researches current topics in veterinary medicine, recognizes the importance of animals in society, and discusses professional ethics and laws that relate to veterinary medicine. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the human-animal bond and how to interact with clients and their animals;

(B)  identify trends, issues, and historical events that have influenced animal use and care;

(C)  describe the legal aspects of animal welfare and animal rights;

(D)  evaluate the principals of veterinary medical ethics; and

(E)  review policies and procedures in veterinary medicine that are considered a reflection of various local, state, and federal laws.

(6)  The student evaluates veterinary hospital management and marketing to determine its importance to the success of veterinary clinics and hospitals. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify skills needed to communicate effectively with clients and pet owners in the community;

(B)  identify vital information and demonstrate effective communication skills necessary to solve problems;

(C)  explain the role and importance of marketing and its effects on the success of a veterinary hospital; and

(D)  develop skills involving the use of electronic technology commonly found in a veterinary hospital.

(7)  The student communicates the importance of medical terminology, evaluates veterinary terms to discover their meanings, and demonstrates the ability to use terms correctly. The student is expected to:

(A)  analyze veterinary terms to discover their meanings and recognize common Greek and Latin prefixes, suffixes, and roots;

(B)  develop appropriate use of directional anatomical terms;

(C)  identify anatomical structures of animals;

(D)  describe the major body systems by using appropriate medical terminology; and

(E)  recognize, pronounce, spell, and define medical terms relating to diagnosis, pathology, and treatment of animals.

(8)  The student explores the area of animal management as it relates to animal identification, animal characteristics, and behavioral temperament. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify a variety of animal species according to common breed characteristics;

(B)  recognize common animal behavioral problems;

(C)  identify correct handling protocols and discuss the relevance to veterinary medical staff; and

(D)  demonstrate appropriate methods of handling a variety of animal behavioral situations.

(9)  The student investigates the body systems and gains a working knowledge of each system's purpose and functions and how each system is affected by disease. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the parts of the skeletal, muscular, respiratory, circulatory, excretory, reproductive, integumentary, immune/lymphatic, digestive, endocrine, and nervous systems;

(B)  describe the functions of the skeletal, muscular, respiratory, circulatory, excretory, reproductive, integumentary, immune/lymphatic, digestive, endocrine, and nervous systems;

(C)  identify appropriate anatomical sites for injections, measuring vital signs, and collecting blood samples for various animal species; and

(D)  use medical terminology to describe normal animal behavior and vital signs compared to sick animals.

(10)  The student performs mathematical calculations used in veterinary medicine. The student is expected to:

(A)  add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers, fractions, and decimals as related to veterinary medicine;

(B)  apply mathematical skills needed for accurate client assessment such as measurement, conversion, and data analysis;

(C)  find solutions to veterinary problems by calculating percentages and averages;

(D)  convert between English and metric units;

(E)  use scientific calculations to determine weight, volume, and linear measurements;

(F)  solve word problems using ratios and dimensional analysis;

(G)  interpret data using tables, charts, and graphs; and

(H)  use mathematical equations to calculate and prepare chemical concentrations.

(11)  The student evaluates animal diseases and identifies internal and external parasites. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify factors that influence the health of animals;

(B)  identify pathogens and describe the effects that diseases have on various body systems;

(C)  explain the best courses of treatment for common diseases;

(D)  describe the process of immunity and disease transmission;

(E)  identify internal and external parasites using common and scientific names;

(F)  describe life cycles of common parasites;

(G)  explain how parasites are transmitted and their effect on the host;

(H)  conduct parasitic diagnostic procedures; and

(I)  describe types of treatments for diseases and parasites.

(12)  The student evaluates an animal's health during a clinical examination. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe the characteristics and signs of a healthy animal;

(B)  recognize examples of abnormalities and relate them to the associated problems and illnesses;

(C)  take temperature, pulse, and respiration for a variety of animals;

(D)  describe effects of age, stress, and environmental factors on vital signs of animals;

(E)  explain procedures for physical examinations; and

(F)  explain the regional approach to assess an animal's health.

(13)  The student identifies imaging equipment and demonstrates how to safely operate and maintain equipment. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify imaging equipment such as ultrasonograph, endoscope, electrocardiograph, and radiograph;

(B)  explain safety procedures, maintenance, and operation of imaging equipment; and

(C)  demonstrate patient restraint and positioning methods used for imaging purposes.

(14)  The student determines nutritional requirements for ruminant and non-ruminant animals and communicates the importance of animal nutrition in maintaining a healthy animal. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the anatomy of the digestive system of ruminant and non-ruminant animals;

(B)  describe the process of digestion in ruminant and non-ruminant animals;

(C)  identify types and sources of nutrients and classes of feeds;

(D)  identify feed additives and describe how additives affect the food supply;

(E)  evaluate animal dietary needs, including vitamins, minerals, and water; dietary deficiencies; and feeding factors;

(F)  calculate energy requirements and formulate rations;

(G)  discuss feeding practices and feed-quality issues; and

(H)  analyze the quality of commercially prepared feeds.

(15)  The student examines various aspects of clinical hematology and veterinary pathology. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe laboratory tests and explain the importance of proper laboratory procedures;

(B)  demonstrate the procedures used in collecting, handling, preparing, and examining fecal and urine specimens and blood specimens, including blood cells and plasma;

(C)  discuss normal and abnormal results obtained in complete blood counts;

(D)  explain sensitivity testing and how to read testing results; and

(E)  prepare microscope slides, preserve specimens, and perform several of the most common laboratory tests such as blood types.

(16)  The student identifies hospital procedures, skills, and objectives that are included in the job description of an animal care assistant. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the care, maintenance, and use of equipment and instruments found in veterinary practice;

(B)  explain appropriate hospital procedures;

(C)  discuss emergency protocols and describe first aid procedures for small and large animals, including cardiopulmonary resuscitation, control of bleeding, and treatment for shock;

(D)  demonstrate animal care skills such as administering medications, nail trimming, bathing, grooming, ear cleaning, expressing anal sacs, dental prophylaxis, enema administration, and identification of animals;

(E)  demonstrate therapeutic care such as patient observation, maintaining and administering fluids, applying bandages, caring for open wounds, and managing hydrotherapy and physical therapy; and

(F)  describe skills involved in the reproductive and genetic evaluation of animals.

(17)  The student identifies and discusses surgical-assisting procedures, skills, and objectives that are included in the job description of an animal care assistant. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the protocol for pre-surgical and post-surgical care of a patient;

(B)  describe methods used in the sterilization and preparation of small and large animal surgery packs;

(C)  review skills involved in patient and surgical room preparation;

(D)  describe surgical skills such as castration, spaying, dehorning, and docking;

(E)  describe care of newborn, orphan, and recumbent patients; and

(F)  identify and monitor equipment used in surgical procedures.

(18)  The student identifies pharmacology-assisting procedures, skills, and objectives that are included in the job description of an animal care assistant. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify medications according to their classification, form, routes, and methods of administration;

(B)  explain handling and distribution, protocol, and laws for controlled substances;

(C)  calculate dosage using factors such as concentration of drug, weight of animal, and required dosage;

(D)  complete a prescription label with identifiers that are required by the United States Food and Drug Administration; and

(E)  select equipment and instruments used to give medications.

(19)  The student develops an improved supervised agriculture experience program as it relates to agriculture, food, and natural resources. The student is expected to:

(A)  plan, propose, conduct, and evaluate entrepreneurship; placement; exploratory; research, either experimental or analytical; improvement; supplementary; laboratory-based; or other identified, supervised agricultural experience as an experiential learning activity;

(B)  apply proper record-keeping skills as they relate to a supervised experience;

(C)  design and use a customized record-keeping system for the individual supervised experience;

(D)  participate in youth leadership opportunities to create a well-rounded experience program in agriculture; and

(E)  produce a challenging approach for a local program of activities in agriculture.

Statutory Authority: The provisions of this §130.6 issued under the Texas Education Code, §§7.102(c)(4), 28.002, 28.00222, and 28.025, as that section existed before amendment by House Bill 5, 83rd Texas Legislature, Regular Session, 2013.

Source: The provisions of this §130.6 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5914; amended to be effective August 25, 2014, 38 TexReg 9030.


§130.7. Advanced Animal Science (One Credit).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grade 12. Recommended prerequisite: a minimum of one credit from the courses in the Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources cluster. To receive credit in science, students must meet the 40% laboratory and fieldwork requirement identified in §74.3(b)(2)(C) of this title (relating to Description of a Required Secondary Curriculum).

(b)  Introduction.

(1)  Advanced Animal Science. To be prepared for careers in the field of animal science, students need to attain academic skills and knowledge, acquire knowledge and skills related to animal systems, and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, and industry standards. To prepare for success, students need opportunities to learn, reinforce, apply, and transfer their knowledge and skills in a variety of settings. This course examines the interrelatedness of human, scientific, and technological dimensions of livestock production. Instruction is designed to allow for the application of scientific and technological aspects of animal science through field and laboratory experiences.

(2)  Nature of science. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

(3)  Scientific inquiry. Scientific inquiry is the planned and deliberate investigation of the natural world. Scientific methods of investigation are experimental, descriptive, or comparative. The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked.

(4)  Science and social ethics. Scientific decision making is a way of answering questions about the natural world. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods (scientific methods) and ethical and social decisions that involve science (the application of scientific information).

(5)  Science, systems, and models. A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. All systems have basic properties that can be described in space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems as patterns and can be observed, measured, and modeled. These patterns help to make predictions that can be scientifically tested. Students should analyze a system in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other, to the whole, and to the external environment.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. These investigations must involve actively obtaining and analyzing data with physical equipment, but may also involve experimentation in a simulated environment as well as field observations that extend beyond the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B)  demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.

(2)  The student uses scientific methods and equipment during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A)  know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section;

(B)  know that hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power which have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories;

(C)  know scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly-reliable explanations, but they may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed;

(D)  distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories;

(E)  plan and implement descriptive, comparative, and experimental investigations, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

(F)  collect and organize qualitative and quantitative data and make measurements with accuracy and precision using tools and equipment;

(G)  analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and

(H)  communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

(3)  The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A)  in all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student;

(B)  communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, news reports, published journal articles, and marketing materials;

(C)  draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(D)  evaluate the impact of scientific research on society and the environment;

(E)  evaluate models according to their limitations in representing biological objects or events; and

(F)  research and describe the history of science and contributions of scientists.

(4)  The student evaluates the employability characteristics of an employee. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify career development and entrepreneurship opportunities in the field of animal systems;

(B)  apply competencies related to resources, information, interpersonal skills, and systems of operation in animal systems;

(C)  demonstrate knowledge of personal and occupational safety and health practices in the workplace; and

(D)  identify employers' expectations, including appropriate work habits, ethical conduct, legal responsibilities, and good citizenship skills.

(5)  The student demonstrates principles relating to the human, scientific, and technological dimensions of scientific animal agriculture and the resources necessary for producing domesticated animals. The student is expected to:

(A)  evaluate market classes and grades of livestock;

(B)  identify animal products and consumption patterns relative to human diet and health issues; and

(C)  describe the growth and development of livestock as a global commodity.

(6)  The student applies the principles of reproduction and breeding to livestock improvement. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe reproductive cycles and relate them to breeding systems;

(B)  explain the embryo transfer process and how it can impact the livestock industries;

(C)  recognize the significance of meiosis to sexual reproduction; and

(D)  evaluate animal behavior and its relationship to livestock management.

(7)  The student applies the principles of molecular genetics and heredity. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain Mendel's laws of inheritance by predicting genotypes and phenotypes of offspring using the Punnett square;

(B)  explain the inheritance of sex-linked characteristics and provide some examples found in animals;

(C)  identify and compare the three parts of nucleic acids;

(D)  explain the functions of nucleic acids;

(E)  describe how heredity is used in the selection of livestock; and

(F)  explain how traits are passed from parent to offspring through genetic transfer and the implications of breeding practices.

(8)  The student examines and compares animal anatomy and physiology in livestock species. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify and compare the external anatomy of a variety of livestock species;

(B)  compare the anatomy and physiology of the skeletal, muscular, reproductive, digestive, circulatory, genito-urinary, respiratory, nervous, and endocrine systems of animals;

(C)  describe interactions among various body systems such as circulatory, respiratory, and muscular systems; and

(D)  identify and describe the functions of epithelial, connective, and muscular tissue and relate these to animal body systems.

(9)  The student determines nutritional requirements of ruminant and non-ruminant animals. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe the structures and functions of the digestive system of ruminant and non-ruminant animals, including poultry and cattle;

(B)  identify and describe sources of nutrients and classes of feeds and relate to the ruminant and non-ruminant animals;

(C)  identify and describe vitamins, minerals, and feed additives and how they relate to the nutritional requirements of ruminant and non-ruminant animals;

(D)  formulate rations based on different nutritional requirements;

(E)  analyze feeding practices in relation to nutritional requirements of animals; and

(F)  analyze feed quality issues and determine their effect on animal health.

(10)  The student evaluates animal diseases and parasites. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify factors that influence the health of animals such as geographic location, age, genetic composition, and inherited diseases to a particular species;

(B)  identify pathogens and describe the effects that diseases have on various body systems;

(C)  explain the methods of prevention, control, and treatment for diseases;

(D)  describe the process of immunity and disease transmission;

(E)  explain how parasites are transmitted and the effect they have on the host;

(F)  explain the methods of prevention, control, and treatment of internal and external parasites;

(G)  describe the life cycles of various parasites and relate them to animal health issues; and

(H)  conduct parasite diagnostic tests.

(11)  The student defines how an organism grows and how specialized cells, tissues, and organs develop. The student is expected to:

(A)  compare cells from different parts of animals, including epithelia, muscles, and bones, to show specialization of structure and function;

(B)  describe and explain cell differentiation in the development of organisms; and

(C)  sequence the levels of organization in animals and relate the parts to each other and to the whole.

(12)  The student recognizes policies and issues in animal science. The student is expected to:

(A)  discuss the impacts of biotechnology on the production of livestock such as cloning, artificial insemination, and freezing of semen and embryos;

(B)  analyze the issues surrounding animal welfare and the humane treatment of livestock;

(C)  apply principles of nutrition to maximize feed efficiency for livestock; and

(D)  design, conduct, and complete research to solve a self-identified problem in scientific animal agriculture.

(13)  The student discusses livestock harvesting operations. The student is expected to:

(A)  map the stages of animal growth and development as it relates to market readiness;

(B)  describe the harvesting process;

(C)  describe federal and state meat inspection standards such as safety, hygiene, and quality control; and

(D)  identify retail and wholesale cuts of meat and meat by-products and correlate to major muscle groups.

(14)  The student explores methods of marketing livestock. The student is expected to:

(A)  compare various methods of marketing livestock; and

(B)  describe methods of marketing meat and meat products.

(15)  The student develops an advanced supervised agriculture experience program as it relates to agriculture, food, and natural resources. The student is expected to:

(A)  plan, propose, conduct, and evaluate entrepreneurship; placement; exploratory; research, either experimental or analytical; improvement; supplementary; laboratory-based; or other identified, supervised agricultural experience as an experiential learning activity;

(B)  apply proper record-keeping skills as they relate to a supervised experience;

(C)  design and use a customized record-keeping system for the individual supervised experience;

(D)  participate in youth leadership opportunities to create a well-rounded experience program in agriculture; and

(E)  produce a challenging approach for a local program of activities in agriculture.

Source: The provisions of this §130.7 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5914.


§130.8. Professional Standards in Agribusiness (One-Half to One Credit).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 9-12.

(b)  Introduction. To be prepared for careers in agribusiness systems, students need to attain academic skills and knowledge, acquire technical knowledge and skills related to leadership development and the workplace, and develop knowledge and skills regarding agricultural career opportunities, entry requirements, and industry expectations. To prepare for success, students need opportunities to learn, reinforce, apply, and transfer their knowledge and skills in a variety of settings. This course primarily focuses on leadership, communication, employer-employee relations, and problem solving as they relate to agribusiness.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student learns the employability characteristics of a successful contributor to the modern agricultural workplace. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify career and entrepreneurship opportunities related to agribusiness;

(B)  apply competencies related to resources, information, interpersonal skills, and systems of operation in agriculture, food, and natural resource industries;

(C)  demonstrate employers' expectations, appropriate work habits, and good citizenship skills; and

(D)  employ leadership skills to accomplish organizational goals and objectives.

(2)  The student demonstrates professional development related to effective leadership in agribusiness. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe the importance of positive self-concept, social skills, and maintaining a professional image with respect to cultural diversity;

(B)  identify leadership styles;

(C)  prepare personal resumés and employment applications; and

(D)  use positive interpersonal skills to work cooperatively with others from different cultures, genders, and backgrounds.

(3)  The student evaluates employer and employee responsibilities for occupations in agriculture, food, and natural resources. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify and discuss work-related and agribusiness-related ethics;

(B)  demonstrate methods for working effectively with others;

(C)  practice job interview and evaluation skills; and

(D)  outline complaint and appeal processes.

(4)  The student communicates effectively with groups and individuals. The student is expected to:

(A)  understand the elements of communication both in informal group discussions and formal presentations such as accuracy, relevance, rhetorical features, and organization of information by:

(i)  describing how style and content of spoken language varies in different contexts and influences the listener's understanding; and

(ii)  modifying presentations such as delivery, vocabulary, length, audience needs, and purposes;

(B)  identify appropriate written and verbal communications in agribusiness;

(C)  demonstrate effective listening in a variety of settings;

(D)  demonstrate nonverbal communications skills and effective listening strategies; and

(E)  discuss the importance of relationships and group organization.

(5)  The student identifies professional agricultural communications in relation to using appropriate spoken communication techniques and procedures. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the importance of verbal and nonverbal communications;

(B)  know the importance of communicating factual and unbiased data and information obtained from reliable sources;

(C)  demonstrate speech preparation and delivery skills; and

(D)  plan and deliver focused and coherent presentations that convey clear and distinct perspectives and demonstrate solid reasoning.

(6)  The student demonstrates the factors of group and individual efficiency. The student is expected to:

(A)  define the significance of personal and group goals;

(B)  exhibit traits such as empowerment, risk, communication, focusing on results, decision making, problem solving, and investment in individuals when leading a group in solving a problem;

(C)  discuss the importance of time management and teamwork;

(D)  list the steps in the decision-making and problem-solving processes; and

(E)  demonstrate a working knowledge of parliamentary law.

(7)  The student identifies involvement opportunities in agribusiness professional organizations. The student is expected to:

(A)  discuss the role of agricultural organizations in formulating public policy;

(B)  develop strategies for effective participation in agricultural organizations; and

(C)  identify various agricultural organizations such as Texas Farm Bureau, The Association of Soil and Water Conservation Districts, Texas and Southwestern Cattle Raisers Association, Independent Cattlemen's Association, agricultural cooperatives, commodity associations, and breed associations.

(8)  The student identifies and researches current agribusiness issues. The student is expected to:

(A)  compare and contrast the marketing of agricultural and non-agricultural products; and

(B)  describe the effects of urbanization on traditional agriculture.

(9)  The student develops an improved supervised agriculture experience program as it relates to agriculture, food, and natural resources. The student is expected to:

(A)  plan, propose, conduct, and evaluate entrepreneurship; placement; exploratory; research, either experimental or analytical; improvement; supplementary; laboratory-based; or other identified, supervised agricultural experience as an experiential learning activity;

(B)  apply proper record-keeping skills as they relate to a supervised experience;

(C)  design and use a customized record-keeping system for the individual supervised experience;

(D)  employ youth leadership opportunities to create a well-rounded experience program in agriculture; and

(E)  produce a challenging approach for a local program of activities in agriculture.

Source: The provisions of this §130.8 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5914.


§130.9. Agribusiness Management and Marketing (One-Half to One Credit).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10-12.

(b)  Introduction. To be prepared for careers in agribusiness systems, students need to attain academic skills and knowledge, acquire technical knowledge and skills related to agribusiness marketing and management and the workplace, and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, and industry expectations. To prepare for success, students need opportunities to learn, reinforce, apply, and transfer their knowledge and skills in a variety of settings. This course is designed to provide a foundation to agribusiness management and the free enterprise system. Instruction includes the use of economic principles such as supply and demand, budgeting, record keeping, finance, risk management, business law, marketing, and careers in agribusiness.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student learns the employability characteristics of a successful employee in the field of agriculture, food, and natural resources. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify career development and entrepreneurship opportunities in agribusiness systems;

(B)  apply competencies related to resources, information, interpersonal skills, and systems of operation in agribusiness systems;

(C)  demonstrate knowledge of personal and occupational health and safety practices in the workplace; and

(D)  identify employers' expectations, including appropriate work habits, ethical conduct, legal responsibilities, and good citizenship skills.

(2)  The student recognizes roles within teams, work units, departments, organizations, inter-organizational systems, and the larger environment. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify how key organizational systems affect organizational performance and the quality of products and services related to agriculture, food, and natural resources;

(B)  understand the global context of agricultural industries and careers; and

(C)  describe the nature and types of agribusiness organizations to build an understanding of the scope of organizations.

(3)  The student examines critical aspects of career opportunities in one or more agriculture, food, and natural resources careers. The student is expected to:

(A)  research and interpret information for one or more careers in agriculture, food, or natural resources; and

(B)  identify educational and credentialing requirements for one or more careers in agriculture, food, and natural resources.

(4)  The student defines and examines agribusiness management and marketing and its importance to the local and international economy. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe the roles and functions of management in agribusiness;

(B)  identify key economic principles of free enterprise; and

(C)  analyze the economic opportunities of agribusiness.

(5)  The student defines the importance of records and budgeting in agribusiness. The student is expected to:

(A)  maintain appropriate agribusiness records such as payroll, employee benefits, journals, inventories, income and expense logs, financial statements, and balance sheets;

(B)  identify methods of obtaining agribusiness loans and financing; and

(C)  compare methods of capital resource acquisition as it pertains to agriculture.

(6)  The student describes issues related to government policy and recognizes concepts related to cultural diversity. The student is expected to:

(A)  analyze methods of decision making;

(B)  examine the effects of government policies and regulations in making management decisions;

(C)  describe the management of human resources with respect to cultural diversity;

(D)  identify laws pertaining to land and property ownership and uses, taxes, wills, and liabilities; and

(E)  develop a personal economic philosophy.

(7)  The student defines key issues of agribusiness success and failure. The student is expected to:

(A)  use the decision-making process for budgeting issues;

(B)  analyze business records and record-keeping procedures;

(C)  determine methods of financing agribusiness; and

(D)  identify methods of obtaining capital resources.

(8)  The student describes the marketing of agricultural products. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe the purpose and importance of marketing;

(B)  develop a marketing plan;

(C)  identify the competitive environment and the impact of foreign markets;

(D)  compare types of markets and influence factors; and

(E)  identify methods of managing risk.

(9)  The student knows the efficiency aspects of agribusiness management. The student is expected to:

(A)  use management software and information technology such as spreadsheets and databases;

(B)  develop an entrepreneurial plan based on personal economic philosophy;

(C)  develop a financial management plan; and

(D)  present a business proposal.

(10)  The student develops an improved supervised agriculture experience program as it relates to agriculture, food, and natural resources. The student is expected to:

(A)  plan, propose, conduct, and evaluate entrepreneurship; placement; exploratory; research, either experimental or analytical; improvement; supplementary; laboratory-based; or other identified, supervised agricultural experience as an experiential learning activity;

(B)  apply proper record-keeping skills as they relate to a supervised experience;

(C)  design and use a customized record-keeping system for the individual supervised experience;

(D)  participate in youth leadership opportunities to create a well-rounded experience program in agriculture; and

(E)  produce a challenging approach for a local program of activities in agriculture.

Source: The provisions of this §130.9 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5914.


§130.10. Mathematical Applications in Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources (One Credit).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 9-11. Recommended prerequisite: a minimum of one credit from the courses in the Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources cluster.

(b)  Introduction. To be prepared for careers in agriculture, food, and natural resources, students must acquire technical knowledge in the discipline as well as apply academic skills in mathematics. Students should apply knowledge and skills related to mathematics, including algebra, geometry, and data analysis in the context of agriculture, food, and natural resources. To prepare for success, students are afforded opportunities to reinforce, apply, and transfer their knowledge and skills related to mathematics in a variety of contexts.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student demonstrates mathematics knowledge and skills required to solve problems related to the agriculture, food, and natural resources industries. The student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate use of relational expressions in agribusiness, animal, environmental service, food products and processing, natural resources, plant, and power, structural, and technical systems such as equal to, not equal, greater than, and less than;

(B)  apply statistical and data analysis to solve problems in agribusiness, animal, environmental service, food products and processing, natural resources, plant, or power, structural, and technical systems;

(C)  analyze mathematical problem statements for missing or irrelevant data essential to agribusiness, animal, environmental service, food products and processing, natural resources, plant, and power, structural, and technical systems;

(D)  construct and analyze charts, tables, and graphs from functions and data generated in agribusiness, animal, environmental service, food products and processing, natural resources, plant, and power, structural, and technical systems;

(E)  analyze data using measures of central tendency when interpreting operational documents in agribusiness, animal, environmental service, food products and processing, natural resources, plant, and power, structural, and technical systems; and

(F)  use mathematic operations and knowledge of relationships to solve problems inherent to systems of agriculture and agribusiness such as the calculation of gallons of water from inches of rain, acres of ground water, liquid and gaseous volumes, and conversion of units; calculation of caloric value, parts per million of restricted ingredients, conversion of measurements, and United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) grades; and estimation of wildlife populations, pulpwood yields, and calculation of mapping data.

(2)  The student demonstrates mathematics knowledge and skills to solve problems related to agribusiness systems and career opportunities. The student is expected to:

(A)  use mathematic operations and knowledge of relationships to solve daily problems inherent to agribusiness systems such as record keeping, profit/loss statements, income statements, capital asset inventories, insurance, risk management, lease agreements, loan documentation, employee payroll, benefits, investments, tax documentation, and real estate contract documentation;

(B)  demonstrate knowledge of algebraic applications linear and exponential functions related to agribusiness systems concepts such as simple interest, compound interest, maturity value, tax rates, depreciation, production analysis, market trends, investments, and price determination; and

(C)  demonstrate use of statistical and data analysis for the evaluation of agribusiness systems such as the collection of demographic, production, consumption, weather, market data for analysis through counts, percentages, central tendency, and prediction. Data is to be reported numerically or graphically on concepts such as pricing, market trends, commodity prices, exports and imports, supply and demand, and production yields.

(3)  The student demonstrates mathematics knowledge and skills to solve problems related to animal systems and career opportunities. The student is expected to:

(A)  use mathematic operations and knowledge of relationships to solve problems inherent to animal systems such as the calculation of purchasing and marketing, housing requirements, conversion of units, average daily gain, topical and injectable medications, USDA grade calculation, feeding schedules, volumes, production cost, stocking rates, breeding, and gestation;

(B)  demonstrate knowledge of algebraic applications related to animal systems concepts such as ration calculation using the Pearson Square, percent homozygosity, heritability, USDA grade calculation, gene frequency, cost per unit of nutrient, and weaning weight ratio;

(C)  use geometric principles to solve problems inherent to animal systems such as square footage for housing requirements; acreage calculation for normal and irregular shaped pastures; the use of right triangles for perpendicular cross fencing; calculation of feed bin volume based upon shape such as cylinder, cone, cube, or pyramid; and housing volume calculations for ventilation; and

(D)  demonstrate use of statistical and data analysis in animal systems such as the collection and analysis of production data to be reported numerically or graphically on concepts such as birth weight, weaning weights, days to market weight, expected progeny differences, feed efficiencies, birth type, litter size, presence or absence of genetic abnormality, milk production, sow productivity index, and veterinary costs or records.

(4)  The student demonstrates mathematical knowledge and skills to solve problems related to environmental service systems and career opportunities. The student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate knowledge of algebraic applications to create solutions to problems related to environmental service systems concepts such as the calculation of acre feet of water, water volume in ponds, water well volume, water pressure friction loss, flow rate, total head pressure, pump efficiency, soil solids volume, and soil degree of saturation;

(B)  use geometric principles to solve problems inherent to environmental service systems such as acreage calculation for normal and irregular shaped pastures, calculating slope of land, planning runoff drainage structures, and applying differential leveling techniques; and

(C)  demonstrate use of statistical and data analysis in environmental service systems such as the collection and analysis of environmental data to be reported numerically or graphically on concepts such as rainfall, soil classifications, groundwater levels, recycling activities, and pollution rates.

(5)  The student demonstrates mathematics knowledge and skills required to solve problems related to food products and processing systems and career opportunities. The student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate knowledge of algebraic applications related to food products and processing systems concepts such as the calculation of exponential growth of bacteria, contribution margin in processing, percentage of weight loss in packaged food, percentage of water absorption in packaged food, and microbe analysis following pasteurization;

(B)  use geometric principles to solve problems inherent to food products and processing systems such as the calculation of packaging requirements, construction of food storage structures and containers, liquid transfer materials, and vessels design and volume; and

(C)  demonstrate use of statistical and data analysis in food products and processing systems data to be reported numerically or graphically on concepts such as governmental regulations, hazard analysis, critical control points data, taste tests, quality assurance data, and industry packing practices.

(6)  The student demonstrates mathematics knowledge and skills to solve problems related to natural resources systems and career opportunities. The student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate knowledge of algebraic applications related to natural resource systems concepts such as the calculation of mean harvest area, calibration of pesticides, and the Doyle Log Rule;

(B)  use geometric principles to solve problems inherent to natural resource systems such as planning and construction of structures related to wildlife and fisheries management, determination of lumber volume in given tree stock, and calculation of tank volume for chemical application; and

(C)  demonstrate use of statistical and data analysis for the evaluation of natural resource systems data to be reported numerically or graphically for resource data analysis, analysis of Geographic Information Systems and Global Positioning Systems data, analysis of weather-related data, and analysis of data related to wildlife and habitat.

(7)  The student demonstrates mathematics knowledge and skills to solve problems related to plant systems and career opportunities. The student is expected to:

(A)  use mathematic operations and knowledge of relationships to solve problems inherent to plant systems such as the calculation of crop yields, crop loss, grain drying requirements, grain weight shrinkage, germination rates, greenhouse heating, and cooling and fertilizer application rates;

(B)  demonstrate knowledge of algebraic applications related to plant systems concepts such as the calculation of grain handling efficiency, harvesting capacity, crop rotation, seeding rates, fertilizer nutrient requirements, and greenhouse ventilation;

(C)  use geometric principles for the analysis of problems inherent to plant systems such as plan grain storage structures, volume of grain storage vessels, grain handling volume, greenhouse capacity, and regular and irregular shaped planting bed size; and

(D)  demonstrate use of statistical and data analysis in plant systems such as crop yields, Global Information Systems data, plant growth data, and climate data.

(8)  The student demonstrates mathematics knowledge and skills to solve problems related to power, structural, and technical systems education and career opportunities. The student is expected to:

(A)  use mathematic operations and knowledge of relationships to solve problems inherent to power, structural, and technical systems such as the calculation of gear ratio, fuel efficiency, construction costs, project layout, energy costs, unit conversions, bid preparation, and labor-related calculations;

(B)  demonstrate knowledge of algebraic applications related to power, structural, and technical systems concepts such as the calculation of strength of magnetism, chain or belt tension, horsepower, Ohm's Law, hydraulic multiplication of force, and Mohr's Circle tensile strength test;

(C)  use geometric principles for the evaluation of problems inherent to power, structural, and technical systems such as rafter length, land measurement, differential leveling, concrete volume, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning requirements and creation of structural drawings;

(D)  use statistical and data analysis to evaluate power, structural, and technical systems problems such as construction cost data; equipment maintenance; heating, ventilating, and air conditioning efficiencies; engine performance; and labor costs; and

(E)  use geometry concepts to develop and implement a plan for construction of a project such as a trailer, an agricultural structure, a storage facility, or a fence.

(9)  The student develops an improved supervised agriculture experience program as it relates to agriculture, food, and natural resources. The student is expected to:

(A)  plan, propose, conduct, and evaluate entrepreneurship; placement; exploratory; research, either experimental or analytical; improvement; supplementary; laboratory-based; or other identified, supervised agricultural experience as an experiential learning activity;

(B)  apply proper record-keeping skills as they relate to a supervised experience;

(C)  design and use a customized record-keeping system for the individual supervised experience;

(D)  participate in youth leadership opportunities to create a well-rounded experience program in agriculture; and

(E)  produce a challenging approach for a local program of activities in agriculture.

Source: The provisions of this §130.10 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5914.


§130.11. Energy and Natural Resources Technology (One-Half to One Credit).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10-12.

(b)  Introduction. To be prepared for careers in the field of energy and natural resource systems, students need to attain academic skills and knowledge, acquire technical knowledge and skills related to energy and natural resources and the workplace, and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, and industry expectations. To prepare for success, students need to have opportunities to learn, reinforce, apply, and transfer their knowledge and skills and technologies in a variety of settings. This course is designed to explore the interdependency of the public and natural resource systems related to energy production. In addition, renewable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly practices will be explored.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student develops an improved supervised agriculture experience program as it relates to agriculture, food, and natural resources. The student is expected to:

(A)  plan, propose, conduct, and evaluate entrepreneurship; placement; exploratory; research, either experimental or analytical; improvement; supplementary; laboratory-based; or other identified, supervised agricultural experience as an experiential learning activity;

(B)  apply proper record-keeping skills as they relate to a supervised experience;

(C)  design and use a customized record-keeping system for the individual supervised experience;

(D)  participate in youth leadership opportunities to create a well-rounded experience program in agriculture; and

(E)  produce a challenging approach for a local program of activities in agriculture.

(2)  The student uses instructional time to conduct field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices in a documented supervised experience. The student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations in a documented supervised experience; and

(B)  use accepted procedures for the use and conservation of resources and for the safe handling of materials.

(3)  The student learns the employability characteristics of a successful employee. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify career development and entrepreneurship opportunities in the fields of energy and natural resources;

(B)  apply competencies related to resources, information, interpersonal skills, and systems of operation in energy and natural resources;

(C)  demonstrate knowledge of personal and occupational health and safety practices in the workplace;

(D)  identify employers' expectations, including appropriate work habits, ethical conduct, legal responsibilities, and good citizenship skills; and

(E)  demonstrate leadership skills to accomplish organizational goals and objectives.

(4)  The student determines the importance and scope of energy and natural resources. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify various types of natural resources;

(B)  discuss renewable, non-renewable, and sustainable energy resources and their availability;

(C)  define the impacts of energy production on natural resources and the effect on the agricultural economy; and

(D)  analyze the geographic and demographic distribution of natural resources.

(5)  The student analyzes ethical issues related to natural resource management and energy production. The student is expected to:

(A)  compile examples of different lease agreements used for leasing minerals and natural resources;

(B)  understand landowner and leasing company relationships;

(C)  review public interest in natural resource management; and

(D)  understand the impacts of natural resource management on the landowner.

(6)  The student understands energy and natural resource policies at the local, state, and national level. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify policy affecting the use of natural resources;

(B)  identify policy affecting energy production;

(C)  research ecological controls of natural resources;

(D)  identify state and federal agencies that have natural resource management responsibilities; and

(E)  define the roles of government, society, and property owners in the development of energy and natural resource policy.

(7)  The student recognizes the purpose of land use planning. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the major categories of land use;

(B)  evaluate considerations for land use planning, including ecological benefits;

(C)  discuss advantages and disadvantages of land use planning;

(D)  compare and contrast land use policy trends within the state; and

(E)  discuss the advantages and disadvantages of land use planning for energy production.

(8)  The student identifies water and wastewater use and management. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify municipal, industrial, and agricultural uses of water, including recycling opportunities;

(B)  discuss how different types of water uses pollute water resources;

(C)  define point source and non-point source pollution;

(D)  identify sources of point source and non-point source pollution associated with municipal, industrial, and agricultural uses;

(E)  describe effective management practices commonly used to abate point and non-point sources of pollution;

(F)  discuss how the different types of water uses impact water availability;

(G)  research water use legislation;

(H)  review water quality policy, including the agricultural storm water exclusion, and how it affects the decisions made in agricultural production; and

(I)  discuss the potential impacts of energy production on water resources.

(9)  The student describes air quality associated with energy production. The student is expected to:

(A)  define air pollution;

(B)  research air quality legislation;

(C)  identify sources and effects of air pollution from energy production;

(D)  discuss different emission management strategies; and

(E)  identify air pollution controls used in energy production.

(10)  The student examines soil erosion as related to energy production. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify sources of energy production that can contribute to soil erosion;

(B)  illustrate harmful effects of soil erosion;

(C)  discuss legal aspects of soil erosion; and

(D)  list soil erosion control methods and programs.

(11)  The student analyzes the identification, handling, storing, and disposing of waste and hazardous materials. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify types of waste and hazardous materials;

(B)  research legislation related to waste and hazardous materials;

(C)  identify entities responsible for waste and hazardous material management; and

(D)  describe safe handling, storing, and disposal of waste materials, including composting and recycling.

(12)  The student learns the processes for producing energy from agricultural crops, biomass, fossil fuel, wind, solar, and geothermal sources. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify agricultural and silvicultural crops and bi-products suitable for renewable energy production;

(B)  discuss production processes for agricultural- and silvicultural-based biofuels;

(C)  describe the fundamentals for oil, gas, and coal recovery;

(D)  compare and contrast oil and gas drilling methods and the environmental considerations associated with each, including environmentally friendly alternatives;

(E)  compare and contrast coal mining methods and the environmental considerations associated with each;

(F)  analyze advantages and disadvantages of wind-generated energy;

(G)  identify public policy considerations associated with transmission line construction to move wind-generated energy;

(H)  locate areas in the state that have geothermal energy production potential;

(I)  explain the benefits of geothermal energy;

(J)  identify solar energy systems and describe the function of each; and

(K)  identify the environmental considerations associated with biofuels and wind energy.

Source: The provisions of this §130.11 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5914.


§130.12. Advanced Environmental Technology (One Credit).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 11-12. Recommended prerequisite: a minimum of one credit from the courses in the Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources cluster.

(b)  Introduction.

(1)  Advanced Environmental Technology. To be prepared for careers in environmental service systems, students need to attain academic skills and knowledge, acquire advanced technical knowledge and skills related to environmental service systems and the workplace, and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, and industry expectations. To prepare for success, students need opportunities to learn, reinforce, apply, and transfer their knowledge and skills and technologies in a variety of settings. This course examines the interrelatedness of environmental issues and production agriculture. Students evaluate sustainable resources and green technologies which will provide environmental benefits. Instruction is designed to allow for the application of science and technology to measure environmental impacts resulting from production agriculture through field and laboratory experiences.

(2)  Nature of science. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

(3)  Scientific inquiry. Scientific inquiry is the planned and deliberate investigation of the natural world. Scientific methods of investigation are experimental, descriptive, or comparative. The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked.

(4)  Science and social ethics. Scientific decision making is a way of answering questions about the natural world. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods (scientific methods) and ethical and social decisions that involve science (the application of scientific information).

(5)  Science, systems, and models. A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. All systems have basic properties that can be described in space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems as patterns and can be observed, measured, and modeled. These patterns help to make predictions that can be scientifically tested. Students should analyze a system in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other, to the whole, and to the external environment.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations; and

(B)  demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.

(2)  The student uses scientific methods and equipment during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:

(A)  know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section;

(B)  know that hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power which have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories;

(C)  know scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly-reliable explanations, but they may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed;

(D)  distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories;

(E)  plan and implement descriptive, comparative, and experimental investigations, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

(F)  collect and organize qualitative and quantitative data and make measurements with accuracy and precision using tools such as spreadsheet software, data-collecting probes, computers, standard laboratory glassware, microscopes, various prepared slides, animal restraints, stereoscopes, electronic balances, micropipettors, hand lenses, surgical and imagining equipment, thermometers, hot plates, lab notebooks or journals, timing devices, Petri dishes, lab incubators, dissection equipment, and models, diagrams, or samples of biological specimens or structures;

(G)  analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and

(H)  communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

(3)  The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A)  in all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student;

(B)  communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, news reports, published journal articles, and marketing materials;

(C)  draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(D)  evaluate the impact of scientific research on society and the environment;

(E)  evaluate models according to their limitations in representing objects or events; and

(F)  research and describe the history of environmental science and contributions of environmental scientists.

(4)  The student learns the employability characteristics of a successful employee. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify career development and entrepreneurship opportunities in the field of environmental technology;

(B)  apply competencies related to resources, information, interpersonal skills, and systems of operation in environmental technology;

(C)  demonstrate knowledge of personal and occupational safety practices in the workplace;

(D)  identify employers' expectations, including appropriate work habits, ethical conduct, legal responsibilities, and good citizenship skills; and

(E)  demonstrate leadership skills to accomplish organizational goals and objectives.

(5)  The student develops an advanced supervised agriculture experience program as it relates to agriculture, food, and natural resources. The student is expected to:

(A)  plan, propose, conduct, and evaluate entrepreneurship; placement; exploratory; research, either experimental or analytical; improvement; supplementary; laboratory-based; or other identified, supervised agricultural experience as an experiential learning activity;

(B)  apply proper record-keeping skills as they relate to a supervised experience;

(C)  design and use a customized record-keeping system for the individual supervised experience;

(D)  participate in youth leadership opportunities to create a well-rounded experience program in agriculture; and

(E)  produce a challenging approach for a local program of activities in agriculture.

(6)  The student uses a minimum of 40% of instructional time to conduct field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices in a documented supervised experience. The student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations in a documented supervised experience; and

(B)  use accepted procedures for the use and conservation of resources and for the safe handling of materials.

(7)  The student determines the importance and scope of natural resources. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify various types of natural resources;

(B)  discuss renewable and non-renewable energy resources and the impact on the environment;

(C)  analyze the impacts of natural resources and their effects on the agricultural economy; and

(D)  map the geographic and demographic distribution of natural resources.

(8)  The student identifies water use and management in agricultural settings. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the distribution and properties of water in the hydrologic cycle;

(B)  identify agricultural uses of water, including the benefits of recycling;

(C)  discuss how agricultural uses may impact water resources;

(D)  define point source and non-point source pollution;

(E)  identify sources of point source and non-point source pollution associated with agriculture;

(F)  identify effective management practices commonly used to abate point and non-point sources of pollution;

(G)  explain the impact of agriculture production on water quality as related to the functioning of watersheds;

(H)  evaluate how the different agricultural water uses may impact water availability, including availability of water from aquifers;

(I)  research water use legislation; and

(J)  research water quality policy, including the agricultural storm water exclusion, and how it affects the decisions made in agricultural production.

(9)  The student knows biotic factors associated with agricultural production. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe the role of plants and animals, including insects and microorganisms;

(B)  understand the interaction of biotic and abiotic factors, including the relationships between soil composition and microorganisms, water quantity and crop selection, and air quality and human health;

(C)  identify issues related to biodiversity such as invasive species, chemical applications, and crop selection; and

(D)  research and explain the causes of species diversity and predict changes that may occur in an ecosystem if species and genetic diversity is increased or reduced.

(10)  The student describes air quality associated with agricultural production. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe the anatomy of the atmosphere and the atmospheric cycle;

(B)  define air pollution;

(C)  analyze air quality legislation;

(D)  identify sources and effects of air pollution from agricultural production;

(E)  discuss different emission management strategies; and

(F)  identify common air pollution controls used in agricultural production.

(11)  The student examines soil erosion as related to agricultural production. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe the components, dynamics, properties, and functions of soils;

(B)  identify agriculture production practices that can contribute to soil erosion;

(C)  graph harmful effects of soil erosion;

(D)  discuss the legal aspects of soil erosion;

(E)  explain soil erosion control methods and programs;

(F)  identify how soil erosion affects the environment; and

(G)  discuss agricultural practices that may preserve soil quality and quantity such as permaculture practices, organic farming, agroforestry, and integrated farming.

(12)  The student explains the use and abuse of natural resources. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the progression of use of natural resources leading to environmental degradation;

(B)  explain the impact of human population dynamics on the environment;

(C)  discuss the abuse of natural resources; and

(D)  communicate the resulting environmental consequences, including those on living organisms.

Statutory Authority: The provisions of this §130.12 issued under the Texas Education Code, §§7.102(c)(4), 28.002, 28.00222, and 28.025, as that section existed before amendment by House Bill 5, 83rd Texas Legislature, Regular Session, 2013, unless otherwise noted.

Source: The provisions of this §130.12 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5914; amended to be effective August 25, 2014, 38 TexReg 9034.


§130.13. Food Technology and Safety (One-Half to One Credit).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10-12.

(b)  Introduction. To be prepared for careers in value-added and food processing systems, students need to attain academic skills and knowledge, acquire technical knowledge and skills related to value-added and food processing and the workplace, and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, and industry expectations. To prepare for success, students need opportunities to learn, reinforce, apply, and transfer their knowledge and skills and technologies in a variety of settings. This course examines the food technology industry as it relates to food production, handling, and safety.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student explains the impact of food science systems. The student is expected to:

(A)  know the significance of food science systems;

(B)  define trends in food production, world population, and supply and demand for food products;

(C)  research trends in animal and food science research; and

(D)  evaluate the relationship between biotechnology and the food science industry.

(2)  The student analyzes the nutritive value of food constituents. The student is expected to:

(A)  define the terms used in food technology;

(B)  compare and contrast the nutritive value of food groups; and

(C)  apply data and measurements to solve a problem related to food processing.

(3)  The student identifies procedures and regulations for sanitation and safety in the food industry. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify food industry inspection standards, including hazard analysis and critical control points;

(B)  describe procedures for insect and rodent control;

(C)  identify appropriate chemicals used in the food industry; and

(D)  assess conditions with regard to safety and health.

(4)  The student identifies safety and governmental regulations involved in the processing and labeling of foods. The student is expected to:

(A)  research regulations dealing with preserving red meat, poultry, and fish;

(B)  describe packaging, labeling, and storage requirements for red meat, poultry, and fish;

(C)  explain the impact of temperature in food preservation; and

(D)  compare and contrast packaging requirements.

(5)  The student compares and contrasts issues affecting the food science industry, including biotechnology, employment, safety, environmental, and animal welfare, to demonstrate an understanding of the trends and issues important to careers in the food science industry. The student is expected to:

(A)  select solutions for different environmental issues;

(B)  identify issues affecting food science;

(C)  research history and policies related to the issue;

(D)  analyze and defend solutions for different environmental issues; and

(E)  learn economic principles in order to apply them to food science systems such as supply, demand, and profit.

(6)  The student describes the processing, packaging, quality analysis, and marketing of red meats and their by-products. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe preparing livestock carcasses for market;

(B)  describe United States Department of Agriculture inspection and grading procedures;

(C)  identify wholesale and retail cuts;

(D)  evaluate and grade beef, pork, and lamb carcasses and wholesale cuts; and

(E)  identify methods of fabricating and marketing processed meats.

(7)  The student describes the processing, packaging, quality analysis, and marketing of eggs, poultry, and fish and their by-products. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe processing techniques;

(B)  demonstrate poultry and retail cuts evaluation;

(C)  identify grades and classes of eggs, poultry, fish, and seafood;

(D)  fabricate specialty and value-added products;

(E)  know quality and portion control procedures; and

(F)  describe marketing procedures for eggs, poultry, fish, and seafood.

(8)  The student describes the processing, packaging, quality analysis, and marketing of fruits, nuts, and vegetables and their by-products. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify, classify, and grade fruits, nuts, and vegetables;

(B)  demonstrate trimming, washing, waxing, peeling, blanching, and other marketing techniques;

(C)  research critical issues in transporting, receiving, and storing fruits, nuts, and vegetables; and

(D)  discuss preserving, packaging, and storing fruits, nuts, and vegetables.

(9)  The student describes the processing, packaging, quality analysis, and marketing of milk and dairy products for distribution. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe methods of preparing milk for processing;

(B)  evaluate methods of processing milk and dairy products;

(C)  identify cultured milk products and frozen dairy desserts;

(D)  process, classify, and grade cheese; and

(E)  identify dairy products.

(10)  The student learns the employability characteristics of a successful employee. The student is expected to:

(A)  locate and identify career opportunities that appeal to personal career goals;

(B)  apply competencies related to resources, information, interpersonal skills, and systems of operation of value-added and food processing;

(C)  demonstrate knowledge of personal and occupational health and safety practices in the workplace;

(D)  identify employers' expectations, appropriate work habits, and good citizenship skills; and

(E)  access and navigate the Internet for research.

(11)  The student develops an improved supervised agriculture experience program as it relates to agriculture, food, and natural resources. The student is expected to:

(A)  plan, propose, conduct, and evaluate entrepreneurship; placement; exploratory; research, either experimental or analytical; improvement; supplementary; laboratory-based; or other identified, supervised agricultural experience as an experiential learning activity;

(B)  apply proper record-keeping skills as they relate to a supervised experience;

(C)  design and use a customized record-keeping system for the individual supervised experience;

(D)  participate in youth leadership opportunities to create a well-rounded experience program in agriculture; and

(E)  produce a challenging approach for a local program of activities in agriculture.

Source: The provisions of this §130.13 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5914.


§130.14. Food Processing (One to Two Credits).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10-12.

(b)  Introduction. To be prepared for careers in food products and processing systems, students need to attain academic skills and knowledge, acquire technical knowledge and skills related to natural resources and the workplace, and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, and industry expectations. To prepare for success, students need opportunities to learn, reinforce, apply, and transfer their knowledge and skills in a variety of settings. This course focuses on the food processing industry with special emphasis on the handling, processing, and marketing of food products.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student knows the relationship of the food processing industry to the free enterprise system. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the importance of the food processing industry in the free enterprise system; and

(B)  explain trends in the consumption of food products.

(2)  The student understands consumer satisfaction issues. The student is expected to:

(A)  practice equipment maintenance and sanitation procedures;

(B)  explain the factors that affect food palatability;

(C)  fabricate red meat, poultry, game, and fish into wholesale and retail cuts; and

(D)  demonstrate work ethics, customer relations skills, and management competencies consistent with industry standards.

(3)  The student understands quality control issues in food processing. The student is expected to:

(A)  practice procedures relating to the safe manufacture of foods through hygienic food handling and processing;

(B)  develop and maintain sanitation schedules;

(C)  describe hazard analysis and critical control point implementation issues;

(D)  research food safety laws; and

(E)  describe solutions for different environmental issues.

(4)  The student identifies marketing considerations for food processing. The student is expected to:

(A)  practice methods of merchandising red meat, poultry, game, fish, and their by-products;

(B)  identify, select, and grade meat;

(C)  develop food preservation programs using appropriate food preservation methods by:

(i)  explaining the impact of temperature in food preservation; and

(ii)  comparing and contrasting packaging preservation such as film, plastic, and can; and

(D)  describe harvest and inspection techniques to process food products and analyze food product options.

(5)  The student learns the employability characteristics of a successful employee. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify career development and entrepreneurship opportunities in the value-added and food processing industry;

(B)  apply competencies related to resources, information, interpersonal skills, and systems of operation in the value-added and food processing industry;

(C)  demonstrate knowledge of personal and occupational safety practices in the workplace;

(D)  identify employers' expectations, including appropriate work habits, ethical conduct, legal responsibilities, and good citizenship skills; and

(E)  access and navigate the Internet for research.

(6)  The student develops an improved supervised agriculture experience program as it relates to agriculture, food, and natural resources. The student is expected to:

(A)  plan, propose, conduct, and evaluate entrepreneurship; placement; exploratory; research, either experimental or analytical; improvement; supplementary; laboratory-based; or other identified, supervised agricultural experience as an experiential learning activity;

(B)  apply proper record-keeping skills related to a supervised experience;

(C)  design and use a customized record-keeping system for the individual supervised experience;

(D)  participate in youth leadership opportunities to create a well-rounded experience program in agriculture; and

(E)  produce a challenging approach for a local program of activities in agriculture.

Source: The provisions of this §130.14 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5914.


§130.15. Wildlife, Fisheries, and Ecology Management (One-Half to One Credit).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 9-12.

(b)  Introduction. To be prepared for careers in natural resource systems, students need to attain academic skills and knowledge, acquire technical knowledge and skills related to natural resources, and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, and industry expectations. To prepare for success, students need opportunities to learn, reinforce, apply, and transfer their knowledge and skills in a variety of settings. This course examines the management of game and non-game wildlife species, fish, and aquacrops and their ecological needs as related to current agricultural practices.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student learns the employability characteristics of a successful employee. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify career development and entrepreneurship opportunities in the field of natural resources;

(B)  apply competencies related to resources, information, interpersonal skills, and systems of operation in natural resources;

(C)  demonstrate knowledge of personal and occupational health and safety practices in the workplace; and

(D)  identify employers' expectations, including appropriate work habits, ethical conduct, legal responsibilities, and good citizenship skills.

(2)  The student analyzes the importance of wildlife, with an emphasis on use and management. The student is expected to:

(A)  analyze the importance of wildlife, fisheries, and ecology management;

(B)  discuss the history of wildlife, fisheries, and ecology management;

(C)  discuss policies, laws, and the administration of wildlife, fisheries, and ecology management; and

(D)  describe how public recreation use is a product.

(3)  The student knows the scientific basis for wildlife management. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the basic ecological concepts of game management;

(B)  identify game, non-game, and fish species;

(C)  describe the management of wildlife populations;

(D)  identify observable diseases impacting plants and animals; and

(E)  describe how to report observance of disease infestations.

(4)  The student knows the interrelationships between the various aspects of wildlife and outdoor public use management. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify special areas of importance in wildlife and public use management;

(B)  identify laws and regulations regarding the use of wildlife resources;

(C)  discuss laws and regulations regarding recreation safety;

(D)  list factors involved in landowner and property rights;

(E)  demonstrate specific safety certification requirements;

(F)  demonstrate precautions to use when interfacing with the public concerning regulations and law enforcement;

(G)  describe security issues for closed and restricted areas;

(H)  describe solutions to issues concerning public protection;

(I)  recognize potential threat situations for the public and other users;

(J)  identify the appropriate law enforcement authority;

(K)  describe wildlife harvest techniques and procedures; and

(L)  describe fish harvest techniques and procedures.

(5)  The student examines natural cycles and related phenomena to describe ecologic concepts and principles. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the hydrologic, nitrogen, carbon, and nutrient cycles;

(B)  describe succession;

(C)  describe population dynamics;

(D)  distinguish between primary and secondary producers;

(E)  describe predator-prey relationships;

(F)  identify potential pollution sources;

(G)  define watershed boundaries;

(H)  use the stream classification system; and

(I)  describe the influence of weather and climatic factors.

(6)  The student applies cartographic skills to natural resource activities. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe different types of maps;

(B)  interpret map features and legends;

(C)  determine map scale and actual distance;

(D)  determine direction from map;

(E)  determine elevation and terrain features from topographic maps;

(F)  use directional tools with maps to locate position;

(G)  use land survey and coordinate system; and

(H)  use a Geographic Information System to interface geospatial data and interpret photos and images.

(7)  The student obtains planning data by monitoring natural resource status. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe resource inventory and population studies;

(B)  devise sample plots and points;

(C)  identify and locate resources;

(D)  interpret data concerning resource availability and health;

(E)  organize databases of resource data;

(F)  use a Geographic Information System to analyze resource data;

(G)  create a technical report; and

(H)  describe the relationship of harvest levels to long-term availability of resources.

(8)  The student executes various natural resource enhancement techniques using scientific knowledge from the study of environment and wildlife. The student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate stream enhancement techniques;

(B)  demonstrate wildlife habitat enhancement techniques; and

(C)  demonstrate public use and recreation area enhancement techniques.

(9)  The student demonstrates the concepts related to the importance of facilities, harvest, processing, and marketing of aquaculture products. The student is expected to:

(A)  discuss the importance and progress of aquaculture as an emerging industry; and

(B)  identify and classify plant and animal aquaculture species.

(10)  The student demonstrates concepts related to optimum production. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe nutritional aspects of aquaculture production;

(B)  discuss requirements for optimum growth of species-specific aquacrops;

(C)  plan and administer treatments for diseases, parasites, predators, and pests of species-specific aquacrops;

(D)  recognize weather-related dangers;

(E)  recognize hazards as they relate to terrain;

(F)  identify poisonous plants and animals;

(G)  recognize hazardous situations; and

(H)  demonstrate personal fire prevention precautions while working in natural environments.

(11)  The student develops an improved supervised agriculture experience program as it relates to agriculture, food, and natural resources. The student is expected to:

(A)  plan, propose, conduct, and evaluate entrepreneurship; placement; exploratory; research, either experimental or analytical; improvement; supplementary; laboratory-based; or other identified, supervised agricultural experience as an experiential learning activity;

(B)  apply proper record-keeping skills as they relate to a supervised experience;

(C)  design and use a customized record-keeping system for the individual supervised experience;

(D)  participate in youth leadership opportunities to create a well-rounded experience program in agriculture; and

(E)  produce a challenging approach for a local program of activities in agriculture.

Source: The provisions of this §130.15 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5914.


§130.16. Range Ecology and Management (One-Half to One Credit).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10-12.

(b)  Introduction. To be prepared for careers in environmental and natural resource systems, students need to attain academic skills and knowledge, acquire technical knowledge and skills related to environmental and natural resources, and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, and industry expectations. To prepare for success, students need opportunities to learn, reinforce, apply, and transfer their knowledge and skills in a variety of settings. This course is designed to develop students' understanding of rangeland ecosystems and sustainable forage production.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student develops an improved supervised agriculture experience program as it relates to agriculture, food, and natural resources. The student is expected to:

(A)  plan, propose, conduct, and evaluate entrepreneurship; placement; exploratory; research, either experimental or analytical; improvement; supplementary; laboratory-based; or other identified, supervised agricultural experience as an experiential learning activity;

(B)  apply proper record-keeping skills as they relate to a supervised experience;

(C)  design and use a customized record-keeping system for the individual supervised experience;

(D)  participate in youth leadership opportunities to create a well-rounded experience program in agriculture; and

(E)  produce a challenging approach for a local program of activities in agriculture.

(2)  The student learns the employability characteristics of a successful employee. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify career development and entrepreneurship opportunities in the field of environmental and natural resources;

(B)  apply competencies related to resources, information, interpersonal skills, and systems of operation in environmental and natural resources;

(C)  demonstrate knowledge of personal and occupational health and safety practices in the workplace; and

(D)  identify employers' expectations, including appropriate work habits, ethical conduct, legal responsibilities, and good citizenship skills.

(3)  The student develops an understanding of the rangeland ecosystem. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe ecology, photosynthesis, energy flow, and climax vegetation;

(B)  describe the impact of rangeland on the water cycle and water quality; and

(C)  determine capabilities and limitations of rangelands.

(4)  The student gains an understanding of rangeland as a dynamic, living, and changeable resource. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the relationship of rangeland to the environment;

(B)  discuss the interrelationships of water, alternative use, carrying capacity, and population;

(C)  identify and classify range plants and their importance in the rangeland ecosystem;

(D)  explore the use of rangeland plants as alternative energy sources; and

(E)  develop an understanding of the role of rangeland in water recharge and conservation.

(5)  The student analyzes the biotic and abiotic components of a rangeland. The student is expected to:

(A)  discuss abiotic components of rangeland with an emphasis on soil;

(B)  determine abiotic components of rangeland with an emphasis on topography;

(C)  understand the importance of classifying range sites by shape, soil types, and depth;

(D)  identify important range plants; and

(E)  recognize plant characteristics that impact rangeland ecology.

(6)  The student develops an understanding of the dynamic process of a renewable rangeland resource. The student is expected to:

(A)  determine range condition based on plant populations;

(B)  compare and contrast rangeland condition trends; and

(C)  describe ways and means to improve range conditions.

(7)  The student applies rangeland ecology concepts as related to domestic livestock. The student is expected to:

(A)  recognize plants beneficial to domestic livestock;

(B)  identify plants poisonous to domestic livestock;

(C)  describe how livestock use range plants; and

(D)  select a proper mixture of domestic livestock appropriate for specific range sites.

(8)  The student identifies methods of maintaining and improving rangeland for wildlife production. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify plants beneficial to wildlife;

(B)  recognize plants poisonous to wildlife;

(C)  understand how wildlife species use range plants; and

(D)  determine proper species of wildlife used to develop for specific range sites.

(9)  The student develops an understanding of rangeland as it relates to worldwide concerns. The student is expected to:

(A)  predict the effect of rangeland as recharge zones for aquifers;

(B)  draw conclusions on the effect of rangeland on the carbon footprint of agriculture products;

(C)  draw conclusions concerning the impact of rangeland on global warming; and

(D)  develop an understanding of rangeland's role in energy production, including wind and ethanol production as well as fossil fuels.

Source: The provisions of this §130.16 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5914.


§130.17. Forestry and Woodland Ecosystems (One-Half to One Credit).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10-12.

(b)  Introduction. To be prepared for careers in natural resource systems, students need to attain academic skills and knowledge, acquire technical knowledge and skills related to natural resources, and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, and industry expectations. To prepare for success, students need opportunities to learn, reinforce, apply, and transfer knowledge and skills in a variety of settings. This course examines current management practices for forestry and woodlands. Special emphasis is given to management as it relates to ecological requirements and how these practices impact the environment.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student learns the employability characteristics of a successful employee. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify career development and entrepreneurship opportunities in the field of forestry and woodland ecosystems;

(B)  apply competencies related to resources, information, interpersonal skills, and systems of operation in forestry and woodland ecosystems;

(C)  demonstrate knowledge of personal and occupational safety practices in the workplace; and

(D)  identify employers' expectations, including appropriate work habits, ethical conduct, legal responsibilities, and good citizenship skills.

(2)  The student describes the principles of forestry and woodland ecosystems. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe the historical and economic significance of forestry;

(B)  illustrate tree anatomy and growth;

(C)  identify species of trees;

(D)  identify forest and woodland soils;

(E)  describe silviculture;

(F)  define ecosystems;

(G)  describe photosynthesis and respiration;

(H)  describe watershed management;

(I)  define succession; and

(J)  compare forests and woodlands.

(3)  The student demonstrates forestry biometrics skills. The student is expected to:

(A)  calculate tree volume;

(B)  estimate timber growth and yield;

(C)  evaluate by cruising timber stands; and

(D)  calculate quality and volume by scaling logs.

(4)  The student performs forestry management skills. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify forestry management options;

(B)  define multiple-use possibilities; and

(C)  demonstrate the control of destructive agents such as fire, insects, and disease.

(5)  The student identifies softwood and hardwood forest management and utilization practices. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify principles of forestry economics;

(B)  research sources of forestry management assistance;

(C)  identify harvesting practices and equipment;

(D)  describe merchandising practices; and

(E)  identify research in forestry and wood technology.

(6)  The student describes the role of wood technology in forest product development. The student is expected to:

(A)  compare timber manufacturing processes and products; and

(B)  identify research and development issues in forestry and wood technology.

(7)  The student applies cartographic skills to natural resource activities. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe different types of maps;

(B)  interpret map features and legends;

(C)  interpret map scale and actual distance;

(D)  identify direction from map;

(E)  distinguish elevation and terrain features from topographic maps;

(F)  use directional tools with maps to locate position;

(G)  use land survey and coordinate systems;

(H)  use a Geographic Information System to interface geospatial data; and

(I)  interpret photos and images.

(8)  The student identifies and distinguishes ethical practices in the field of natural resource systems. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify and evaluate ethical guidelines;

(B)  evaluate how advances in science and technology have raised concerns about ethical issues; and

(C)  identify a national organization or institution that seeks to promote ethical behavior and analyze its success and impact.

(9)  The student develops an improved supervised agriculture experience program as it relates to agriculture, food, and natural resources. The student is expected to:

(A)  plan, propose, conduct, and evaluate entrepreneurship; placement; exploratory; research, either experimental or analytical; improvement; supplementary; laboratory-based; or other identified, supervised agricultural experience as an experiential learning activity;

(B)  apply proper record-keeping skills as they relate to a supervised experience;

(C)  design and use a customized record-keeping system for the individual supervised experience;

(D)  participate in youth leadership opportunities to create a well-rounded experience program in agriculture; and

(E)  produce a challenging approach for a local program of activities in agriculture.

Source: The provisions of this §130.17 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5914.


§130.18. Principles and Elements of Floral Design (One Credit).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10-12.

(b)  Introduction.

(1)  To be prepared for careers in floral design, students need to attain academic skills and knowledge as well as technical knowledge and skills related to horticultural systems and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, and industry expectations. To prepare for success, students need opportunities to learn, reinforce, apply and transfer their knowledge and skills and technologies in a variety of settings. This course is designed to develop students' ability to identify and demonstrate the principles and techniques related to floral design as well as develop an understanding of the management of floral enterprises.

(2)  Through the analysis of artistic floral styles and historical periods, students develop respect for the traditions and contributions of diverse cultures. Students respond to and analyze floral designs, thus contributing to the development of lifelong skills of making informed judgments and evaluations.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student identifies design principles and techniques in floral art and interiorscapes. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the aesthetic benefits and the history of floral art, particularly as it relates to current practice;

(B)  classify and identify flowers and plants used in floral design; and

(C)  identify design elements and principles.

(2)  The student demonstrates floral design principles and techniques. The student is expected to:

(A)  understand and implement the design process through the medium of floral materials;

(B)  evaluate and prepare geometric floral designs using cut flowers;

(C)  evaluate and prepare geometric floral designs using silk flowers;

(D)  prepare corsages and boutonnieres; and

(E)  prepare floral designs for specific occasions.

(3)  The student develops and formulates ideas from the environment. The student is expected to:

(A)  illustrate ideas for floral designs from direct observation, experiences, and imagination;

(B)  compare and contrast the use of art elements such as color, texture, form, line, and space; and

(C)  compare and contrast the art principles of art elements such as continuity, pattern, rhythm, balance, proportion, and unity in personal designs.

(4)  The student makes informed judgments about personal designs and the designs of others. The student is expected to:

(A)  interpret, evaluate, and justify artistic decisions in personal arrangements; and

(B)  select and analyze original designs, portfolios, and floral exhibitions by peers and others to form precise conclusions about formal qualities, and historical and cultural contexts, intents, and meanings.

(5)  The student demonstrates contemporary designs, business practices, specialty items, and creativity in the floral industry by developing floral design skills. The student is expected to:

(A)  classify and identify specialty floral items;

(B)  evaluate and appraise floral designs;

(C)  prepare cost-effective designs;

(D)  create specialty designs to expand artistic expression;

(E)  demonstrate pricing and order-processing skills; and

(F)  list service delivery options related to effectiveness.

(6)  The student knows the management factors of floral enterprises. The student is expected to:

(A)  use temperature, preservatives, and cutting techniques to increase keeping quality;

(B)  identify tools, chemicals, and equipment used in floral design;

(C)  fertilize, prune, and water tropical plants;

(D)  manage pests; and

(E)  demonstrate the technical skills for increasing the preservation of cut flowers and foliage.

(7)  The student learns the employability characteristics of a successful employee. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify career development and entrepreneurship opportunities in the field of floral design and interior landscape development;

(B)  apply competencies related to resources, information, interpersonal skills, and systems of operation in floral design and interior landscape development;

(C)  demonstrate knowledge of personal and occupational health and safety practices in the workplace;

(D)  identify employers' expectations, appropriate work habits, and good citizenship skills; and

(E)  identify training, education, and certification requirements for occupational choice.

(8)  The student develops an improved supervised agriculture experience program as it relates to agriculture, food, and natural resources. The student is expected to:

(A)  plan, propose, conduct, and evaluate entrepreneurship; placement; exploratory; research, either experimental or analytical; improvement; supplementary; laboratory-based; or other identified, supervised agricultural experience as an experiential learning activity;

(B)  apply proper record-keeping skills as they relate to a supervised experience;

(C)  design and use a customized record-keeping system for the individual supervised experience;

(D)  participate in youth leadership opportunities to create a well-rounded experience program in agriculture; and

(E)  produce a challenging approach for a local program of activities in agriculture.

Source: The provisions of this §130.18 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5914.


§130.19. Landscape Design and Turf Grass Management (One-Half to One Credit).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10-12.

(b)  Introduction. To be prepared for careers in horticultural systems, students need to attain academic skills and knowledge, acquire technical knowledge and skills related to horticultural systems and the workplace, and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, and industry expectations. To prepare for success, students need opportunities to learn, reinforce, apply, and transfer their knowledge and skills and technologies in a variety of settings. This course is designed to develop an understanding of landscape and turf grass management techniques and practices.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student learns the employability skills of a successful employee in the modern workplace. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify career development and entrepreneurship opportunities in the field of landscape design and turf grass management, including how to search for and obtain employment, what qualifications are required for varying career fields, and how to advance in a position;

(B)  apply competencies related to resources, information, interpersonal skills, problem solving, critical thinking, and systems of operation in landscape design, construction, and maintenance;

(C)  examine licensing, certification, and credentialing requirements to maintain compliance with industry requirements;

(D)  demonstrate knowledge of personal and occupational health and safety practices in the industry; and

(E)  identify employers' expectations, including appropriate work habits, ethical conduct, legal responsibilities, and good citizenship skills.

(2)  The student develops an improved supervised agriculture experience program as it relates to agriculture, food, and natural resources. The student is expected to:

(A)  plan, propose, conduct, and evaluate entrepreneurship; placement; exploratory; research, either experimental or analytical; improvement; supplementary; laboratory-based; or other identified, supervised agricultural experience as an experiential learning activity;

(B)  apply proper record-keeping skills as they relate to a supervised experience;

(C)  design and use a customized record-keeping system for the individual supervised experience;

(D)  participate in youth leadership opportunities to create a well-rounded experience program in agriculture; and

(E)  produce a challenging approach for a local program of activities in agriculture.

(3)  The student identifies environmental, aesthetic, and financial benefits of landscaped sites. The student is expected to:

(A)  assess soil characteristics and environmental conditions;

(B)  complete a site analysis checklist;

(C)  observe or operate graphics design equipment or software to produce a site sketch; and

(D)  identify plants and structures used in designing landscapes.

(4)  The student performs landscape business procedures. The student is expected to:

(A)  interview potential clients;

(B)  prepare cost estimates such as materials, labor, and administrative cost and service schedules; and

(C)  execute service contracts.

(5)  The student analyzes the cost and maintenance of tools, equipment, and structures used in the landscape industry. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify, store, and maintain landscaping hand and power tools and equipment;

(B)  prepare plant growing sites;

(C)  install landscape plants and structures;

(D)  select and install landscape irrigation systems; and

(E)  perform turf grass services such as mowing, renovating, fertilizing, pesticide application, weed control, and watering.

(6)  The student performs turf grass establishment and maintenance techniques. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify, store, and maintain turf grass hand and power tools and equipment;

(B)  identify different varieties of turf grasses and selected use;

(C)  prepare a cost estimate for a turf grass site, including materials and labor;

(D)  prepare turf grass sites for sodding or seeding;

(E)  select the proper turf grass for a site;

(F)  select the method of turf grass installation;

(G)  select and install turf grass irrigation systems; and

(H)  perform turf grass services such as mowing, renovating, fertilizing, pesticide application, weed control, and watering.

Source: The provisions of this §130.19 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5914.


§130.20. Horticulture Science (One-Half to One Credit).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10-12.

(b)  Introduction. To be prepared for careers in horticultural systems, students need to attain academic skills and knowledge, acquire technical knowledge and skills related to horticulture and the workplace, and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, and industry expectations. To prepare for success, students need opportunities to learn, reinforce, apply, and transfer knowledge and skills in a variety of settings. This course is designed to develop an understanding of common horticultural management practices as they relate to food and ornamental plant production.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student learns the employability characteristics of a successful employee. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify career development and entrepreneurship opportunities in the field of horticulture;

(B)  apply competencies related to resources, information, interpersonal skills, and systems of operation in horticulture;

(C)  demonstrate knowledge of personal and occupational safety practices in the workplace; and

(D)  identify employers' expectations, including appropriate work habits, ethical conduct, legal responsibilities, and good citizenship skills.

(2)  The student develops technical skills associated with the management and production of horticultural plants. The student is expected to:

(A)  classify horticultural plants based on physiology for taxonomic or other classifications;

(B)  manage the horticultural production environment;

(C)  propagate and grow horticultural plants;

(D)  create a design using plants that demonstrates an application of design elements and principles;

(E)  design and establish landscapes; and

(F)  describe the process of fruit, nut, and vegetable production.

(3)  The student identifies structures and physiological processes used in plant production. The student is expected to:

(A)  examine unique plant properties to identify and describe functional differences in plant structures, including roots, stems, flowers, leaves, and fruit;

(B)  differentiate between monocots and dicots and male and female plants;

(C)  germinate and transplant seeds; and

(D)  demonstrate asexual propagation techniques.

(4)  The student manages and controls common pests of horticultural plants. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify common horticultural pests;

(B)  demonstrate safe practices in selecting, applying, storing, and disposing of chemicals; and

(C)  develop a plan for integrated pest management.

(5)  The student demonstrates marketing and management skills used in the operation of horticultural businesses. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify and maintain hand and power tools and equipment;

(B)  select appropriate tools and equipment;

(C)  demonstrate safe use of tools and equipment;

(D)  identify options and opportunities for business ownership; and

(E)  analyze the role of small business in free enterprise.

(6)  The student develops an improved supervised agriculture experience program as it relates to agriculture, food, and natural resources. The student is expected to:

(A)  plan, propose, conduct, and evaluate entrepreneurship; placement; exploratory; research, either experimental or analytical; improvement; supplementary; laboratory-based; or other identified, supervised agricultural experience as an experiential learning activity;

(B)  apply proper record-keeping skills as they relate to a supervised experience;

(C)  design and use a customized record-keeping system for the individual supervised experience;

(D)  participate in youth leadership opportunities to create a well-rounded experience program in agriculture; and

(E)  produce a challenging approach for a local program of activities in agriculture.

Source: The provisions of this §130.20 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5914.


§130.21. Advanced Plant and Soil Science (One Credit).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grade 12. Recommended prerequisite: a minimum of one credit from the courses in the Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources cluster.

(b)  Introduction.

(1)  Plant and Soil Science provides a way of learning about the natural world. Students should know how plant and soil science has influenced a vast body of knowledge, that there are still applications to be discovered, and that plant and soil science is the basis for many other fields of science.

(2)  Investigations, laboratory practices, and field exercises will be used to develop an understanding of current plant and soil science.

(3)  This course is designed to prepare students for careers in the food and fiber industry. Students will learn, reinforce, apply, and transfer their knowledge in a scientific setting.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts field experiments, laboratory investigations, or approved supervised experience programs using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B)  demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and proper disposal and recycling of spent resources.

(2)  The student analyzes plant and soil science as related to plant and soil relationships affecting the production of food and fiber. The student is expected to:

(A)  recognize the importance and interrelationships of soil and plants; and

(B)  practice soil and plant evaluation as it applies to agricultural and urban settings.

(3)  The student demonstrates the employability characteristics of a successful employee. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify career development and entrepreneurship opportunities in the field of plant systems;

(B)  apply competencies related to resources, information, interpersonal skills, and systems of operation in plant systems;

(C)  demonstrate knowledge of personal and occupational safety practices in the workplace; and

(D)  identify employer expectations, appropriate work habits, and good citizenship skills.

(4)  The student develops an advanced supervised experience program as it relates to agriculture, food, and natural resources. The student is expected to:

(A)  plan, propose, conduct, and evaluate entrepreneurship; placement; exploratory; research, either experimental or analytical; improvement; supplementary; laboratory-based; or other identified, supervised agricultural experience as an experiential learning activity;

(B)  apply proper record-keeping skills as they relate to a supervised experience;

(C)  design and use a customized record-keeping system for the individual supervised experience;

(D)  participate in youth leadership opportunities to create a well-rounded experience program in agriculture; and

(E)  produce a challenging approach for a local program of activities in agriculture.

(5)  The student develops scenarios for advances in plant and soil science. The student is expected to:

(A)  design, conduct, and complete research in a laboratory or field activity to solve problems in plant and soil science;

(B)  use charts, tables, and graphs to prepare written summaries of results and data obtained in a laboratory or field activity;

(C)  organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from resulting data; and

(D)  communicate valid outcomes and solutions.

(6)  The student explains the relationship of biotic and abiotic factors within habitats and ecosystems. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify native plants, assess their role in an ecosystem, and compare them to plants in other ecosystems;

(B)  make observations and compile data about fluctuations in abiotic cycles and evaluate their effects on local ecosystems;

(C)  evaluate the impact of human activity such as methods of pest control, hydroponics, and sustainable agriculture on ecosystems; and

(D)  predict how the introduction, removal, or re-introduction of an organism may affect the food chain and existing populations.

(7)  The student analyzes soil science as related to food and fiber production. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain soil formation;

(B)  evaluate the properties and nature of soils;

(C)  recognize the importance of conservation of soil and agencies involved in conservation;

(D)  perform soil management practices such as tillage trials and sustainable soil management; and

(E)  practice soil evaluations as related to experiential activities such as land judging.

(8)  The student describes the relationship between resources within environmental systems. The student is expected to:

(A)  summarize methods of land use and management;

(B)  identify sources, use, quality, and conservation of water;

(C)  explore the use and conservation of renewable and non-renewable resources;

(D)  analyze and evaluate the economic significance and interdependence of components of the environment;

(E)  evaluate the impact of human activity and technology on soil fertility and productivity;

(F)  analyze and describe the effects on environments by events such as fire, hurricanes, deforestation, mining, population growth, and urban development; and

(G)  explain how regional changes in the environment may have a global effect.

(9)  The student describes the origin and use of water in a watershed. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify sources and calculate the amount of water in a watershed, including ground and surface water;

(B)  research and identify the type of water used in a watershed;

(C)  analyze water quality in a watershed; and

(D)  identify and use methods to evaluate water quantity available in a watershed.

(10)  The student maps the process of soil formation as influenced by weathering, including erosion processes due to water, wind, and mechanical factors influenced by climate. The student is expected to:

(A)  illustrate the role of weathering in soil formations;

(B)  distinguish chemical weathering from mechanical weathering; and

(C)  identify geological formations that result from differing weathering processes.

(11)  The student describes the dynamics of a watershed. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the characteristics of a local watershed such as average annual rainfall, runoff patterns, aquifers, location of water basins, and surface reservoirs; and

(B)  analyze the impact of floods, drought, irrigation, urbanization, and industrialization in a watershed.

(12)  The student explains how petroleum energy resources affect agriculture. The student is expected to:

(A)  research and describe the origin of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas;

(B)  analyze issues regarding the use of fossil fuels and other non-renewable energy sources or alternative energy sources; and

(C)  analyze the significance and economic impact of the use of fossil fuels and alternative energy sources.

(13)  The student evaluates components of plant science as it relates to crop production. The student is expected to:

(A)  analyze plant physiology, genetics, and reproduction;

(B)  recognize characteristics of quality seeds such as mechanical damage, viability, and grade;

(C)  identify plant pests and diseases and their causes, prevention, and treatment;

(D)  perform plant management practices such as germination tests, plant spacing trials, and fertilizer tests; and

(E)  measure trends in crop species and varieties grown locally in Texas and the United States and how this affects agriculture and consumers.

(14)  The student identifies how plants grow and how specialized cells, tissues, and organs develop. The student is expected to:

(A)  compare cells from different parts of the plant, including roots, stems, and leaves, to show specialization of structures and functions; and

(B)  sequence the levels of organization in multicellular organisms that relate the parts to each other and the whole.

(15)  The student diagrams the structure and function of nucleic acids in the mechanism of genetics. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe components of deoxyribonucleic acid and illustrate how information for specifying the traits of an organism is carried in deoxyribonucleic acid;

(B)  identify and illustrate how changes in deoxyribonucleic acid cause phenotypic or genotypic changes;

(C)  compare and contrast genetic variations observed in plants and animals; and

(D)  compare the processes of mitosis and meiosis and their significance.

(16)  The student demonstrates skills related to the human, scientific, and technological dimensions of crop production and the resources necessary for producing domesticated plants. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe the growth and development of major crops;

(B)  apply principles of genetics and plant breeding;

(C)  examine the development of crop varieties through the origin of agriculture; and

(D)  design and conduct experiments to support known principles of genetics.

(17)  The student explains the chemistry involved in plants at the cellular level. The student is expected to:

(A)  compare the structures and functions of different types of organic molecules such as carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids;

(B)  compare the energy flow in photosynthesis to the energy flow in cellular respiration; and

(C)  investigate and identify the effect of enzymes on plant cells.

(18)  The student identifies the sources and flow of energy through environmental systems. The student is expected to:

(A)  summarize forms and sources of energy;

(B)  explain the flow of energy in an environment;

(C)  investigate and explain the effects of energy transformations in an ecosystem; and

(D)  investigate and identify energy interaction in an ecosystem.

Source: The provisions of this §130.21 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5914.


§130.22. Agricultural Mechanics and Metal Technologies (One-Half to One Credit).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10-12. Students may take this course in Grade 9 if they have met the recommended prerequisite of Principles of Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources.

(b)  Introduction. To be prepared for careers in agricultural power, structural, and technical systems, students need to attain academic skills and knowledge; acquire technical knowledge and skills related to power, structural, and technical agricultural systems and the industry; and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, industry certifications, and industry expectations. To prepare for success, students need opportunities to learn, reinforce, apply, and transfer knowledge and skills and technologies in a variety of settings. This course is designed to develop an understanding of agricultural mechanics as it relates to safety and skills in tool operation, electrical wiring, plumbing, carpentry, fencing, concrete, and metal working techniques.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student learns the employability skills of a successful employee to meet current industry standards and society. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify career development and entrepreneurship opportunities in the field of power, structural, and technical agricultural systems, including how to search and obtain employment, what qualifications are required for varying career fields, and how to advance in a position;

(B)  apply competencies related to resources, information, interpersonal skills, problem solving, critical thinking, and systems of operation of power, structural, and technical agricultural systems;

(C)  examine licensing, certification, and credentialing requirements to maintain compliance with industry requirements;

(D)  demonstrate knowledge of personal and occupational health, safety, and first-aid practices in the industry; and

(E)  identify employers' expectations, including appropriate work habits, ethical conduct, legal responsibilities, and good citizenship skills.

(2)  The student develops an improved supervised agriculture experience program as it relates to agriculture, food, and natural resources. The student is expected to:

(A)  plan, propose, conduct, and evaluate entrepreneurship; placement; exploratory; research, either experimental or analytical; improvement; supplementary; laboratory-based; or other identified, supervised agricultural experience as an experiential learning activity;

(B)  apply proper record-keeping skills as they relate to a supervised experience;

(C)  design and use a customized record-keeping system for the individual supervised experience;

(D)  participate in youth leadership opportunities to create a well-rounded experience program in agriculture; and

(E)  produce a challenging approach for a local program of activities in agriculture.

(3)  The student follows operating instructions for tools and equipment to perform a given task. The student is expected to:

(A)  select and use the appropriate hand and power tools to perform a given task, maintain tools, and store tools; and

(B)  select and use measuring and marking devices.

(4)  The student identifies and performs electric wiring skills. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify principles of electric wiring and wiring terminology;

(B)  perform and install electric wiring components and fixtures to comply with government regulations and applicable codes; and

(C)  maintain electric motors.

(5)  The student performs plumbing skills. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify and select plumbing tools and fixtures;

(B)  install plumbing equipment and fixtures to comply with government regulations and applicable codes; and

(C)  maintain water systems.

(6)  The student performs concrete construction skills. The student is expected to:

(A)  project cost estimates for materials and construct forms; and

(B)  reinforce, place, finish, and cure concrete.

(7)  The student performs carpentry skills. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify materials used in agricultural construction;

(B)  identify elements of projected cost estimate and prepare a bid package for a planned project;

(C)  demonstrate basic carpentry skills; and

(D)  paint and protect with coatings.

(8)  The student identifies fencing methods. The student is expected to:

(A)  select fencing materials; and

(B)  plan and install fences.

(9)  The student performs appropriate cold and hot metal techniques. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify types of metal;

(B)  cut, file, shape, and drill metal;

(C)  select and operate oxy-fuel welding and cutting equipment to meet standards;

(D)  select and operate electric-arc welding equipment to meet standards; and

(E)  perform specialty welding and cutting techniques to meet standards.

(10)  The student knows metal merging technology and processes relating to assembly of equipment in agricultural systems operations. The student is expected to:

(A)  select and maintain appropriate tools, equipment, and facilities; and

(B)  identify and determine properties, types, and uses of metal.

(11)  The student plans and performs cost-effective construction techniques. The student is expected to:

(A)  analyze site, equipment, and permit requirements;

(B)  observe or operate computer-aided drafting design software;

(C)  develop, read, and interpret designs and sketches;

(D)  estimate material needs and costs;

(E)  measure, mark, and cut material; and

(F)  perform specialized nonmetallic fabrication techniques.

Source: The provisions of this §130.22 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5914.


§130.23. Agricultural Facilities Design and Fabrication (One to Two Credits).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 11-12.

(b)  Introduction. To be prepared for careers in mechanized agriculture and technical systems, students attain knowledge and skills related to agricultural facilities design and fabrication. Students explore career opportunities, entry requirements, and industry expectations. To prepare for success, students reinforce, apply, and transfer their academic knowledge and technical skills in a variety of settings.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student learns and applies the employability characteristics of a successful employee. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify career development and entrepreneurship opportunities in the field of mechanized agriculture;

(B)  apply competencies related to resources, information, interpersonal skills, and systems of operation of mechanized agriculture;

(C)  demonstrate knowledge of personal and occupational health and safety practices in the workplace;

(D)  identify employers' expectations, including appropriate work habits, ethical conduct, legal responsibilities, and good citizenship skills; and

(E)  research licensing, certification, and credentialing requirements.

(2)  The student demonstrates principles of facilities design and fabrication related to agricultural structures. The student is expected to:

(A)  develop building plans;

(B)  select site and locate agricultural building placement;

(C)  estimate materials and costs needed for construction with an emphasis on renewable and eco-friendly materials;

(D)  select appropriate environmental control systems with a special emphasis on green technology; and

(E)  use computer-aided design software as appropriate.

(3)  The student plans, constructs, and maintains fences, corrals, and other agricultural enclosures. The student is expected to:

(A)  select site and locate enclosures;

(B)  estimate materials and building costs; and

(C)  define appropriate construction methods that are friendly to the environment.

(4)  The student explores the different types of power systems used in agricultural facilities. The student is expected to:

(A)  define the terms and principles of electricity;

(B)  estimate electrical needs and loads;

(C)  plan installations using local codes and National Electric Code guidelines;

(D)  demonstrate the use of various meters;

(E)  select circuit wiring materials and supplies;

(F)  demonstrate electrical systems repair; and

(G)  explore alternative power systems, including solar, wind, and biomass.

(5)  The student constructs agricultural structures using appropriate technology. The student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate appropriate use of surveying equipment;

(B)  demonstrate and apply Geographic Information System (GIS) and Global Positioning System (GPS) principles;

(C)  form and pour concrete slabs;

(D)  plan, establish, and maintain water-management systems;

(E)  identify non-traditional structural building techniques, including industry trends that are eco-friendly;

(F)  discuss the use of masonry and drywall construction; and

(G)  install doors, windows, and roofing materials.

(6)  The student demonstrates metal construction techniques related to agricultural design and fabrication. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the operations of safe oxy-fuel cutting; and

(B)  demonstrate safe electrical welding.

(7)  The student develops an advanced supervised agriculture experience program as it relates to agriculture, food, and natural resources. The student is expected to:

(A)  plan, propose, conduct, and evaluate entrepreneurship; placement; exploratory; research, either experimental or analytical; improvement; supplementary; laboratory-based; or other identified, supervised agricultural experience as an experiential learning activity;

(B)  apply proper record-keeping skills as they relate to a supervised experience;

(C)  design and use a customized record-keeping system for the individual supervised experience;

(D)  participate in youth leadership opportunities to create a well-rounded experience program in agriculture; and

(E)  produce a challenging approach for a local program of activities in agriculture.

Source: The provisions of this §130.23 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5914.


§130.24. Agricultural Power Systems (One to Two Credits).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10-12.

(b)  Introduction. To be prepared for careers in agricultural power, structural, and technical systems, students should attain academic skills and knowledge; acquire technical knowledge and skills related to power, structural, and technical agricultural systems and the workplace; and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, industry certifications, and industry expectations. To prepare for success, students should have opportunities to learn, reinforce, apply, and transfer their knowledge and technical skills in a variety of settings. This course is designed to develop an understanding of power and control systems as related to energy sources, small and large power systems, and agricultural machinery.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student outlines the employability skills of a successful employee to meet current industry and societal standards. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify career development and entrepreneurship opportunities in the field of power, structural, and technical systems;

(B)  apply competencies related to resources, information, interpersonal skills, problem solving, and critical thinking in power, structural, and technical systems;

(C)  examine licensing, certification, and credentialing requirements to maintain compliance with industry requirements;

(D)  demonstrate knowledge of personal and occupational health and safety practices in the workplace; and

(E)  identify employers' expectations, including appropriate work habits, ethical conduct, legal responsibilities, and good citizenship skills.

(2)  The student develops an improved supervised agriculture experience program as it relates to agriculture, food, and natural resources. The student is expected to:

(A)  plan, propose, conduct, and evaluate entrepreneurship; placement; exploratory; research, either experimental or analytical; improvement; supplementary; laboratory-based; or other identified, supervised agricultural experience as an experiential learning activity;

(B)  apply proper record-keeping skills as they relate to a supervised experience;

(C)  design and use a customized record-keeping system for the individual supervised experience;

(D)  participate in youth leadership opportunities to create a well-rounded experience program in agriculture; and

(E)  produce a challenging approach for a local program of activities in agriculture.

(3)  The student connects power generation to differing energy sources. The student is expected to:

(A)  discuss benefits and detriments of petroleum and alternative energy sources;

(B)  compare environmental impacts of varying energy sources;

(C)  compare efficiency and characteristics of different energy sources; and

(D)  discuss the efficiency of power generation systems that use various energy sources.

(4)  The student selects the appropriate tool to perform a given task related to agricultural power systems. The student is expected to:

(A)  select and identify standard tools, equipment, and safety procedures common to power and control applications;

(B)  follow operating instructions of specialized tools and equipment such as micrometers, digital multimeters, and dynameters;

(C)  set up and adjust tools and equipment such as dynameters, flow meters, torque wrenches, lathes, and mills;

(D)  maintain and store tools and equipment common to power and control applications; and

(E)  inventory tools and equipment in a service or maintenance facility.

(5)  The student selects, operates, and maintains small engines. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe principles of operation of internal combustion engines and related power systems and parallel them to shared operations and theories in multiple cylinder engines;

(B)  disassemble and reassemble small engines;

(C)  select, maintain, and troubleshoot small engines; and

(D)  research small engine industry certifications.

(6)  The student selects, operates, and maintains agricultural machines and equipment. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify and select agricultural equipment for appropriate tasks such as the selection of tillage equipment to obtain a desired result;

(B)  identify and maintain component materials on varying types of machines and equipment such as bearings, hydraulics, seals, chains, and drives;

(C)  ensure the presence and function of safety systems and hardware on machinery and equipment such as guards and shields;

(D)  calibrate metering, monitoring, and sensing equipment on various equipment such as tillage, harvest, transport, and haying; and

(E)  perform pre-operation inspection and appropriate start-up procedures, identify causes of malfunctions and failures, perform scheduled preventive maintenance, and safely operate equipment.

(7)  The student selects, operates, and maintains tractors and agricultural power systems. The student is expected to:

(A)  select tractors based upon application and power requirements and describe or perform safe operation of tractors in various applications;

(B)  maintain intake and exhaust systems, including shrouds, screens, filters, piping, after-coolers, air induction systems, manifolds, exhausts, and mufflers;

(C)  select lubricants and apply appropriate lubrication as required by maintenance schedules on varying lubrication systems;

(D)  identify and maintain varying fuel systems, power trains, and hydraulic systems used on farm tractors;

(E)  explain charging, starting, operating, and igniting direct current electrical systems as well as troubleshoot simple problems with a digital multimeter;

(F)  maintain steering and braking systems;

(G)  maintain tires and tracks and describe the role of ballasting and traction in farm tractors; and

(H)  explain the operation of and maintain liquid and air-cooling systems in tractors.

(8)  The student monitors and controls electrical systems as related to agricultural machines and equipment. The student is expected to:

(A)  use various meters and test equipment such as digital multimeters to collect data and troubleshoot electrical systems;

(B)  employ appropriate techniques for applying devices, controls, and grounding in electrical systems;

(C)  employ codes and regulations relevant to varying applications in electrical systems;

(D)  select and apply electric controls such as motor controls, switches, circuit breakers, timers, sensors, and relays; and

(E)  interpret data generated by electrical monitoring systems.

(9)  The student implements control systems as related to agricultural machines and equipment. The student is expected to:

(A)  decipher schematic drawings for electrical control systems;

(B)  describe uses of various electrical control system components;

(C)  install control system components such as motor controls, switches, circuit breakers, timers, sensors, and relays and properly use appropriate tools, procedures, and safety practices; and

(D)  identify system performance problems and apply troubleshooting techniques using monitoring devices or troubleshooting devices.

(10)  The student describes hydraulic controls and applications as related to agricultural machines and equipment. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe the operation of open and closed center hydraulic systems;

(B)  explain the purpose and function of hydraulic controls such as valves, motors, pumps, cylinders, manifolds, and meters; and

(C)  create basic hydraulic circuits using a variety of hydraulic controls.

(11)  The student describes additional control systems as related to agricultural machines and equipment. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the application of pneumatic systems and controls; and

(B)  explain the application of water or other fluid control systems as they apply to power and control systems and their component controls.

Source: The provisions of this §130.24 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5914.


§130.25. Practicum in Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources (Two to Three Credits).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 11-12. The practicum course is a paid or unpaid capstone experience for students participating in a coherent sequence of career and technical education courses in the Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources cluster. Recommended prerequisite: a minimum of one credit from the courses in the Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources cluster.

(b)  Introduction. The practicum is designed to give students supervised practical application of knowledge and skills. Practicum experiences can occur in a variety of locations appropriate to the nature and level of experiences such as employment, independent study, internships, assistantships, mentorships, or laboratories.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student demonstrates professional standards as required by business and industry. The student is expected to:

(A)  adhere to policies and procedures;

(B)  demonstrate positive work behaviors and attitudes, including, punctuality, time management, initiative, and cooperation;

(C)  value and use constructive criticism and critical feedback from supervisor and peers;

(D)  apply ethical reasoning to a variety of situations in order to make ethical decisions;

(E)  complete tasks with the highest standards to ensure quality products and services;

(F)  model professional appearance, including dress, grooming, and personal protective equipment as appropriate; and

(G)  comply with practicum setting safety rules and regulations to maintain safe and healthful working conditions and environments.

(2)  The student applies concepts of critical thinking and problem solving. The student is expected to:

(A)  analyze elements of a problem to develop creative and innovative solutions;

(B)  critically analyze information to determine value to the problem-solving task;

(C)  compare and contrast alternatives using a variety of problem-solving and critical-thinking skills; and

(D)  conduct technical research to gather information necessary for decision making.

(3)  The student demonstrates leadership and teamwork skills to accomplish goals and objectives. The student is expected to:

(A)  analyze leadership in relation to trust, positive attitude, integrity, and willingness to accept key responsibilities in a work situation;

(B)  demonstrate teamwork skills through working cooperatively with others to achieve tasks;

(C)  demonstrate teamwork processes that promote team building, consensus, continuous improvement, respect for the opinions of others, cooperation, adaptability, and conflict resolution;

(D)  demonstrate responsibility for shared group and individual work tasks;

(E)  establish and maintain effective working relationships in order to accomplish objectives and tasks;

(F)  demonstrate effective working relationships using interpersonal skills in order to accomplish objectives and tasks;

(G)  use positive interpersonal skills to negotiate and work cooperatively with others; and

(H)  demonstrate respect for individuals, including those from different cultures, genders, and backgrounds, and value for diversity.

(4)  The student demonstrates oral and written communication skills in creating, expressing, and interpreting information and ideas, including technical terminology and information. The student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate the use of content, technical concepts, and vocabulary when analyzing information and following directions;

(B)  employ verbal skills when obtaining and conveying information;

(C)  use informational texts, Internet sites, or technical materials to review and apply information sources for occupational tasks;

(D)  evaluate the reliability of information from informational texts, Internet sites, or technical materials and resources;

(E)  interpret verbal and nonverbal cues and behaviors to enhance communication;

(F)  apply active listening skills to obtain and clarify information; and

(G)  use academic skills to facilitate effective written and oral communication.

(5)  The student develops management skills for agricultural resources. The student is expected to:

(A)  discuss the importance of agricultural and natural resources to individuals and society;

(B)  develop long-range land, water, and air quality management plans;

(C)  practice equipment maintenance procedures;

(D)  analyze the cost and maintenance of tools, equipment, and structures used in agriculture;

(E)  describe and develop marketing strategies for agricultural and natural resources;

(F)  decide between replacement, maintenance, repair, and reconditioning of agricultural vehicles and machinery; and

(G)  describe and perform hazard analysis and follow safety laws.

(6)  The student demonstrates technical knowledge and skills required to pursue a career in the Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources cluster. The student is expected to:

(A)  develop advanced technical knowledge and skills related to the personal occupational objective;

(B)  evaluate strengths and weaknesses in technical skill proficiency;

(C)  explain the principles of safe operation of tools and equipment related to the practicum; and

(D)  pursue opportunities for licensure or certification relating to chosen career path.

(7)  The student develops an advanced supervised agriculture experience program as it relates to agriculture, food, and natural resources. The student is expected to:

(A)  plan, propose, conduct, and evaluate entrepreneurship; placement; exploratory; research, either experimental or analytical; improvement; supplementary; laboratory-based; or other identified, supervised agricultural experience as an experiential learning activity;

(B)  apply proper record-keeping skills as they relate to a supervised experience;

(C)  design and use a customized record-keeping system for the individual supervised experience;

(D)  employ youth leadership opportunities to create a well-rounded experience program in agriculture; and

(E)  produce a challenging approach for a local program of activities in agriculture.

(8)  The student documents technical knowledge and skills. The student is expected to:

(A)  update a professional portfolio to include:

(i)  attainment of technical skill competencies;

(ii)  licensures or certifications;

(iii)  recognitions, awards, and scholarships;

(iv)  extended learning experiences such as community service and active participation in career and technical student organizations and professional organizations;

(v)  abstract of key points of the practicum;

(vi)  resumé;

(vii)  samples of work; and

(viii)  evaluation from the practicum supervisor; and

(B)  present the portfolio to all interested stakeholders such as in a poster presentation.

Source: The provisions of this §130.25 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5914.


For additional information, email rules@tea.state.tx.us.