Chapter 130. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Career and Technical Education

Subchapter D. Business Management and Administration


Statutory Authority: The provisions of this Subchapter D issued under the Texas Education Code, §§7.102(c)(4), 28.002, 28.0022, and 28.025, unless otherwise noted.


§130.111. Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Business Management and Administration.

The provisions of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2010-2011 school year.

Source: The provisions of this §130.111 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5923.


§130.112. Principles of Business, Marketing, and Finance (One-Half to One Credit).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 9-11.

(b)  Introduction. In Principles of Business, Marketing, and Finance, students gain knowledge and skills in economies and private enterprise systems, the impact of global business, marketing of goods and services, advertising, and product pricing. Students analyze the sales process and financial management principles. This course allows students to reinforce, apply, and transfer academic knowledge and skills to a variety of interesting and relevant activities, problems and settings in business, marketing, and finance.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student describes the characteristics of business. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the role of business in a global society;

(B)  differentiate between goods and services;

(C)  identify the types of business;

(D)  compare the different forms of ownership;

(E)  examine the organizational structure and functions of business;

(F)  interpret the nature of balance sheets and income statements;

(G)  describe factors that affect the environment; and

(H)  explain how organizations adapt to current markets.

(2)  The student defines ethics in business. The student is expected to:

(A)  distinguish between ethical and unethical business practices; and

(B)  contrast ethical, moral, and legal choices that relate to the decision-making process in business situations.

(3)  The student differentiates between the types of economic systems with emphasis on the private enterprise system and the United States economy. The student is expected to:

(A)  compare and contrast the types of economic systems, including traditional, centrally planned, market, and mixed economies;

(B)  identify business cycles;

(C)  summarize the characteristics of the private enterprise system;

(D)  identify factors affecting a business' profits, revenues, and expenses; and

(E)  investigate potential causes of economic decisions such as supply and demand or consumer dollar votes.

(4)  The student relates to the impact of international business on the United States economy. The student is expected to:

(A)  compare domestic and world trade; and

(B)  explain the impact of imports and exports on the United States economy.

(5)  The student identifies the role and impact of government, the legal system, and organized labor in business. The student is expected to:

(A)  differentiate among the roles of government in business;

(B)  describe types of activities performed by governments in business;

(C)  ascertain the role of the legal system in business; and

(D)  explain the role of organized labor in society.

(6)  The student classifies types of businesses that market goods and services. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the importance of different marketing strategies for goods versus services;

(B)  define the terms producers, raw-goods producers, manufacturers, builders, trade industries, retailers, wholesalers, and service businesses;

(C)  categorize types of producers in a private enterprise system;

(D)  identify types of retailers;

(E)  explain the role of retailers in a private enterprise system;

(F)  identify examples of wholesalers; and

(G)  describe the role of wholesalers in a private enterprise system.

(7)  The student analyzes cost and profit relationships in finance. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the concept of productivity;

(B)  analyze the impact of specialization and division of labor on productivity;

(C)  explain the concept of organized labor and business;

(D)  examine the impact of the law of diminishing returns; and

(E)  describe the concept of economies of scale.

(8)  The student analyzes the sale process, techniques used to enhance customer relationships, and the likelihood of making sales. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the selling process; and

(B)  discuss motivational theories that impact buying behavior such as Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.

(9)  The student demonstrates how to advertise to communicate promotional messages to targeted audiences. The student is expected to:

(A)  proofread ads for effectiveness; and

(B)  analyze ad performance.

(10)  The student understands how to increase sales by employing visual merchandising techniques and using special events to increase sales. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the use of visual merchandising in retailing;

(B)  distinguish between visual merchandising and display;

(C)  place merchandise for impact;

(D)  plan special events; and

(E)  prepare stores and departments for special events.

(11)  The student understands the fundamental principles of money. The student is expected to:

(A)  evaluate forms of financial exchange, including cash, credit, debit, and electronic funds transfer;

(B)  identify types of currency, including paper money, coins, banknotes, government bonds, and treasury notes;

(C)  list functions of money such as medium of exchange, unit of measure, and store of value;

(D)  describe sources of income such as wages and salaries, interest, rent, dividends, capital gains, and transfer payments;

(E)  explain the time value of money;

(F)  summarize the purposes and importance of credit; and

(G)  explain legal responsibilities associated with financial exchanges.

(12)  The student demonstrates an understanding of personal financial management. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the importance of providing accurate information;

(B)  calculate gross and net pay;

(C)  simulate opening and maintaining various types of bank accounts;

(D)  reconcile bank statements;

(E)  compare the advantages and disadvantages of different types of banking services;

(F)  examine investment growth by developing a personal investment plan; and

(G)  prepare an individual income tax return.

(13)  The student knows that advertising is the paid form of nonpersonal communication about an identified sponsor's products. The student is expected to:

(A)  list types of advertising media;

(B)  differentiate between product and institutional advertising; and

(C)  identify and evaluate elements of an advertisement.

(14)  The student discusses economic concepts impacting prices. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the principles of supply and demand; and

(B)  describe the functions of prices in markets such as supply and demand.

(15)  The student analyzes career opportunities and formulates a career plan. The student is expected to:

(A)  analyze individual goals and interests;

(B)  determine individual talents, abilities, and skills; and

(C)  develop an individual career plan.

Source: The provisions of this §130.112 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5923.


§130.113. Touch System Data Entry (One-Half to One Credit).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 9-10.

(b)  Introduction. Students apply technical skills to address business applications of emerging technologies. Students enhance reading, writing, computing, communication, and reasoning skills and apply them to the business environment. Students will need to apply touch system data entry for production of business documents.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student applies the proper keyboarding technique to input data when using the computer. The student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate correct posture and position while conducting data entry;

(B)  display proper care and operation of equipment used;

(C)  apply the correct touch-system techniques for operating alphabetic keys;

(D)  demonstrate the correct touch-system techniques for operating numeric and symbol keys;

(E)  use the correct touch-system techniques for operating the ten-key numeric pad; and

(F)  correctly use the command and function keys.

(2)  The student formats and prints documents such as personal and business letters, short reports, outlines, and compositions. The student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate the ability to work from printed, rough-draft, statistical, handwritten, and unarranged material;

(B)  demonstrate the ability to compose at the keyboard;

(C)  demonstrate the ability to proofread;

(D)  identify the parts of a personal and business letter;

(E)  format personal and business letters and envelopes;

(F)  format all pages of a report, including a title page, reference page, and bibliography;

(G)  format an outline; and

(H)  demonstrate mastery of basic grammar, including using punctuation marks, keying numbers and symbols, and using capitalization when composing.

(3)  The student applies correct techniques for the touch-system of operating the keyboard to develop speed and accuracy. The student is expected to:

(A)  display improvement in speed and accuracy;

(B)  develop the ability to proofread and edit writing for proper voice, tense, and syntax, assuring that it conforms to standard English, when appropriate;

(C)  implement the backspace key to correct errors;

(D)  apply speed and accuracy in production of documents; and

(E)  demonstrate mastery of basic grammar, including using punctuation marks, capitalization, and correct sentence structure.

(4)  The student prepares business documents using effective communication. The student is expected to:

(A)  interpret and follow directions to produce documents;

(B)  demonstrate proficiency in business English, spelling, and proofreading;

(C)  identify and apply correct format for business correspondence and documents; and

(D)  demonstrate concepts and processes to employ the appropriate steps in document production.

(5)  The student improves level of proficiency in producing complex word-processing business documents. The student is expected to:

(A)  refine work habits; and

(B)  improve techniques, speed, and accuracy in document production.

(6)  The student solves problems using document processing skills. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify criteria for selection and evaluation of word-processing software;

(B)  analyze proper placement, format, and priority of completion;

(C)  produce business correspondence such as manuscripts, tables, reports, legal documents, and business forms; and

(D)  compose a variety of business documents under timed situations.

(7)  The student develops advanced word-processing skills. The student is expected to:

(A)  perform advanced word-processing functions such as creating newspaper-style columns, inserting section breaks, creating templates, selecting styles, applying auto formatting, using borders and shading, defining page setup, converting document formats, searching files, addressing envelopes, creating labels, using mail merge, and customizing the desktop by using toolbars, menus, and shortcut keys; and

(B)  apply layout and design concepts in desktop publishing, including graphics, fonts, text boxes, frames, and tables.

(8)  The student develops the technology and social skills necessary to work in an office environment. The student is expected to:

(A)  create and present a visual and oral report using text and graphics;

(B)  prepare and distribute personalized correspondence using mail merge and electronic mail;

(C)  relate the social ramifications of computer applications to privacy, values, and ethics;

(D)  enhance overall office productivity by responsible use of computer systems;

(E)  develop human-relation skills for working in a team environment; and

(F)  participate in student leadership activities.

Source: The provisions of this §130.113 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5923.


§130.114. Business Information Management I (One to Two Credits).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 9-12. Recommended prerequisite: Touch Systems Data Entry.

(b)  Introduction. Students implement personal and interpersonal skills to strengthen individual performance in the workplace and in society and make a successful transition to the workforce and postsecondary education. Students apply technical skills to address business applications of emerging technologies, create word-processing documents, develop a spreadsheet, formulate a database, and make an electronic presentation using appropriate software.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student coordinates information management and business management to aid in business planning. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the strategic role of information systems and information communication technology within an organization;

(B)  determine risks and rewards of developing a strategic role for information systems and information communication technology; and

(C)  integrate information systems planning with business planning.

(2)  The student enhances usability of systems operations to support business strategies and operations. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the management information requirements and business needs of an organization; and

(B)  explain issues involved in designing and developing systems for different environments.

(3)  The student analyzes available software packages for use in business settings. The student is expected to:

(A)  determine equipment and supplies needed;

(B)  establish equipment and supplies maintenance systems;

(C)  schedule equipment maintenance;

(D)  use equipment and supplies maintenance procedures; and

(E)  operate a scanner.

(4)  The student uses the computer's operating system to execute work responsibilities. The student is expected to:

(A)  move files in the computer operating system; and

(B)  create directories.

(5)  The student applies word-processing technology. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify customary styles of business documents;

(B)  improve touch-system skills using the keyboard and keypad to input data;

(C)  use hardware and software flexibility needed to produce documents to address different computer applications; and

(D)  demonstrate writing techniques generating ideas and gathering information relevant to the topic and purpose, maintaining accurate records of outside sources.

(6)  The student identifies database software to create databases that facilitate business decision making. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the principles of data analysis;

(B)  explain the nature of tools that can be used to access information in the database system;

(C)  choose appropriate software;

(D)  define fields and type of data;

(E)  enter database structure;

(F)  define relationships of tables;

(G)  analyze company's data requirements;

(H)  design a database to meet business requirements; and

(I)  identify database trends.

(7)  The student applies data entry techniques to enter information in databases. The student is expected to:

(A)  access information in the database system;

(B)  build data in a data warehouse;

(C)  create a meaningful data set;

(D)  enter data into databases, tables, and forms;

(E)  edit data in databases, tables, and forms;

(F)  create an interface user form for easier entry of data; and

(G)  import and export databases.

(8)  The student uses commands to retrieve data and create reports from databases. The student is expected to:

(A)  retrieve data from tables and queries;

(B)  formulate queries;

(C)  create and print reports; and

(D)  manipulate data in the database management system.

(9)  The student applies data mining methods to acquire pertinent information for business decision making. The student is expected to:

(A)  discuss the nature of data mining;

(B)  describe data mining tools and techniques;

(C)  discuss the importance of ethics in data mining;

(D)  demonstrate basic data mining techniques; and

(E)  interpret data mining findings.

(10)  The student uses project management processes to plan a business project. The student is expected to:

(A)  initiate a business project;

(B)  design a business project; and

(C)  participate in leadership and career development activities.

(11)  The student applies spreadsheet technology. The student is expected to:

(A)  perform mathematical processes, including:

(i)  addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division;

(ii)  percentages and decimals;

(iii)  order of operations principle;

(iv)  estimation; and

(v)  prediction of patterns of data; and

(B)  formulate and produce solutions to a variety of business problems, including:

(i)  budget, personal, and business;

(ii)  payroll;

(iii)  inventory;

(iv)  invoices;

(v)  balance sheets;

(vi)  profit-loss statements;

(vii)  income tax preparation;

(viii)  charts and graphs; and

(ix)  conversion of foreign currencies.

(12)  The student applies presentation management technology. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the guidelines for using graphics, fonts, and special effects in presentations;

(B)  analyze the effectiveness of multimedia presentations; and

(C)  determine the appropriate technology to create and deliver an effective presentation.

Source: The provisions of this §130.114 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5923.


§130.115. Business Information Management II (One to Two Credits).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 11-12. Prerequisite: Business Information Management I.

(b)  Introduction. Students implement personal and interpersonal skills to strengthen individual performance in the workplace and in society and make a successful transition to the workforce or postsecondary education. Students apply technical skills to address business applications of emerging technologies, create complex word-processing documents, develop sophisticated spreadsheets using charts and graphs, and make an electronic presentation using appropriate multimedia software.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student demonstrates project management processes to conduct a business project. The student is expected:

(A)  implement a project;

(B)  manage a project team;

(C)  monitor a business project;

(D)  minimize a business project's errors; and

(E)  conclude a business project.

(2)  The student demonstrates the use of the concepts, strategies, and systems for obtaining and conveying ideas and information to enhance communication in the workplace. The student is expected to:

(A)  employ verbal skills when obtaining and conveying information;

(B)  demonstrate use of content, technical concepts, and vocabulary when analyzing information and following directions;

(C)  record information needed to present a report on a given topic or problem;

(D)  write internal and external business correspondence that conveys information effectively using correct grammar, spelling, punctuation, and capitalization;

(E)  communicate with coworkers to clarify workplace objectives; and

(F)  communicate effectively with customers and coworkers to foster positive relationships.

(3)  The student describes, locates, organizes, and references written information from various sources to communicate with coworkers and clients. The student is expected to:

(A)  locate written information used to communicate with coworkers and customers;

(B)  organize information to use in written and oral communication; and

(C)  reference the sources of information.

(4)  The student evaluates and uses information resources to accomplish specific occupational tasks. The student is expected to:

(A)  use informational texts, Internet websites, and technical materials to review and apply information sources for occupational tasks; and

(B)  evaluate the reliability of information from informational texts, Internet websites, and technical materials and resources.

(5)  The student develops and delivers formal and informal presentations using appropriate media to engage and inform audiences. The student is expected to:

(A)  prepare oral presentations to provide information for specific purposes and audiences;

(B)  identify support materials that will enhance an oral presentation;

(C)  prepare support materials that will enhance an oral presentation;

(D)  deliver an oral presentation that sustains listeners' attention and interest;

(E)  align presentation strategies to the intended audience; and

(F)  implement multimedia strategies for presentations.

(6)  The student interprets verbal and nonverbal behaviors to enhance communication with coworkers and clients. The student is expected to:

(A)  interpret verbal behaviors when communicating with clients and coworkers; and

(B)  distinguish nonverbal behaviors when communicating with clients and coworkers.

(7)  The student applies active listening skills to obtain and clarify information. The student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate the use of content, technical concepts, and vocabulary when analyzing information and following directions;

(B)  employ verbal skills when obtaining and conveying information;

(C)  interpret verbal and nonverbal behaviors to enhance communication;

(D)  apply active listening skills to obtain and clarify information; and

(E)  use academic skills to facilitate effective written and oral communication.

(8)  The student develops and interprets tables, charts, and figures to support written and oral communication. The student is expected to:

(A)  create tables, charts, and figures to support written and oral communication; and

(B)  interpret tables, charts, and figures used to support written and oral communication.

(9)  The student demonstrates listening and speaking with diverse individuals to enhance communication skills. The student is expected to:

(A)  apply factors and strategies for communicating with a diverse workforce; and

(B)  demonstrate the ability to communicate and resolve conflicts within a diverse workforce.

(10)  The student demonstrates public relations skills to increase internal and external customer satisfaction. The student is expected to:

(A)  communicate effectively when developing positive customer relationships; and

(B)  support and maintain a multimedia website.

(11)  The student designs solutions to mathematical business problems using spreadsheet technology. The student is expected to:

(A)  recognize and apply lookup tables, built-in functions, macros, and advanced charts and graphs;

(B)  determine the uses of spreadsheets with currencies other than the dollar based on current market value; and

(C)  create and interpret financial statements, including:

(i)  comparisons and projections;

(ii)  predictions and forecasts;

(iii)  trend analyses; and

(iv)  charts and graphs.

(12)  The student documents technical knowledge and skills. The student is expected to:

(A)  prepare a professional electronic portfolio to include:

(i)  attainment of technical skill competencies;

(ii)  licensures or certifications;

(iii)  recognitions, awards, and scholarships;

(iv)  extended learning experiences such as community service and active participation in career and technical student organizations and professional organizations;

(v)  sample letter of application;

(vi)  abstract of key points of accomplishments;

(vii)  resumé;

(viii)  samples of work; and

(ix)  evaluation from a teacher; and

(B)  prepare and present the portfolio to all interested stakeholders such as in a multimedia presentation.

Source: The provisions of this §130.115 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5923.


§130.116. Business English (One Credit).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grade 12. Prerequisites: English III and Touch Systems Data Entry.

(b)  Introduction. Students recognize, evaluate, and prepare for a rapidly evolving global business environment that requires flexibility and adaptability. Students apply technical skills to address business applications of emerging technologies. Students enhance reading, writing, computing, communication, and reasoning skills and apply them to the business environment. Students are expected to plan, draft, and complete written compositions on a regular basis. Students edit their papers for clarity, engaging language, and the correct use of the conventions and mechanics of written English and produce final, error-free drafts for business reproduction.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student prepares for effective communication skills. The student is expected to:

(A)  organize ideas logically and sequentially;

(B)  locate and interpret written information;

(C)  distinguish communicated fact from opinion by identifying key words;

(D)  interpret visual materials such as charts, graphs, pictures, and maps and translate the information into textual form;

(E)  employ precise language to communicate ideas clearly and concisely; and

(F)  organize ideas in writing to ensure coherence, logical progression, and support for ideas.

(2)  The student employs appropriate research techniques to produce effective business communication. The student is expected to:

(A)  incorporate information from printed copy and electronic resources and references;

(B)  locate and paraphrase secondary sources;

(C)  document secondary sources;

(D)  design, conduct, and analyze the results of a survey;

(E)  conduct interviews to obtain resource materials;

(F)  research and develop a business project incorporating data imported from various sources; and

(G)  develop and communicate a vision and mission statement for a company.

(3)  The student exchanges information via telecommunications software such as email, images, and online information services with appropriate supervision. The student is expected to:

(A)  send and receive information via telecommunications technology;

(B)  evaluate which telecommunications methods are most appropriate to a given situation; and

(C)  employ appropriate business ethics and correct etiquette when using telecommunications.

(4)  The student illustrates proficiency in interpersonal communication. The student is expected to:

(A)  develop business and professional vocabulary skills;

(B)  execute effective oral presentations;

(C)  deliver an effective business presentation such as sales, reports, and proposals;

(D)  apply effective communication techniques when using the telephone and different forms of technology;

(E)  demonstrate the ability to listen by writing summaries of presentations and oral conversations;

(F)  display active listening through oral feedback;

(G)  follow oral and written directions;

(H)  demonstrate the ability to give oral instructions for completing a simple task; and

(I)  apply proper business interviewing techniques in various situations such as one-on-one, group, and committee interviews.

(5)  The student develops communication skills necessary to address a changing business environment. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe the communication process;

(B)  identify barriers to effective communication;

(C)  assess the ethical and legal implications of messages;

(D)  discern appropriate channels for transmitting messages;

(E)  interpret nonverbal communication in various activities;

(F)  illustrate the impact of nonverbal communication on the total communication process;

(G)  identify ways to improve communication in organizations; and

(H)  explain the types of communication problems that are possible when conducting business among different cultures.

(6)  The student produces business documents using current and emerging technology. The student is expected to:

(A)  format business documents;

(B)  demonstrate basic writing skills through assigned tasks;

(C)  compose positive, negative, and persuasive messages;

(D)  compose business letters and memos using the appropriate organizational strategies;

(E)  produce a business report containing text and graphics; and

(F)  develop a business newsletter.

(7)  The student documents technical knowledge and skills. The student is expected to:

(A)  prepare a professional electronic portfolio to include:

(i)  attainment of technical skill competencies;

(ii)  recognitions, awards, and scholarships;

(iii)  extended learning experiences such as community service and active participation in career and technical student organizations and professional organizations;

(iv)  sample letter of application;

(v)  resumé;

(vi)  samples of work; and

(vii)  evaluation from a teacher; and

(B)  present the portfolio to all interested stakeholders such as in a multimedia presentation.

(8)  The student understands how to collect and use information in procedural texts and documents. The student is expected to:

(A)  draw conclusions about how the patterns of organization and hierarchic structures support the understandability of text; and

(B)  evaluate the structures of text such as format or headers for their clarity and organizational coherence and for the effectiveness of their graphic representations.

(9)  The student uses comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. The student applies earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A)  evaluate how messages presented in media reflect social and cultural views in ways different from traditional texts;

(B)  evaluate the interactions of different techniques such as layout, pictures, typeface in print media, images, text, or sound in electronic journalism used in multi-layered media;

(C)  evaluate how one issue or event is represented across various media to understand the notions of bias, audience, and purpose; and

(D)  evaluate changes in formality and tone across various media for different audiences and purposes.

(10)  The student uses elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. The student is expected to:

(A)  plan a first draft by selecting the correct genre for conveying the intended meaning to multiple audiences; determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies such as discussion, background reading, personal interests, or interviews; and developing a thesis or controlling idea;

(B)  structure ideas in a sustained and persuasive way such as using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, or lists and develop drafts in timed and open-ended situations that include transitions and the rhetorical devices to convey meaning;

(C)  revise drafts to clarify meaning and achieve specific rhetorical purposes, consistency of tone, and logical organization by rearranging the words, sentences, and paragraphs to employ tropes such as metaphors, similes, analogies, hyperbole, understatement, rhetorical questions, or irony and schemes such as parallelism, antithesis, inverted word order, repetition, or reversed structures and by adding transitional words and phrases;

(D)  edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and

(E)  revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(11)  The student writes expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. The student is expected to:

(A)  write an analytical essay of sufficient length that includes:

(i)  effective introductory and concluding paragraphs and a variety of sentence structures;

(ii)  rhetorical devices and transitions between paragraphs;

(iii)  a clear thesis statement or controlling idea;

(iv)  a clear organizational schema for conveying ideas;

(v)  relevant and substantial evidence and well-chosen details;

(vi)  information on all relevant perspectives and consideration of the validity, reliability, and relevance of primary and secondary sources; and

(vii)  an analysis of views and information that contradict the thesis statement and the evidence presented for it;

(B)  write procedural and work-related documents such as resumés, proposals, college applications, or operation manuals that include:

(i)  a clearly stated purpose combined with a well-supported viewpoint on the topic;

(ii)  appropriate formatting structures such as headings, graphics, or white space; and

(iii)  accurate technical information in accessible language; and

(C)  produce a multimedia presentation such as a documentary, class newspaper, docudrama, infomercial, visual or textual parody, or theatrical production with graphics, images, and sound that appeals to a specific audience and synthesizes information from multiple points of view.

(12)  The student understands the function of and uses the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. The student continues to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. The student is expected to:

(A)  use and understand the function of different types of clauses and phrases such as adjectival, noun, or adverbial clauses and phrases; and

(B)  use a variety of correctly structured sentences such as compound, complex, or compound-complex.

(13)  The student writes legibly and uses appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in compositions. The student is expected to correctly and consistently use conventions of punctuation and capitalization.

(14)  The student spells correctly. The student is expected to spell correctly, including using various resources to determine and check correct spellings.

(15)  The student organizes and presents ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and the audience. The student is expected to synthesize the research into an extended written or oral presentation that:

(A)  provides an analysis that supports and develops personal opinions, as opposed to simply restating existing information;

(B)  uses a variety of formats and rhetorical strategies to argue for the thesis;

(C)  develops an argument that incorporates the complexities of and discrepancies in information from multiple sources and perspectives while anticipating and refuting counter-arguments;

(D)  uses a style manual such as Modern Language Association or The Chicago Manual of Style to document sources and format written materials; and

(E)  is of sufficient length and complexity to address the topic.

(16)  The student speaks clearly and to the point using the conventions of language. The student continues to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. The student is expected to formulate sound arguments by using elements of classical speeches such as introduction, first and second transitions, body, and conclusion; the art of persuasion; rhetorical devices; eye contact; speaking rate such as pauses for effect; volume; enunciation; purposeful gestures; and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

(17)  The student works productively with others in teams. The student continues to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. The student is expected to participate productively in teams, offering ideas or judgments that are purposeful in moving the team toward goals, asking relevant and insightful questions, tolerating a range of positions and ambiguity in decision making, and evaluating the work of the group based on agreed-upon criteria.

Source: The provisions of this §130.116 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5923.


§130.117. Business Law (One-Half to One Credit).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 11-12.

(b)  Introduction. Students analyze the social responsibility of business and industry regarding the significant issues relating to the legal environment, business ethics, torts, contracts, negotiable financial instruments, personal property, sales, warranties, business organizations, concept of agency and employment, and real property. Students apply technical skills to address business applications of contemporary legal issues. Students incorporate a broad base of knowledge that includes the legal, managerial, marketing, financial, ethical, and international dimensions of business to make appropriate business decisions.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student identifies the different types of law, courts, and regulations in the judicial system. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the concepts of civil and criminal law;

(B)  explain the different categories and types of courts and traditional court procedures;

(C)  differentiate between business torts and crimes; and

(D)  comprehend the rationale for government regulations of business activities.

(2)  The student identifies the principles of contracts in business. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the nature and classes of contracts;

(B)  cite methods of offer and acceptance;

(C)  explain the different capacities to contract;

(D)  examine the concepts of consideration;

(E)  describe defective agreements;

(F)  describe illegal agreements; and

(G)  research contemporary cases dealing with contract law using appropriate online technology.

(3)  The student explains personal property. The student is expected to:

(A)  contrast real property with personal property;

(B)  analyze the nature of personal property;

(C)  recognize the different types of bailments and obligations and rights under each type; and

(D)  research cases dealing with personal property using appropriate online technology.

(4)  The student identifies the concept of sales in the context of business law. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the nature of goods and services;

(B)  explain the formalities of sale;

(C)  characterize the transfer of title and risks in sales contracts;

(D)  identify and explain the types and categories of warranties, product liability, and consumer protection; and

(E)  research cases dealing with contract sales using appropriate online technology.

(5)  The student researches negotiable instruments. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the nature of negotiable instruments;

(B)  identify the essentials of negotiability;

(C)  explain promissory notes and drafts;

(D)  explain negotiation and discharge;

(E)  assess the liabilities of the parties and holders in due course;

(F)  identify the defenses in dealing with negotiable instruments; and

(G)  research cases dealing with negotiable instruments using appropriate online technology.

(6)  The student analyzes the concepts of agency and employment. The student is expected to:

(A)  establish the nature and creation of an agency;

(B)  explain the operation and termination of an agency;

(C)  recognize the nature of employer and employee relations;

(D)  explain employee rights;

(E)  identify the tenets of labor legislation; and

(F)  research cases dealing with employment law using appropriate online technology.

(7)  The student identifies the different types of business organization. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain a sole proprietorship;

(B)  explain the creation and operation of a partnership;

(C)  discuss the nature and creation of a corporation;

(D)  depict the ownership of a corporation; and

(E)  describe the management and dissolution of a corporation.

(8)  The student explains risk bearing devices. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the principles of insurance;

(B)  review the types of insurance;

(C)  recognize security devices such as fidelity bonds and securities;

(D)  discuss the appropriateness and categories of bankruptcy; and

(E)  research contemporary cases dealing with risk bearing devices using appropriate online technology.

(9)  The student describes the legal contexts of real property. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the nature of real property;

(B)  establish the proper methods for the transfer of real property;

(C)  describe the different types of real estate mortgages;

(D)  review contemporary landlord-tenant law;

(E)  explain wills, inheritances, and trusts; and

(F)  research cases dealing with real estate law using appropriate online technology.

(10)  The student knows how to use self-development techniques and interpersonal skills to accomplish legal tasks and solve cases. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify and practice effective interpersonal and team-building skills involving situations with coworkers, supervisors, and clients; and

(B)  participate in leadership and career development activities.

Source: The provisions of this §130.117 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5923.


§130.118. Global Business (One-Half to One Credit).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10-12.

(b)  Introduction. Students implement personal and interpersonal skills to strengthen individual performance in the workplace and in society and to make a successful transition to the workforce and postsecondary education. Students apply technical skills to address global business applications of emerging technologies. Students develop a foundation in the economical, financial, technological, international, social, and ethical aspects of business to become competent consumers, employees, and entrepreneurs. Students enhance reading, writing, computing, communication, and reasoning skills and apply them to the business environment.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student identifies steps in implementing the background for starting an international operation. The student is expected to:

(A)  define global business;

(B)  describe the rise of global linkages in global business;

(C)  describe the position of the United States in global trade; and

(D)  list advantages and problem areas for United States firms wanting to enter global business.

(2)  The student analyzes the theories of global trade and investments. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the advantages of specialization;

(B)  identify the concept of comparative advantage; and

(C)  distinguish between portfolio investment and direct investment.

(3)  The student analyzes the role of the international monetary system in the economy. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe the role of the International Monetary Fund;

(B)  argue for and against floating exchange rates;

(C)  argue for and against fixed exchange rates;

(D)  explain the impact of the common European currency;

(E)  calculate foreign exchange rates; and

(F)  research cases dealing with global exchange using appropriate online technology.

(4)  The student identifies the importance of international financial markets globally. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain how a foreign exchange market functions;

(B)  identify the economic factors that influence exchange rates and explain how these factors work; and

(C)  differentiate between alternative strategies of global banking.

(5)  The student demonstrates various levels of economic integration among foreign countries. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the different levels of economic integration;

(B)  explain the various arguments surrounding economic integration; and

(C)  describe the organization of the European community.

(6)  The student identifies the importance of different trade and investment policies controlling trade. The student is expected to:

(A)  understand the role of foreign aid in global trade and investment;

(B)  explain the goals and function of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and the North American Free Trade Agreement;

(C)  identify the major ways in which imports are being restricted and give reasons for controlling exports; and

(D)  research cases and issues on global trade using appropriate online technology.

(7)  The student analyzes the implications of politics and laws that control and regulate global business. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe the reasoning behind the effects of controls and the regulation of global business behavior;

(B)  analyze the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act; and

(C)  discuss the role of international law in the conduct of global business.

(8)  The student researches the business elements of cultural challenges and diversity. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the role of culture in global business;

(B)  identify various elements of culture; and

(C)  suggest ways for managers to understand and deal with cultural diversity.

(9)  The student demonstrates the process in implementing a global operation. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the various forms of entry strategies used by firms to initiate global business activity;

(B)  give examples of indirect exporting and importing;

(C)  evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of licensing;

(D)  describe the functions of export management companies;

(E)  research current cases on imports, exports, and balance of trade using appropriate online technology;

(F)  relate effects of copyrights and trademarks and intellectual property rights on global business; and

(G)  identify advertising media used in foreign markets such as newspaper, radio, television, Internet, and magazine.

(10)  The student analyzes the cost effect when using global logistics for a mode of transportation. The student is expected to:

(A)  define global logistics;

(B)  distinguish between materials management and physical distribution;

(C)  list the factors that influence the selection of particular transportation modes;

(D)  describe the usefulness of free trade zones;

(E)  research free trade zones, both locally and statewide, using appropriate online technology; and

(F)  relate the effects of geography, time zones, work days, resources, and natural harbors on global business.

(11)  The student identifies different strategies for exporting in the global market. The student is expected to:

(A)  discuss the procedure by which a foreign target market is selected;

(B)  determine the pricing strategy for export items;

(C)  identify various data-based analytical techniques available for estimating market potential; and

(D)  evaluate the reasons behind the need to standardize or to adapt the marketing mix.

(12)  The student identifies the functional changes in process with global human resource management. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the objectives of human resource management in a global firm;

(B)  describe how the human resources function changes as a firm goes global;

(C)  identify sources of recruitment for staffing positions abroad; and

(D)  describe differences and similarities of training employees in different countries.

(13)  The student analyzes employability skills to obtain successful employment with a company. The student is expected to:

(A)  assess personal global marketability;

(B)  identify appropriate employment opportunities abroad;

(C)  evaluate global employment options such as salaries, benefits, and prerequisites; and

(D)  generate an orientation manual for people preparing to live and work in a foreign country.

(14)  The student knows how to use self-development techniques and interpersonal skills to accomplish human resources objectives. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify and practice effective interpersonal and team-building skills involving situations with coworkers, supervisors, and subordinates; and

(B)  participate in leadership and career development activities.

Source: The provisions of this §130.118 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5923.


§130.119. Human Resources Management (One-Half to One Credit).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 11-12.

(b)  Introduction. Students recognize, evaluate, and prepare for a rapidly evolving global business environment that requires flexibility and adaptability. Students analyze the primary functions of human resources management, which include recruitment, selection, training, development, and compensation. Topics will incorporate social responsibility of business and industry. Students develop a foundation in the economical, financial, technological, international, social, and ethical aspects of human resources in order to become competent managers, employees, and entrepreneurs. Students incorporate a broad base of knowledge that includes the legal, managerial, financial, ethical, and international dimensions of business to make appropriate human resources decisions.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student demonstrates an understanding of the traditional human resources functions. The student is expected to:

(A)  define the term human resources;

(B)  classify the basic human resources functions such as recruiting, selecting, training, developing, and compensating;

(C)  explain the contemporary social and workplace issues facing human resources managers such as globalization, diversity, new technologies, knowledge workers, and changing trends in the workplace;

(D)  explain how contemporary human resources deals with change such as proactive, reactive, downsizing, outsourcing, offshoring, and employee leasing;

(E)  illustrate how the changing demographic trends in the workplace impact diversity in human resources management;

(F)  categorize the basic responsibilities of a human resources manager, including:

(i)  advice and counsel;

(ii)  service;

(iii)  policy formulation and implementation; and

(iv)  employee advocacy;

(G)  explain the basic competencies required of an effective human resources manager, including business mastery, human resources mastery, change mastery, and personal credibility; and

(H)  define the need and proper steps for strategic planning in human resources, including:

(i)  mission, vision, and values;

(ii)  environmental analysis;

(iii)  internal analysis;

(iv)  strategy formulation;

(v)  strategy implementation; and

(vi)  evaluation and assessment.

(2)  The student understands and explains how to meet human resources requirements. The student is expected to:

(A)  analyze the major Equal Employment Opportunity laws;

(B)  discuss federal laws and executive orders that influence human resources management;

(C)  explain the importance of establishing and implementing strong policies and procedures for dealing with sexual harassment;

(D)  examine the contemporary social and political issues facing human resources, including:

(i)  sexual orientation;

(ii)  immigration reform and control; and

(iii)  Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures;

(E)  explain the proper procedures and requirements to comply with Equal Employment Opportunity Commission rules and regulations;

(F)  analyze the contemporary concepts of job analysis, employee involvement, and flexible work schedules;

(G)  create a job description; and

(H)  research current cases dealing with equal employment using appropriate online technology.

(3)  The student demonstrates the proper methods and sources of recruitment. The student is expected to:

(A)  evaluate the proper methods of recruiting externally;

(B)  explain the proper methods of recruiting internally;

(C)  hypothesize how to develop a diverse pool of talent for employment consideration; and

(D)  explain the application of Equal Employment Opportunity Commission guidelines to the recruitment process.

(4)  The student demonstrates the proper methods of employee selection. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain how to match an applicant to a job using job analysis and a job description;

(B)  explain the different types of commonly used pre-employment tests such as polygraph tests, honesty and integrity testing, graphology, physical examination, and drug testing;

(C)  clarify the relevant factors that should be considered in conducting a criminal background check; and

(D)  demonstrate the proper methods of conducting pre-employment interviews.

(5)  The student describes the need for training. The student is expected to:

(A)  analyze the information necessary prior to the implementation of any job-related training, including task analysis and person analysis;

(B)  design a training program;

(C)  explain how to implement a training program;

(D)  evaluate a training program;

(E)  illustrate the necessity for new employee orientation and the topics that should be covered;

(F)  explain the concept of on-the-job training and other forms of skills training; and

(G)  understand the need for training newly hired employees in proper Equal Employment Opportunity Commission rules and procedures, including training on sexual harassment.

(6)  The student describes the need to develop and evaluate employees. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain why employees often need additional training such as learning new skills and technologies and complying with new laws and regulations;

(B)  construct an employee appraisal program that complies with all applicable laws; and

(C)  explain who should evaluate employees, including:

(i)  supervisors and managers;

(ii)  peers;

(iii)  customers or clients; and

(iv)  subordinates.

(7)  The student describes how to implement a compensation program. The student is expected to:

(A)  interpret the basis of compensation and how it meets with organizational objectives;

(B)  explain the factors that influence the pay and benefits system;

(C)  summarize pay for performance, commission, and piece-rate systems;

(D)  explain how to perform a wage and salary survey;

(E)  interpret competence-based pay;

(F)  understand the major federal regulations that influence employee compensation, including:

(i)  Davis-Bacon Act;

(ii)  Walsh-Healy Act; and

(iii)  Fair Labor Standards Act such as minimum wage and overtime;

(G)  identify some of the contemporary issues regarding compensation, including:

(i)  equal pay;

(ii)  wage-rate compression;

(iii)  comparable worth;

(iv)  low salary budgets; and

(v)  employee stock ownership plan;

(H)  explain pay for performance incentives such as bonuses, merit pay, profit sharing, recognition, and stock options;

(I)  explain the ethical and public relations issues regarding executive compensation; and

(J)  research contemporary cases dealing with executive compensation using appropriate online technology.

(8)  The student masters the intricacies of creating and implementing a benefits plan. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the federally mandated benefits, including:

(i)  Federal Insurance Contributions Act Tax;

(ii)  Federal Unemployment Tax Act;

(iii)  workers' compensation;

(iv)  Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act;

(v)  Family and Medical Leave Act; and

(vi)  Older Workers Benefit Protection Act;

(B)  summarize the major discretionary benefits such as healthcare, payment for time not worked, holidays, vacation, sick leave, personal days off, supplemental unemployment benefits, life insurance, long-term care insurance, retirement, pension plans, and thrift plans; and

(C)  explain the ancillary services sometimes offered to employees such as employee assistance plans, personal counseling, child and elder care, credit unions, cafeterias, employee discounts, legal services, and recreation and health clubs.

(9)  The student discusses the importance of workplace safety and health rules and regulations. The student is expected to:

(A)  interpret the Occupational Safety and Health Act;

(B)  explain the right-to-know laws;

(C)  construct a program promoting safety awareness;

(D)  explain the necessity of enforcing safety rules and investigating and recording any workplace accidents;

(E)  demonstrate what can be done to prevent or address workplace violence;

(F)  explain what can be done to address employee stresses in the workplace; and

(G)  research contemporary cases addressing workplace violence using appropriate online technology.

(10)  The student discusses employee-management relations. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain employee rights versus employer responsibilities;

(B)  define discipline and how to implement disciplinary policies and procedures;

(C)  identify the proper methods of discharging employees;

(D)  define the concept of Alternative Dispute Resolution;

(E)  summarize the major federal labor relations laws, including:

(i)  Railway Labor Act;

(ii)  Norris-LaGuardia Act;

(iii)  Wagner Act; and

(iv)  Landrum-Griffin Act;

(F)  define why and how employees unionize;

(G)  explain employer tactics used to oppose unionization and what employers cannot do during the unionization process;

(H)  explain the structure and functions of a union;

(I)  discuss the major union organizations such as AFL-CIO, national unions, local unions, and international unions;

(J)  summarize the collective bargaining process and the issues typically negotiated, including wages, hours, and working conditions;

(K)  explain a typical grievance procedure;

(L)  define grievance arbitration;

(M)  explain the contemporary challenges facing labor organizations and unions, including:

(i)  foreign competition;

(ii)  technological change;

(iii)  decline in union membership; and

(iv)  employers' focus on maintaining good working conditions to maintain non-union status; and

(N)  research contemporary cases on labor relations using appropriate online technology.

(11)  The student analyzes the future global considerations impacting human resources. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain how human resources addresses managing across borders;

(B)  identify the difficulties and solutions for recruiting and selecting employees internationally;

(C)  discuss how to deal with compensation issues for management and employees in a host country environment;

(D)  identify the problems and solutions for addressing international employee evaluations and appraisals; and

(E)  explain the international organized labor environment and different national approaches to labor participation in management.

(12)  The student knows self-development techniques and interpersonal skills to accomplish human resources objectives. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify and practice effective interpersonal and team-building skills involving situations with coworkers, supervisors, and subordinates; and

(B)  participate in leadership and career development activities such as local human resources.

Source: The provisions of this §130.119 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5923.


§130.120. Virtual Business (One-Half to One Credit).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10-12. Recommended prerequisite: Touch System Data Entry.

(b)  Introduction. Students incorporate a broad base of knowledge that includes the legal, managerial, marketing, financial, ethical, and international dimensions of business to make appropriate business decisions. Students will be able to identify steps needed to locate customers, set fees, and develop client contracts. Student will be able to provide administrative, creative, and technical services using advanced technological modes of communication and data delivery. The student builds a functional website that incorporates the essentials of a virtual business.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student analyzes an overview of starting and growing a virtual business office. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the nature, history, and duties of a virtual business office;

(B)  list benefits afforded to virtual assistants and their clients;

(C)  assess personality characteristics to determine suitability for being a self-employed virtual business office employee; and

(D)  inventory skills, interests, strengths, and weaknesses to determine appropriate services to offer.

(2)  The student demonstrates online and off-line marketing, including establishing a web presence. The student is expected to:

(A)  create and design a website for a virtual business office;

(B)  describe details of setting up a virtual business office;

(C)  determine appropriate marketing and advertising of a virtual business office;

(D)  describe steps to successfully market a virtual business office; and

(E)  participate in leadership and career development activities.

(3)  The student develops contracts appropriate for virtual business office services provided. The student is expected to:

(A)  research details of setting up a virtual business office;

(B)  determine particulars of communicating with clients locally and remotely; and

(C)  appropriately set fees for virtual business office services provided.

(4)  The student establishes pricing, billing, and collections procedures. The student is expected to:

(A)  research pricing and billing practices of a virtual business office;

(B)  research and determine appropriate recordkeeping and tax issues; and

(C)  apply fundamental bookkeeping skills for a virtual business office.

(5)  The student describes legal and tax issues related to running a virtual business office. The student is expected to:

(A)  determine local licensing requirements and properly set up a virtual business office and research support resources; and

(B)  describe the advantages and disadvantages of the various forms of legal construction of a virtual business office.

(6)  The student maintains business records to facilitate management. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe the nature of business records needs for a virtual business office; and

(B)  maintain customer records.

(7)  The student acquires information to analyze business decision making. The student is expected to:

(A)  monitor internal records for business information; and

(B)  conduct an environment scan to obtain business information and interpret statistical findings.

(8)  The student demonstrates project-management skills to improve workflow and minimize costs. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify resources needed for a project;

(B)  develop a project plan and apply project-management tools to monitor project progress;

(C)  evaluate project results; and

(D)  coordinate work with that of team members and assist with overflow work.

Source: The provisions of this §130.120 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5923.


§130.121. Business Management (One to Two Credits).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10-12.

(b)  Introduction. Students recognize, evaluate, and prepare for a rapidly evolving global business environment that requires flexibility and adaptability. Students analyze the primary functions of management and leadership, which are planning, organizing, staffing, directing or leading, and controlling. Topics will incorporate social responsibility of business and industry. Students develop a foundation in the economical, financial, technological, international, social, and ethical aspects of business to become competent managers, employees, and entrepreneurs. Students incorporate a broad base of knowledge that includes the legal, managerial, marketing, financial, ethical, and international dimensions of business to make appropriate management decisions.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student demonstrates an understanding of the management concept. The student is expected to:

(A)  define the term management;

(B)  explain management functions, including planning, organizing, staffing, direct lending, and controlling;

(C)  define the management pyramid;

(D)  define the role of management;

(E)  explain the history and evolution of management;

(F)  identify the external and internal environmental factors that influence management;

(G)  define ethical workplace behavior;

(H)  summarize how to make ethical decisions;

(I)  define social responsibility;

(J)  explain how socially responsible management policies are initiated and implemented; and

(K)  research contemporary cases dealing with ethics and social responsibility using appropriate online technology.

(2)  The student recognizes the importance of planning in an organization. The student is expected to:

(A)  define the term planning;

(B)  explain the necessity of proper planning;

(C)  define types of planning;

(D)  identify steps of the management decision-making process, including:

(i)  identify the problem or opportunity;

(ii)  gather relevant information or data;

(iii)  determine alternative courses of action;

(iv)  evaluate each alternative;

(v)  compute an optimal decision;

(vi)  implement the chosen course of action; and

(vii)  evaluate the decision feedback and determine if any changes are necessary;

(E)  determine competitive advantage;

(F)  establish organizational strategy;

(G)  determine innovative strategies;

(H)  identify the need for change;

(I)  define global management; and

(J)  explain how the organization will function in a global environment.

(3)  The student recognizes the importance of organizations. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain how to design an adaptive organization;

(B)  define the concepts, methods, and types of departmentalization;

(C)  define the chain of command;

(D)  explain line authority;

(E)  define staff authority;

(F)  explain the advantages and disadvantages of different types of organizations, including:

(i)  line;

(ii)  line and staff; and

(iii)  matrix;

(G)  define delegation in a management context;

(H)  compare and contrast centralized and decentralized organizations;

(I)  identify the concept of teams and teamwork; and

(J)  define span of control or span of management.

(4)  The student explains the role of staffing within an organization. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain or define the major federal employment laws;

(B)  define adverse impact and employment discrimination;

(C)  identify sexual harassment in the workplace;

(D)  explain the methods of recruiting potential employees;

(E)  define the selection process for new employees;

(F)  explain the needs and types of training for newly hired employees;

(G)  define professional development in terms of current employees;

(H)  explain how employees should be compensated in a competitive environment;

(I)  define the potential need for downsizing;

(J)  rationalize the costs of employee turnover and what can be done to reduce turnover rate;

(K)  explain the need and benefits of a diverse workforce; and

(L)  research contemporary cases addressing recruitment, downsizing, and diversity using appropriate online resources.

(5)  The student demonstrates the qualities of leadership. The student is expected to:

(A)  define motivation;

(B)  distinguish between extrinsic and intrinsic rewards;

(C)  explain how to address real or perceived inequities in the workplace;

(D)  define the Expectancy Theory;

(E)  explain how rewards and goals affect motivation;

(F)  compare a leader to a manager;

(G)  explain the roles and functions of a leader;

(H)  explain the traits of an effective leader;

(I)  define the different types and styles of leadership and explain when each is appropriate, including autocratic, Democratic, and free rein;

(J)  define the management communication process;

(K)  explain the concept of employee perception;

(L)  analyze the communication process;

(M)  compare and contrast formal and informal communication; and

(N)  explain how to improve communication within an organization.

(6)  The student understands the necessity of controlling. The student is expected to:

(A)  examine the control process;

(B)  illustrate the five primary control methods;

(C)  explain the importance of quality control;

(D)  define the strategic importance of management information;

(E)  develop the importance of gathering and sharing information;

(F)  explain the importance of managing for productivity and growth;

(G)  define the quality-related characteristics for products and services;

(H)  explain International Standards Organization (ISO) standards, including ISO 9000 and ISO 14000;

(I)  explain the Baldridge National Quality Award;

(J)  explain the Deming Award;

(K)  define Total Quality Management;

(L)  explain service operations;

(M)  analyze manufacturing operations;

(N)  define inventory in the management context;

(O)  explain the fiscal importance of managing and controlling inventory; and

(P)  research recent winners of the Baldridge and Deming awards using appropriate online technology and critique the winners.

(7)  The student knows self-development techniques and interpersonal skills to accomplish management objectives. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify and practice effective interpersonal and team-building skills involving situations with coworkers, supervisors, and subordinates; and

(B)  participate in leadership and career development activities such as involvement with appropriate student and local management associations.

(8)  The student demonstrates project-management skills to improve workflow and minimize costs. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify resources needed for a project;

(B)  develop a project plan; and

(C)  apply project-management tools to monitor progress.

Source: The provisions of this §130.121 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5923.


§130.122. Practicum in Business Management (Two to Three Credits).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grade 12. Recommended prerequisites: Touch System Data Entry and Business Management.

(b)  Introduction. The Practicum is designed to give students supervised practical application of previously studied knowledge and skills. Practicum experiences occur in a paid or unpaid arrangement and a variety of locations appropriate to the nature and level of experience. Students implement personal and interpersonal skills to strengthen individual performance in the workplace and in society and to make a successful transition to the workforce or postsecondary education. Students apply technical skills to address business applications of emerging technologies. Students develop a foundation in the economical, financial, technological, international, social, and ethical aspects of business to become competent consumers, employees, and entrepreneurs. Students enhance reading, writing, computing, communication, and reasoning skills and apply them to the business environment. Students incorporate a broad base of knowledge that includes the legal, managerial, marketing, financial, ethical, and international dimensions of business to make appropriate business decisions.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student demonstrates professional standards as required by business and industry. The student is expected to:

(A)  adhere to policies and procedures;

(B)  demonstrate positive work behaviors and attitudes, including punctuality, time management, initiative, and cooperation;

(C)  accept constructive criticism;

(D)  apply ethical reasoning to a variety of situations in order to make ethical decisions;

(E)  complete tasks with the highest standards to ensure quality products and services;

(F)  model professional appearance, including dress, grooming, and personal protective equipment as appropriate; and

(G)  comply with practicum setting safety rules and regulations to maintain safe and healthful working conditions and environments.

(2)  The student applies concepts of critical thinking and problem solving. The student is expected to:

(A)  analyze elements of a problem to develop creative and innovative solutions;

(B)  critically analyze information to determine value to the problem-solving task;

(C)  compare and contrast alternatives using a variety of problem-solving and critical-thinking skills; and

(D)  conduct technical research to gather information necessary for decision making.

(3)  The student abides by risk-management policies and procedures for technology to minimize loss. The student is expected to:

(A)  adhere to technology safety and security policies such as acceptable use policy and web page policies;

(B)  apply ergonomic techniques to technology tasks;

(C)  adhere to laws pertaining to computer crime, fraud, and abuse;

(D)  follow procedures used to restart and recover from situations such as system failure and virus infection;

(E)  follow policies to prevent loss of data integrity; and

(F)  adhere to the organization's policies for technology use.

(4)  The student facilitates internal and external office communications to support work activities. The student is expected to:

(A)  record messages accurately, legibly, and completely;

(B)  deliver messages to appropriate person or department;

(C)  coordinate arrangements for participants;

(D)  follow calling and login procedures; and

(E)  troubleshoot any problems.

(5)  The student performs scheduling functions electronically to facilitate on-time, prompt completion of work activities. The student is expected to:

(A)  create a calendar or schedule;

(B)  maintain an appointment calendar;

(C)  verify appointments;

(D)  coordinate travel arrangements; and

(E)  set up meeting arrangements.

(6)  The student uses information technology tools to manage and perform work responsibilities. The student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate advanced web search skills;

(B)  demonstrate advanced word-processing skills;

(C)  apply advanced presentation applications;

(D)  construct advanced database applications;

(E)  demonstrate advanced spreadsheet applications; and

(F)  create a web page for business applications.

(7)  The student uses spreadsheet software to create business-related spreadsheets. The student is expected to:

(A)  select appropriate software for creating spreadsheets;

(B)  enter labels and values into spreadsheet cells; and

(C)  format labels and values.

(8)  The student enters formulas and functions in a spreadsheet document. The student is expected to:

(A)  develop formulas and enter appropriate functions; and

(B)  verify formulas and functions with sample values.

(9)  The student selects a format and procedure to produce memoranda appropriate for a given purpose. The student is expected to:

(A)  select proper layout such as direct and indirect;

(B)  apply correct grammar, spelling, punctuation, and other English mechanics;

(C)  prepare correct memoranda format;

(D)  enter data without error; and

(E)  disseminate to appropriate persons.

(10)  The student selects document type and layout to produce business letters. The student is expected to:

(A)  determine use of documents for purposes such as sales, claims, and good news;

(B)  prepare correct layout;

(C)  apply correct grammar, spelling, punctuation, and other English mechanics; and

(D)  enter data without error.

(11)  The student selects appropriate writing methods to produce a variety of reports. The student is expected to:

(A)  determine purpose of a report;

(B)  select proper method of writing such as short and informal;

(C)  prepare tables, graphs, and graphics;

(D)  use references and prepare notations;

(E)  apply correct grammar, spelling, punctuation, and other English mechanics; and

(F)  enter data without error.

(12)  The student records transactions to manage cash fund accounts, tallies receipts, and proofs work to prepare bank deposits. The student is expected to:

(A)  maintain records of petty cash disbursements;

(B)  replenish petty cash;

(C)  increase or decrease cash fund accounts as necessary;

(D)  prepare endorsement;

(E)  reconcile; and

(F)  verify totals.

(13)  The student demonstrates accurate bookkeeping guidelines to reconcile bank statements. The student is expected to:

(A)  compare an electronic or a manual checkbook to a bank statement;

(B)  add deposits not credited;

(C)  subtract checks not cleared;

(D)  subtract bank charges from a checkbook; and

(E)  ensure a bank statement balance equals a checkbook balance.

(14)  The student demonstrates leadership and teamwork skills in collaborating with others to accomplish goals and objectives. The student is expected to:

(A)  analyze leadership in relation to trust, positive attitude, integrity, and willingness to accept key responsibilities in a work situation;

(B)  demonstrate teamwork skills through working cooperatively with others to achieve goals;

(C)  demonstrate teamwork processes that promote team building, consensus, continuous improvement, respect for the opinions of others, cooperation, adaptability, and conflict resolution;

(D)  demonstrate responsibility for shared group and individual work tasks; and

(E)  establish and maintain effective working relationships in order to accomplish the following objectives and tasks:

(i)  demonstrate effective working relationships using interpersonal skills;

(ii)  use positive interpersonal skills to work cooperatively with others;

(iii)  negotiate effectively to arrive at decisions;

(iv)  demonstrate respect for individuals, including those from different cultures, genders, and backgrounds; and

(v)  demonstrate sensitivity to and value for diversity.

(15)  The student maintains work flow to enhance productivity. The student is expected to:

(A)  organize and prioritize work;

(B)  complete assigned tasks in a timely manner;

(C)  coordinate work with that of team members;

(D)  assist with overflow work; and

(E)  coordinate submission of proposals.

(16)  The student implements processes for purchasing business supplies, equipment, and services. The student is expected to:

(A)  maintain vendor and supplier relationships;

(B)  conduct vendor and supplier searches; and

(C)  negotiate terms with vendors.

(17)  The student establishes procedures to maintain equipment and supplies. The student is expected to:

(A)  determine equipment needed;

(B)  determine supplies needed;

(C)  establish equipment and supplies maintenance systems;

(D)  schedule equipment maintenance; and

(E)  use equipment and supplies maintenance procedures.

(18)  The student identifies career opportunities in business occupations and implements job-seeking skills to obtain employment. The student is expected to:

(A)  assess personal marketability;

(B)  identify appropriate employment opportunities and those emerging through technology by analyzing established resources; and

(C)  use job-search strategies, including:

(i)  writing a letter of application;

(ii)  preparing a resumé;

(iii)  using networking techniques to identify employment opportunities;

(iv)  completing a job application;

(v)  interviewing for a job; and

(vi)  writing a follow-up letter after a job interview.

(19)  The student applies principles of effective human relations skills. The student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate professional qualities, including positive attitude, loyalty, and diplomacy;

(B)  demonstrate professionalism through personal appearance, neatness of work area, and correctness of completed tasks;

(C)  identify and demonstrate skills needed to maintain effective work relations with colleagues;

(D)  demonstrate a respect for individual differences;

(E)  apply tact in handling criticism and disagreement or disappointment, accept constructive criticism, and revise personal views when valid evidence warrants;

(F)  explain the concepts of integrity and confidentiality as related to the office environment;

(G)  plan, staff, lead, and organize human resources to enhance productivity and satisfaction;

(H)  assist with staff growth and development and train staff on system usage; and

(I)  implement methods for improving employee satisfaction.

(20)  The student uses employability skills to gain a position in a company. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify employment opportunities and complete job search procedures such as job applications and W-4 forms;

(B)  demonstrate proper interview techniques, professional dress, and appearance; and

(C)  create appropriate documents such as applications and thank you letters.

(21)  The student identifies skills and attributes necessary for professional advancement. The student is expected to:

(A)  evaluate and compare employment options such as salaries, benefits, and prerequisites; and

(B)  demonstrate proper interview techniques in various situations.

(22)  The student develops skills for success in the workplace. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain importance of and model appropriate dress, hygiene, and demeanor for the work assignment;

(B)  demonstrate dependability, punctuality, and initiative;

(C)  exhibit productive work habits and attitudes;

(D)  demonstrate the ability to work with the other employees to promote the organization and complete assigned tasks;

(E)  prioritize work to fulfill responsibilities and meet deadlines; and

(F)  identify and rank tangible and intangible rewards of work.

(23)  The student applies work ethics, job expectations, multicultural considerations, and communication skills in the workplace. The student is expected to:

(A)  illustrate how personal integrity affects human relations on the job;

(B)  demonstrate characteristics of successful working relationships such as teamwork, self-control, and ability to accept criticism;

(C)  analyze employer expectations;

(D)  demonstrate a respect for the rights of others;

(E)  communicate effectively using verbal, written, and electronic channels;

(F)  identify ethical standards; and

(G)  compare organizational policies and procedures.

(24)  The student applies word-processing technology. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify customary styles of business documents;

(B)  input data using the touch system;

(C)  demonstrate basic writing techniques;

(D)  produce business documents;

(E)  edit a variety of written documents; and

(F)  identify technologies that enhance or replace the touch system of data entry.

(25)  The student demonstrates project-management skills to improve workflow and minimize costs. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify resources needed for a project;

(B)  develop a project plan; and

(C)  apply project-management tools to monitor progress.

Source: The provisions of this §130.122 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5923.


Last updated: August 23, 2010

For additional information, email rules@tea.state.tx.us.