Chapter 130. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Career and Technical Education

Subchapter G. Government and Public Administration


Statutory Authority: The provisions of this Subchapter G issued under the Texas Education Code, §§7.102(c)(4), 28.002, 28.00222, and 28.025, unless otherwise noted.


§130.201. Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Government and Public Administration, Adopted 2015.

(a)  The provisions of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2017-2018 school year.

(b)  No later than August 31, 2016, the commissioner of education shall determine whether instructional materials funding has been made available to Texas public schools for materials that cover the essential knowledge and skills for career and technical education as adopted in §§130.202-130.211 of this subchapter.

(c)  If the commissioner makes the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under subsection (b) of this section, §§130.202-130.211 of this subchapter shall be implemented beginning with the 2017-2018 school year and apply to the 2017-2018 and subsequent school years.

(d)  If the commissioner does not make the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under subsection (b) of this section, the commissioner shall determine no later than August 31 of each subsequent school year whether instructional materials funding has been made available. If the commissioner determines that instructional materials funding has been made available, the commissioner shall notify the State Board of Education and school districts that §§130.202-130.211 of this subchapter shall be implemented for the following school year.

Source: The provisions of this §130.201 adopted to be effective August 28, 2017, 40 TexReg 9123.


§130.202. Principles of Government and Public Administration (One Credit), Adopted 2015.

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 9-11. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course.

(b)  Introduction.

(1)  Career and technical education instruction provides content aligned with challenging academic standards and relevant technical knowledge and skills for students to further their education and succeed in current or emerging professions.

(2)  The Government and Public Administration Career Cluster focuses on planning and performing governmental functions at the local, state, and federal levels, including governance, national security, foreign service, planning, revenue and taxation, and regulations.

(3)  Principles of Government and Public Administration introduces students to foundations of governmental functions and career opportunities within the United States and abroad. Students will examine governmental documents such as the U.S. Constitution, current U.S. Supreme Court and federal court decisions, and the Bill of Rights.

(4)  Students are encouraged to participate in extended learning experiences such as career and technical student organizations and other leadership or extracurricular organizations.

(5)  Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student demonstrates professional standards/employability skills as required by business and industry. The student is expected to:

(A)  communicate effectively with others using oral and written skills;

(B)  demonstrate collaboration skills through teamwork;

(C)  demonstrate professionalism by conducting oneself in a manner appropriate for the profession and workplace;

(D)  demonstrate a positive, productive work ethic by performing assigned tasks as directed;

(E)  show integrity by choosing the ethical course of action and complying with all applicable rules, laws, and regulations; and

(F)  demonstrate time-management skills by prioritizing tasks, following schedules, and tending to goal-relevant activities in a way that uses time wisely and optimizes efficiency and results.

(2)  The student explores major political ideas and forms of government in history. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain major political ideas in history such as natural law, natural rights, divine right of kings, and social contract theory;

(B)  identify the characteristics of classic forms of government such as absolute monarchy, authoritarianism, classical republic, despotism, feudalism, liberal democracy, and totalitarianism; and

(C)  explore aspects of public service and related careers at international, federal, state, and local levels.

(3)  The student understands how constitutional government, as developed in the United States, has been influenced by people, ideas, and historical documents. The student is expected to:

(A)  analyze the principles and ideas that underlie the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution;

(B)  explain the importance of a written constitution and how the federal government serves the purposes set forth in the U.S. Constitution;

(C)  explore how the Federalist Papers explain the principles of the U.S. constitutional system of government;

(D)  evaluate constitutional provisions for limiting the role of government such as republicanism, checks and balances, federalism, separation of powers, popular sovereignty, and individual rights;

(E)  analyze the contributions of the political philosophies of the founding fathers and explain why they created a distinctly new form of federalism and adopted a federal system of government instead of a unitary system;

(F)  evaluate the limits on the national and state governments in the U.S. federal system of government and how the U.S. Constitution can be amended;

(G)  categorize, diagram, or create a descriptive representation of the government powers as national, state, or shared government;

(H)  analyze historical conflicts over the respective roles of national and state governments in the United States; and

(I)  identify significant individuals and their roles in the field of government and politics, including ambassadors, elected officials, and appointed officials.

(4)  The student compares the similarities and differences that exist among the U.S. system of government and other political systems. The student is expected to:

(A)  compare and contrast the U.S. system of government with other political systems; and

(B)  analyze advantages and disadvantages of presidential and parliamentary systems of government.

(5)  The student explores rights guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the rights guaranteed by the Bill of Rights;

(B)  evaluate the role of limited government and the rule of law for the protection of individual rights;

(C)  identify and recognize issues addressed in critical cases that involve U.S. Supreme Court interpretations of rights guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution;

(D)  define the roles of each branch of government in protecting the rights of individuals;

(E)  explain the importance of due process rights to the protection of individual rights and to the limits on the powers of government; and

(F)  recognize the impact of the incorporation doctrine involving due process and the Bill of Rights on individual rights, federalism, and majority rule.

(6)  The student recognizes the difference between personal and civic responsibilities. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the difference between personal and civic responsibilities of citizens versus non-citizens;

(B)  present how, why, and when the rights of individuals are inviolable even against claims for the public good;

(C)  analyze the consequences on society of political decisions and actions; and

(D)  investigate the role of municipal management in serving public and personal good.

(7)  The student recognizes the importance of voluntary individual participation in the U.S. democratic society. The student is expected to:

(A)  present how to measure the effectiveness of participation in the political process at local, state, and national levels;

(B)  review, document, and explain how historical and contemporary examples of citizen movements were used to bring about political change or to maintain continuity;

(C)  evaluate different leadership styles and their impact on participation;

(D)  explain the factors that influence an individual's political attitudes and actions;

(E)  compare effectiveness of leadership characteristics of state and national leaders; and

(F)  explain the importance of volunteer public service in bringing about political change and maintaining continuity.

(8)  The student recognizes the relationship between government policies and the culture of the United States. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify a political policy or decision in the United States that was a result of changes in American culture;

(B)  discuss changes in American culture brought about by government policies such as voting rights, the GI Bill, and racial integration;

(C)  present an example of a government policy that has affected a particular racial, ethnic, or religious group; and

(D)  explain the influence of individuals and/or groups that have affected change in society.

(9)  The student identifies the influence of geography on governmental and public administrative functions. The student is expected to:

(A)  draw conclusions about the political significance to the United States of the location and geographic characteristics of critical regions compared to the economic significance of the geographic characteristics of selected places such as oil fields in the Middle East using maps and Global Positioning System (GPS) locations;

(B)  interpret geographical influences on requirements for international, national, state, and local governments;

(C)  predict how geographical considerations impact regional change over time;

(D)  interpret the importance of cultural symbols in the planning of government activities;

(E)  explore how geographic information systems assist in gathering information; and

(F)  connect a positive or negative effect of a government policy to the physical and human characteristics of a place or region.

(10)  The student interprets and applies concepts of governance to assess functions of government and public administration in society. The student is expected to:

(A)  recall historical debates and recognize the compromises necessary to reach landmark political decisions;

(B)  give examples of the processes used by individuals, political parties, interest groups, or the media to affect public policy;

(C)  explore the impact of political changes brought about by individuals, political parties, interest groups, or the media;

(D)  recognize how the American beliefs and principles reflected in the U.S. Constitution contribute to our national identity;

(E)  evaluate the alignment of institutions of government and public administration with the principles of U.S. and international law to guide policy development; and

(F)  analyze how U.S. foreign policy affects other countries.

(11)  The student works with different forms and methods of communication used to manage and facilitate the flow of ideas and information among government, public administration, the business community, and the general public. The student is expected to:

(A)  analyze the structure and functions of the legislative branch of government such as the bicameral structure of Congress, the role of committees, and the procedure for enacting laws;

(B)  analyze the structure and functions of the executive branch of government such as the constitutional powers of the president, the growth of presidential power, and the role of the cabinet and executive departments;

(C)  analyze the structure and functions of the judicial branch of government, including the federal court system and types of jurisdiction;

(D)  analyze the functions of selected independent executive and regulatory agencies;

(E)  explain how certain provisions of the U.S. Constitution provide for checks and balances among the three branches of government;

(F)  analyze selected issues raised by judicial activism and judicial restraint;

(G)  compare and contrast the structures and functions of the Texas state government to the federal system;

(H)  analyze the structure and functions of local government;

(I)  document, report, and record information to conform to legal requirements;

(J)  research safety standards and practices ensuring public safety and environmental protection;

(K)  investigate how to comply with directives to ensure protection of confidential information while carrying out duties as a government or public administration employee;

(L)  compare and contrast the concepts of ethical conduct to comply with all laws and regulations affecting governmental agencies; and

(M)  describe the accepted principles of financial management to administer budgets, programs, and human resources.

(12)  The student uses technologies to research common objectives of government and public administration. The student is expected to:

(A)  access appropriate information technologies to accomplish tasks;

(B)  integrate appropriate information technologies to accomplish tasks;

(C)  identify examples of government-assisted research that, when shared with the private sector, has resulted in improved consumer products such as computer and communication technologies;

(D)  analyze how U.S. government policies fostering competition and entrepreneurship have resulted in scientific discoveries and technological innovations;

(E)  analyze the potential impact on society of recent scientific discoveries and technological innovations;

(F)  analyze the reaction of government to scientific discoveries and technological innovations; and

(G)  explain the concept of intellectual property.

Source: The provisions of this §130.202 adopted to be effective August 28, 2017, 40 TexReg 9123.


§130.203. Political Science I (One Credit), Adopted 2015.

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10-12. Recommended prerequisite: Principles of Government and Public Administration. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course.

(b)  Introduction.

(1)  Career and technical education instruction provides content aligned with challenging academic standards and relevant technical knowledge and skills for students to further their education and succeed in current or emerging professions.

(2)  The Government and Public Administration Career Cluster focuses on planning and performing governmental functions at the local, state, and federal levels, including governance, national security, foreign service, planning, revenue and taxation, and regulations.

(3)  Political Science I introduces students to political theory through the study of governments; public policies; and political processes, systems, and behavior.

(4)  Students are encouraged to participate in extended learning experiences such as career and technical student organizations and other leadership or extracurricular organizations.

(5)  Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student demonstrates professional standards/employability skills as required by business and industry. The student is expected to:

(A)  communicate effectively with others using oral and written skills;

(B)  demonstrate collaboration skills through teamwork;

(C)  demonstrate professionalism by conducting oneself in a manner appropriate for the profession and workplace;

(D)  demonstrate a positive, productive work ethic by performing assigned tasks as directed;

(E)  show integrity by choosing the ethical course of action and complying with all applicable rules, laws, and regulations; and,

(F)  demonstrate time-management skills by prioritizing tasks, following schedules, and tending to goal-relevant activities in a way that uses time wisely and optimizes efficiency and results.

(2)  The student compares and contrasts current, classic, or contemporary political theories. The student is expected to:

(A)  discuss why theories are important to the study of political science;

(B)  draw conclusions about the classic political theorists such as Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, Machiavelli, Confucius, Hobbes, Locke, Hegel, and Marx;

(C)  define the characteristics of contemporary political theories such as behaviorialism, postbehavioralism, systems theory, modernization theory, structural-functionalism, developmentalism, rational-choice theory, and new institutionalism;

(D)  compare and contrast the evolution of classic and contemporary theories; and

(E)  make predictions and defend opinions about the future of political science theory.

(3)  The student explores historical origins of government. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe the features of different types of government such as democracy, theocracy, republic, monarchy, dictatorship, communism, and socialism;

(B)  use a map to label where each form of government is currently practiced or has been practiced in the past;

(C)  explain how each form of government arose throughout history;

(D)  develop a logical argument for the origin of different types of government; and

(E)  hypothesize why some forms of government became obsolete.

(4)  The student analyzes belief systems that claim to improve society. The student is expected to:

(A)  define political ideologies such as feminism, Marxism, Nazism, and capitalism;

(B)  coordinate the four elements of perception, evaluation, prescription, and movement with political ideologies; and

(C)  predict what national or global trends could stimulate the formation of a new ideology.

(5)  The student applies the concepts learned in the history and ideology of political science. The student is expected to:

(A)  make observations regarding the political culture of emerging nations or nations with recent current events; and

(B)  research and present the political culture of a country.

(6)  The student identifies the roles played by local, state, and national governments in public and private sectors of the U.S. free enterprise system. The student is expected to:

(A)  recognize that government policies influence the economy at the local, state, and national levels;

(B)  identify the sources of revenue of the U.S. government and analyze their impact on the U.S. economy;

(C)  identify the sources of expenditures of the U.S. government and analyze their impact on the U.S. economy;

(D)  compare and contrast the role of government in the U.S. free enterprise system and other economic systems; and

(E)  explain the effects of international trade on U.S. economic and political policies.

(7)  The student analyzes public opinion. The student is expected to:

(A)  investigate sources and influences of public opinion;

(B)  analyze the effect of public opinion on leadership;

(C)  critique the reliability of public opinion and how it is measured; and

(D)  compare and contrast the effects of expressed public opinion on poll items such as elections, elected official behavior, tax policy, services, and environmental protection.

(8)  The student identifies interest groups. The student is expected to compare and contrast the positive and negative aspects of interest groups such as public interest research groups, lobbies, and political action committees.

(9)  The student analyzes the election process. The student is expected to:

(A)  review the process of electing public officials;

(B)  recognize the influence of political parties in elections;

(C)  explore the phenomenon of political image;

(D)  describe the cause-and-effect relationship of communication style in a campaign; and

(E)  compare and contrast the effectiveness of telephones, television, print media, focus groups, and online resources in elections.

(10)  The student explores the processes for filling public offices in the U.S. system of government. The student is expected to:

(A)  compare and contrast different methods of filling public offices such as elected and appointed offices at the local, state, and national levels; and

(B)  analyze and evaluate the processes of electing the president of the United States.

(11)  The student examines the role of political parties in the U.S. system of government. The student is expected to:

(A)  discuss the functions of the two-party system;

(B)  compare and contrast the role of third parties in the United States;

(C)  recognize the role of political parties in the electoral process at the local, state, and national levels; and

(D)  identify opportunities for citizens to participate in the electoral process at the local, state, and national levels.

(12)  The student applies the concepts of statistical analysis to political science. The student is expected to:

(A)  examine concepts used in research such as theories, hypotheses, independent and dependent variables, sampling, reliability, validity, and generalizability; and

(B)  compare and contrast the types of statistical data such as in political science journals, public opinion polls, and surveys.

Source: The provisions of this §130.203 adopted to be effective August 28, 2017, 40 TexReg 9123.


§130.204. Political Science II (One Credit), Adopted 2015.

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10-12. Recommended prerequisite: Principles of Government and Public Administration or Political Science I. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course.

(b)  Introduction.

(1)  Career and technical education instruction provides content aligned with challenging academic standards and relevant technical knowledge and skills for students to further their education and succeed in current or emerging professions.

(2)  The Government and Public Administration Career Cluster focuses on planning and performing governmental functions at the local, state, and federal levels, including governance, national security, foreign service, planning, revenue and taxation, and regulations.

(3)  Political Science II uses a variety of learning methods and approaches to examine the processes, systems, and political dynamics of the United States and other nations. The dynamic component of this course includes current U.S. and world events.

(4)  Students are encouraged to participate in extended learning experiences such as career and technical student organizations and other leadership or extracurricular organizations.

(5)  Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student demonstrates professional standards/employability skills as required by business and industry. The student is expected to:

(A)  communicate effectively with others using oral and written skills;

(B)  demonstrate collaboration skills through teamwork;

(C)  demonstrate professionalism by conducting oneself in a manner appropriate for the profession and workplace;

(D)  demonstrate a positive, productive work ethic by performing assigned tasks as directed;

(E)  show integrity by choosing the ethical course of action and complying with all applicable rules, laws, and regulations; and

(F)  demonstrate time-management skills by prioritizing tasks, following schedules, and tending to goal-relevant activities in a way that uses time wisely and optimizes efficiency and results.

(2)  The student analyzes public administration and public affairs. The student is expected to:

(A)  explore the ancient history of public administration;

(B)  consider whether current practices of public administration are improvements upon older practices;

(C)  explain the term bureaucracy and draw conclusions as to why public perception of bureaucracy is poor;

(D)  analyze the effects of poor public perception on leadership style;

(E)  analyze political pluralism, displacement and concentration hypothesis, and technological complexity;

(F)  recognize that public management involves evaluation of productivity, budgets, and human resources; and

(G)  research, investigate, and explain specific examples of ethics issues in public administration.

(3)  The student identifies the cause and effect of expression of different viewpoints in a democratic society. The student is expected to:

(A)  compare different points of view of political parties and interest groups on important contemporary issues;

(B)  analyze the importance of free speech and press in a democratic society; and

(C)  express the student's point of view on an issue of contemporary interest in the United States.

(4)  The student analyzes international relations. The student is expected to:

(A)  examine the historical development of the international system;

(B)  compare and contrast the classical international system, the transitional international system, the post-World War II international system, and the contemporary international system;

(C)  research national actors and international interactions;

(D)  examine the rational actor model;

(E)  analyze what a nation-state does when faced with a problem that requires resolution;

(F)  make observations about ethics in foreign policy; and

(G)  draw conclusions about the role of morality in decision making such as Cold War spying and humanitarian intervention.

(5)  The student explores diplomacy as the management of international relations by negotiation. The student is expected to:

(A)  compare and contrast the ancient practice of sending emissaries with current embassy activities;

(B)  identify embassy and ambassador roles in international relations;

(C)  distinguish between types of diplomacy such as public versus secret, multilateral versus bilateral, and tacit versus formal;

(D)  use concepts of bargaining and game theory to solve problems;

(E)  recognize national versus state approaches to armed force when diplomacy breaks down;

(F)  analyze force without war, causes of war, and the consequences of war; and

(G)  analyze the role of international law in treaties, customs, immigration, and human rights.

(6)  The student analyzes international governmental organizations and non-governmental organizations. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify prominent international governmental organizations and non-governmental organizations;

(B)  explore the methods of operation and function of international governmental organizations and non-governmental organizations in global problem solving; and

(C)  propose a solution for an international relations problem such as arms control, terrorism, commerce, currency, natural resource management, food, or population control.

(7)  The student analyzes the flow of ideas and information among the federal government, public administration, the business community, and the global societies. The student is expected to:

(A)  examine concepts of authority, rights, and responsibilities to evaluate their impact on the governance of societies;

(B)  explain the major responsibilities of the federal government for domestic and foreign policy;

(C)  practice communication techniques used to stimulate the exchange of ideas and develop international, national, state, and local networks to accomplish governmental goals; and

(D)  interpret the impact of international, national, state, or local politics on the goals of governmental or public administrative agencies.

Source: The provisions of this §130.204 adopted to be effective August 28, 2017, 40 TexReg 9123.


§130.205. Foreign Service and Diplomacy (One Credit), Adopted 2015.

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10-12. Recommended prerequisite: Principles of Government and Public Administration or Principles of Law, Public Safety, Corrections, and Security. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course.

(b)  Introduction.

(1)  Career and technical education instruction provides content aligned with challenging academic standards and relevant technical knowledge and skills for students to further their education and succeed in current or emerging professions.

(2)  The Government and Public Administration Career Cluster focuses on planning and performing governmental functions at the local, state, and federal levels, including governance, national security, foreign service, planning, revenue and taxation, and regulations.

(3)  Foreign Service and Diplomacy provides the opportunity for students to investigate the knowledge and skills necessary for careers in foreign service. The course includes law, history, media communication, and international relations associated with the diplomatic environment.

(4)  Students are encouraged to participate in extended learning experiences such as career and technical student organizations and other leadership or extracurricular organizations.

(5)  Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student demonstrates professional standards/employability skills as required by business and industry. The student is expected to:

(A)  communicate effectively with others using oral and written skills;

(B)  demonstrate collaboration skills through teamwork;

(C)  demonstrate professionalism by conducting oneself in a manner appropriate for the profession and workplace;

(D)  demonstrate a positive, productive work ethic by performing assigned tasks as directed;

(E)  show integrity by choosing the ethical course of action and complying with all applicable rules, laws, and regulations; and

(F)  demonstrate time-management skills by prioritizing tasks, following schedules, and tending to goal-relevant activities in a way that uses time wisely and optimizes efficiency and results.

(2)  The student integrates knowledge and presentation skills related to diplomacy and representing the United States to host-country officials, media personnel, and traveling officials. The student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate the ability to provide host-country officials with information on U.S. government and culture;

(B)  demonstrate an understanding of organizing exchange programs to familiarize future host-country decision makers with U.S. institutions, customs, and culture;

(C)  analyze the effectiveness of foreign support programs and other efforts of U.S. economic, intelligence, and affiliate agencies;

(D)  demonstrate how to address and respond to media personnel on matters of U.S. policy raised in conjunction with visits of U.S. officials; and

(E)  demonstrate how to address and respond to media personnel on matters of U.S. policy in reaction to unanticipated events.

(3)  The student applies knowledge of foreign history, law, geography, and natural resources to recommend new or modified foreign service efforts. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe responses of host-country personnel to U.S. programs and official visits;

(B)  analyze and report the impact of American travelers and popular culture on a host country; and

(C)  assess the impact of host-country responses to catastrophic events.

(4)  The student applies U.S. and host-country laws, regulations, policies, and procedures to administrative management. The student is expected to:

(A)  apply U.S. immigration laws and regulations to determine eligibility of individuals;

(B)  explain grounds for refusal of visas;

(C)  research documents and databases related to U.S. and host-country laws, regulations, policies, or procedures; and

(D)  apply identification and documentation procedures.

(5)  The student applies knowledge of host-country laws, customs, and effective administrative practices to manage the conduct of diplomatic operations. The student is expected to:

(A)  model negotiations with a host government on reciprocity issues, taxation, diplomatic status, and other matters affecting welfare, security, and status of mission; and

(B)  design a program that buys and sells goods and services for diplomatic operations.

Source: The provisions of this §130.205 adopted to be effective August 28, 2017, 40 TexReg 9123.


§130.206. Planning and Governance (One Credit), Adopted 2015.

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10-12. Recommended prerequisite: Principles of Government and Public Administration. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course.

(b)  Introduction.

(1)  Career and technical education instruction provides content aligned with challenging academic standards and relevant technical knowledge and skills for students to further their education and succeed in current or emerging professions.

(2)  The Government and Public Administration Career Cluster focuses on planning and performing governmental functions at the local, state, and federal levels, including governance, national security, foreign service, planning, revenue and taxation, and regulations.

(3)  Planning and Governance provides the opportunity for students to formulate plans and policies to meet social, economic, and physical needs of communities.

(4)  Students are encouraged to participate in extended learning experiences such as career and technical student organizations and other leadership or extracurricular organizations.

(5)  Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student demonstrates professional standards/employability skills as required by business and industry. The student is expected to:

(A)  communicate effectively with others using oral and written skills;

(B)  demonstrate collaboration skills through teamwork;

(C)  demonstrate professionalism by conducting oneself in a manner appropriate for the profession and workplace;

(D)  demonstrate a positive, productive work ethic by performing assigned tasks as directed;

(E)  show integrity by choosing the ethical course of action and complying with all applicable rules, laws, and regulations; and

(F)  demonstrate time-management skills by prioritizing tasks, following schedules, and tending to goal-relevant activities in a way that uses time wisely and optimizes efficiency and results.

(2)  The student identifies the skills necessary to manage and modify the community planning process. The student is expected to:

(A)  relate physical design to functioning of environment;

(B)  analyze data relative to a project on present and future needs;

(C)  assess legal aspects of regulatory compliance in planning;

(D)  evaluate the presentation of class activity in regard to regulations and procedures;

(E)  perform mapping and graphic functions skills;

(F)  predict the interaction between economy, transportation, health and human services, and land regulation and make recommendations for the future of an activity or project; and

(G)  record or document observations about local, state, and federal programs in order to provide future planning recommendations.

(3)  The student develops a workplace or activity-based project and plans for land use, housing, parks and recreation, transportation, economic development, and public facilities to manage change. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify emerging trends and barrier issues;

(B)  practice or perform problem-solving techniques to overcome barriers to plan implementation; and

(C)  evaluate the style of strategies available and necessary for achieving goals.

(4)  The student creates a coherent plan for project management. The student is expected to:

(A)  initiate a project, including securing class or instructor approval of project scope;

(B)  plan a project;

(C)  execute a project, including responding to requests for information;

(D)  monitor and control a project, including demonstrating effective, cogent presentation skills for public meetings and creating a format to monitor plan budgets;

(E)  close a project; and

(F)  maintain professionalism in challenging group and one-on-one situations.

(5)  The student uses advanced research and organizational skills to influence matters of public policy. The student is expected to:

(A)  extract and evaluate ideas from research library resources and online materials;

(B)  organize, structure, and conduct practice interviews with students; and

(C)  compile original data and reliable source information into a student-designed objective database.

(6)  The student develops reasoned, persuasive arguments to support public policy options or positions. The student is expected to:

(A)  analyze and implement classical and modern patterns of rhetoric;

(B)  analyze differing political, social, ideological, and philosophical perspectives;

(C)  critique facts and statistical claims for accuracy and relevance; and

(D)  ensure materials meet ethical standards.

(7)  The student develops political instincts and understanding of political processes to gain consensus. The student is expected to:

(A)  compare and contrast interests of various individuals, groups, and their representatives;

(B)  explore options for promoting tolerance toward individuals and groups;

(C)  employ mediation techniques;

(D)  suggest alternative proposals that keep discussions from collapsing; and

(E)  discuss methods of openness for decision-making or problem-solving processes.

(8)  The student advocates new policies or policy changes to gain support for new or revised laws, regulations, ordinances, programs, or procedures. The student is expected to:

(A)  deliver compelling arguments regarding issues or proposals;

(B)  create effective media presentations and projects;

(C)  employ workplace skills to show the process reactions and responses and adjust appeals accordingly;

(D)  evaluate and employ techniques for motivating staff; and

(E)  create project steps and activities for avoiding ethical pitfalls.

Source: The provisions of this §130.206 adopted to be effective August 28, 2017, 40 TexReg 9123.


§130.207. National Security (One Credit), Adopted 2015.

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10-12. Recommended prerequisites: Principles of Government and Public Administration and Public Management and Administration or Principles of Law, Public Safety, Corrections, and Security or Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (JROTC) coursework. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course.

(b)  Introduction.

(1)  Career and technical education instruction provides content aligned with challenging academic standards and relevant technical knowledge and skills for students to further their education and succeed in current or emerging professions.

(2)  The Government and Public Administration Career Cluster focuses on planning and performing governmental functions at the local, state, and federal levels, including governance, national security, foreign service, planning, revenue and taxation, and regulations.

(3)  National Security introduces the students to the aspects of disaster management. The course includes engaging simulation exercises related to natural disasters, man-made disasters, and terroristic events using homeland security programs and National Incident Management System (NIMS) programs.

(4)  Students are encouraged to participate in extended learning experiences such as career and technical student organizations and other leadership or extracurricular organizations.

(5)  Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student demonstrates professional standards/employability skills as required by business and industry. The student is expected to:

(A)  communicate effectively with others using oral and written skills;

(B)  demonstrate collaboration skills through teamwork;

(C)  demonstrate professionalism by conducting oneself in a manner appropriate for the profession and workplace;

(D)  demonstrate a positive, productive work ethic by performing assigned tasks as directed;

(E)  show integrity by choosing the ethical course of action and complying with all applicable rules, laws, and regulations; and

(F)  demonstrate time-management skills by prioritizing tasks, following schedules, and tending to goal-relevant activities in a way that uses time wisely and optimizes efficiency and results.

(2)  The student explores and examines the personnel and organizational structure within a security agency. The student is expected to:

(A)  explore, develop, plan, and implement goals and objectives of an organization within a project or classroom activity;

(B)  create and make personnel assignments and align them with job demands within a project or classroom activity;

(C)  explore the processes used to implement evaluation systems and standards of a security agency; and

(D)  explore and review the usage of available counseling and training resources using online or written materials.

(3)  The student analyzes the leadership skills necessary to ensure compliance with rules of engagement and other applicable ethical standards. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify rules of engagement for local, state, federal, and international agencies;

(B)  evaluate U.S. and international laws, treaties, and conventions applicable to military or other security agency conduct;

(C)  employ and evaluate the usage of effective training materials;

(D)  facilitate and participate in group discussions of ethical issues raised by current events;

(E)  investigate compliance with procedures and laws such as U.S. military, international military, maritime, criminal, and civil laws;

(F)  apply current rulings and regulatory laws, rules, or standards to appropriate situations; and

(G)  recognize and evaluate actions in violation of laws, rules, and standards.

(4)  The student analyzes intelligence information from within and outside the United States through simulated exercises. The student is expected to:

(A)  explore the scope and limits of an assigned mission in a simulated exercise;

(B)  evaluate physical, psychological, cultural, and military threats of a simulated exercise;

(C)  define the specific goals and intentions of foreign entities relevant to a mission;

(D)  analyze physical characteristics of areas that could become battlegrounds in time of war;

(E)  explore and review methods used to direct ground and sea surveillance;

(F)  explore and review methods used to intercept foreign military communications; and

(G)  explore and review methods used to coordinate information with other national security agencies.

(5)  The student practices methods that translate and analyze signals to discover elements indicative of intent, plans, and operations of potentially hostile governments, groups, or individuals. The student is expected to:

(A)  organize evidence to facilitate discovery of a potentially hostile nature; and

(B)  evaluate agency and national actions of a potentially hostile nature.

(6)  The student prepares and coordinates strategies to defend against the effects of chemical, biological, nuclear, and cyberterrorism or natural disasters. The student is expected to:

(A)  create plans for response to both hostile and unintended events;

(B)  explore and evaluate what form of safety equipment and supplies are needed for protection against chemical, biological, or nuclear effects;

(C)  explore and evaluate the available intelligence information for determination of response plan implementation;

(D)  create a device or project for monitoring local and global intelligence such as using information about weather and geophysical events;

(E)  explore and discuss what methods are needed to maintain communications with federal, state, and local agencies; and

(F)  identify and review issues that exist within the security and safety of network cyber-based systems.

(7)  The student develops strategies to train persons potentially performing national security tasks. The student is expected to:

(A)  explore methods and materials used to analyze missions for which training is to be provided;

(B)  plan and evaluate current and past training methods; and

(C)  explore and review how agencies devise means of evaluating trainee progress.

Source: The provisions of this §130.207 adopted to be effective August 28, 2017, 40 TexReg 9123.


§130.208. Public Management and Administration (One Credit), Adopted 2015.

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10-12. Recommended prerequisite: Principles of Government and Public Administration or Business Management or Business Law. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course.

(b)  Introduction.

(1)  Career and technical education instruction provides content aligned with challenging academic standards and relevant technical knowledge and skills for students to further their education and succeed in current or emerging professions.

(2)  The Government and Public Administration Career Cluster focuses on planning and performing governmental functions at the local, state, and federal levels, including governance, national security, foreign service, planning, revenue and taxation, and regulations.

(3)  Public Management and Administration reviews actions and activities that governments and nonprofit administrations commonly use and that resemble private-sector management. Students will be introduced to management tools that maximize the effectiveness of different types and styles of administrators and affect the quality of life of citizens in the community.

(4)  Students are encouraged to participate in extended learning experiences such as career and technical student organizations and other leadership or extracurricular organizations.

(5)  Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student demonstrates professional standards/employability skills as required by business and industry. The student is expected to:

(A)  communicate effectively with others using oral and written skills;

(B)  demonstrate collaboration skills through teamwork;

(C)  demonstrate professionalism by conducting oneself in a manner appropriate for the profession and workplace;

(D)  demonstrate a positive, productive work ethic by performing assigned tasks as directed;

(E)  show integrity by choosing the ethical course of action and complying with all applicable rules, laws, and regulations; and

(F)  demonstrate time-management skills by prioritizing tasks, following schedules, and tending to goal-relevant activities in a way that uses time wisely and optimizes efficiency and results.

(2)  The student analyzes management theories. The student is expected to:

(A)  explore the various management theories such as Venn Diagram, Theory X, Theory Y, and Theory Z and how they are used effectively in public administration and management; and

(B)  compare and contrast management of government and nonprofit agencies to management in the private sector.

(3)  The student compares and contrasts department vision, goals, and mission to support those of a public agency. The student is expected to:

(A)  analyze economic, political, and social trends likely to impact an agency or department;

(B)  develop expansive professional networks internally and with other organizations to broaden communication;

(C)  practice and participate in the process of determining how to recruit a diverse workforce in an equitable manner;

(D)  apply interpersonal skills to grasp opportunities and manage conflicts in a positive and constructive manner;

(E)  emphasize the need to infuse understanding of vision, missions, and goals into all departmental activities;

(F)  analyze the concept of risk management; and

(G)  legally publicize all meetings at which budget and allocation decisions are to be discussed.

(4)  The student practices the process of facilitating the flow of ideas and information to keep the agency and its constituency informed of departmental policies and operations. The student is expected to:

(A)  address reluctance of employees to share work product and intellectual property;

(B)  restate complex technical information or issues in language the general public can understand;

(C)  explain, justify, or discuss public issues effectively;

(D)  present techniques effectively to handle difficult interviews and situations effectively; and

(E)  afford the public equal opportunity of access to all open records.

(5)  The student uses agency expertise used by elected officials and others to identify, implement, and achieve common goals and objectives. The student is expected to:

(A)  obtain relevant data relating to public management and non-public management from reliable sources;

(B)  apply pertinent research and analytical methodologies; and

(C)  assess the impact of probable changes on the public.

(6)  The student uses planning and fiscal services used to fund agency priorities. The student is expected to:

(A)  estimate costs according to standards for government accounting;

(B)  propose options over a range of cost requirements;

(C)  analyze government resources to find possibilities for new or increased funding of programs; and

(D)  prepare budgets.

(7)  The student develops and manages plans and systems that would meet agency needs without wasting funds or engaging in unethical behavior. The student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate an understanding of how to assist departmental staff to fulfill procurement requirements;

(B)  recommend process changes to improve vendor reliability and performance;

(C)  determine means of public announcements to elicit vendor interest and bids from qualified sources;

(D)  identify sources that match approved vendor criteria;

(E)  manage an evaluation process that would ensure each bid, proposal, or offer is evaluated completely in terms of all relevant and ethical criteria; and

(F)  identify ways to safeguard proprietary information of bidders and the rights of procurement and determine the need for outside consults.

(8)  The student applies laws and policies to protect or disclose information as appropriate. The student is expected to:

(A)  maintain thorough familiarity with public information requirements and records maintenance and retention requirements such as the Public Information Act (Texas Government Code, Chapter 552) and the records retention requirements of Texas Government Code, Chapter 441, and Texas Local Government Code, Chapters 201-205;

(B)  identify how to explain policy background and rationale to persons denied access to certain public information; and

(C)  compare and contrast the reliable controls to prevent unauthorized access to or release of privileged information.

Source: The provisions of this §130.208 adopted to be effective August 28, 2017, 40 TexReg 9123.


§130.209. Revenue, Taxation, and Regulation (One Credit), Adopted 2015.

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10-12. Recommended prerequisite: Principles of Government and Public Administration or Accounting I and II. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course.

(b)  Introduction.

(1)  Career and technical education instruction provides content aligned with challenging academic standards and relevant technical knowledge and skills for students to further their education and succeed in current or emerging professions.

(2)  The Government and Public Administration Career Cluster focuses on planning and performing governmental functions at the local, state, and federal levels, including governance, national security, foreign service, planning, revenue and taxation, and regulations.

(3)  Revenue, Taxation, and Regulation provides an overview of law and investigative principles and follows agency procedures to examine evidence and ensure revenue compliance. In addition, students will learn to facilitate clear and positive communication with taxpayers and become familiar with data analysis systems and revenue-related financial problems. Students will prepare projects and class activities to simulate the skills needed to enforce legal compliance and regulatory standards.

(4)  Students are encouraged to participate in extended learning experiences such as career and technical student organizations and other leadership or extracurricular organizations.

(5)  Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student demonstrates professional standards/employability skills as required by business and industry. The student is expected to:

(A)  communicate effectively with others using oral and written skills;

(B)  demonstrate collaboration skills through teamwork;

(C)  demonstrate professionalism by conducting oneself in a manner appropriate for the profession and workplace;

(D)  demonstrate a positive, productive work ethic by performing assigned tasks as directed;

(E)  show integrity by choosing the ethical course of action and complying with all applicable rules, laws, and regulations; and

(F)  demonstrate time-management skills by prioritizing tasks, following schedules, and tending to goal-relevant activities in a way that uses time wisely and optimizes efficiency and results.

(2)  The student explores the investigation and evidence collection process in mock situations similar to regulatory commissions and agents. The student is expected to:

(A)  investigate potential violators by exploring leads and conducting mock client interviews;

(B)  model persuasive techniques to gain cooperation such as subpoenas and other ethically and legally acceptable means;

(C)  identify and differentiate between relevant and irrelevant evidence and information;

(D)  examine evidence of crimes and violations while preserving and observing the rules of evidence;

(E)  examine business, commercial, industrial, and agency records for accuracy and compliance;

(F)  organize facts accurately, objectively, logically, and concisely;

(G)  analyze matters that are prohibited or concern invasion of privacy; and

(H)  simulate conducting surveillance while recording facts about observed persons, objects, and events.

(3)  The student analyzes the process of agency communication with the public. The student is expected to:

(A)  analyze the common accounting problem of costs deviating from standards;

(B)  compare and contrast ways to coordinate work and organize information with others performing similar tasks;

(C)  simulate releasing public information to minimize controversy;

(D)  identify problems that arise regarding flow of information after research responsibilities are assigned and completed;

(E)  create a solution to the problem of information flow and communication; and

(F)  demonstrate the ability to present authoritative advice to interested parties and acquainting them with available services.

(4)  The student uses critical-thinking and problem-solving skills for revenue, taxation, and regulation by analysis and interpretation of accounting data and collection activities. The student is expected to:

(A)  analyze data to identify matters needing negotiations for resolution;

(B)  explore and identify different noncompliant practices;

(C)  recommend application of administrative and judicial remedies; and

(D)  produce mock reports to provide a basis for handling similar cases or audits.

(5)  The student is expected to scrutinize regulatory investigations and enforcement. The student is expected to:

(A)  conduct dimensional, operational, and process inspections;

(B)  measure compliance with standards, specifications, and requirements;

(C)  monitor a variety of quality characteristics;

(D)  research consequences of degrees of noncompliance;

(E)  investigate history and circumstances of violations; and

(F)  secure expertise and make referrals as needed.

Source: The provisions of this §130.209 adopted to be effective August 28, 2017, 40 TexReg 9123.


§130.210. Practicum in Local, State, and Federal Government (Two Credits), Adopted 2015.

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 11 and 12. The practicum course is a paid or unpaid capstone experience for students participating in a coherent sequence of courses in the Government and Public Administration Career Cluster. Students shall be awarded two credits for successful completion of this course. A student may repeat this course once for credit provided that the student is experiencing different aspects of the industry and demonstrating proficiency in additional and more advanced knowledge and skills.

(b)  Introduction.

(1)  Career and technical education instruction provides content aligned with challenging academic standards and relevant technical knowledge and skills for students to further their education and succeed in current or emerging professions.

(2)  The Government and Public Administration Career Cluster focuses on planning and performing governmental functions at the local, state, and federal levels, including governance, national security, foreign service, planning, revenue and taxation, and regulations.

(3)  Students in the Practicum in Local, State, and Federal Government will concurrently learn advanced concepts of political science and government workings in the classroom setting and in the workplace. In addition, students will apply technical skills pertaining to government and public administration in a direct mentorship by individuals in professional settings such as government, public management and administration, national security, municipal planning, foreign service, revenue, taxation, and regulation.

(4)  Students are encouraged to participate in extended learning experiences such as career and technical student organizations and other leadership or extracurricular organizations.

(5)  Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student demonstrates professional standards/employability skills as required by business and industry. The student is expected to:

(A)  communicate effectively with others using oral and written skills;

(B)  demonstrate collaboration skills through teamwork;

(C)  demonstrate professionalism by conducting oneself in a manner appropriate for the profession and workplace;

(D)  demonstrate a positive, productive work ethic by performing assigned tasks as directed;

(E)  show integrity by choosing the ethical course of action and complying with all applicable rules, laws, and regulations; and

(F)  demonstrate time-management skills by prioritizing tasks, following schedules, and tending to goal-relevant activities in a way that uses time wisely and optimizes efficiency and results.

(2)  The student analyzes classical and modern political theories. The student is expected to:

(A)  review the works of theorists such as Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, Machiavelli, Confucius, Hobbes, Locke, Hegel, and Marx; and

(B)  analyze contributions to modern political science from classical theorists such as Polybius, St. Thomas Aquinas, Dante, Bodin, Montesquieu, Kautilya, Ibn Khaldun, Hume, Rousseau, Kant, Smith, Nietzsche, Gandhi, and Keynes.

(3)  The student analyzes the U.S. Constitution and constitutional law. The student is expected to:

(A)  review basic information related to the U.S. Constitution such as the Articles of Confederation, framers of the Constitution, constitutional conventions, separation of powers, checks and balances, ratification, and the amendment process; and

(B)  create a classroom Constitution and Bill of Rights simulating the U.S. Constitution.

(4)  The student explores government ethics. The student is expected to formulate a plan for avoiding ethical problems in the future.

(5)  The student conducts a project using analytical problem-solving techniques. The student is expected to:

(A)  research a problem such as a government and public administration issue, a feasibility study, or a product evaluation;

(B)  investigate the issues associated with the problem;

(C)  collect primary data such as interviews, surveys, and observations;

(D)  express thoughts logically and sequentially in preparing a formal report;

(E)  interpret and present quantitative data in graph format within the report;

(F)  prepare visuals and handouts to support the presentation; and

(G)  make a final presentation of the study to the appropriate stakeholders.

(6)  The student documents knowledge and skills attained in the practicum. The student is expected to:

(A)  update a professional portfolio to include recognitions, awards, scholarships, a resume, a sample of work, and an evaluation from the practicum supervisor; and

(B)  present the portfolio to interested stakeholders.

Source: The provisions of this §130.210 adopted to be effective August 28, 2017, 40 TexReg 9123.


§130.211. Extended Practicum in Local, State, and Federal Government (One Credit), Adopted 2015.

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 11 and 12. The practicum course is a paid or unpaid capstone experience for students participating in a coherent sequence of career and technical education courses in the Government and Public Administration Career Cluster. Corequisite: Practicum in Local, State, and Federal Government. This course must be taken concurrently with Practicum in Local, State, and Federal Government and may not be taken as a stand-alone course. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. A student may repeat this course once for credit provided that the student is experiencing different aspects of the industry and demonstrating proficiency in additional and more advanced knowledge and skills.

(b)  Introduction.

(1)  Career and technical education instruction provides content aligned with challenging academic standards and relevant technical knowledge and skills for students to further their education and succeed in current or emerging professions.

(2)  The Government and Public Administration Career Cluster focuses on planning and performing governmental functions at the local, state, and federal levels, including governance, national security, foreign service, planning, revenue and taxation, and regulations.

(3)  Students in the Extended Practicum in Local, State, and Federal Government will concurrently learn advanced concepts of political science and government workings in the classroom setting and in the workplace. In addition, students will apply technical skills pertaining to government and public administration in a direct mentorship by individuals in professional settings such as government, public management and administration, national security, municipal planning, foreign service, revenue, taxation, and regulation.

(4)  Students are encouraged to participate in extended learning experiences such as career and technical student organizations and other leadership or extracurricular organizations.

(5)  Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student demonstrates professional standards/employability skills as required by business and industry. The student is expected to:

(A)  participate in a paid or unpaid, laboratory- or work-based application of previously studied knowledge and skills related to government or public administration;

(B)  participate in training, education, or preparation for licensure, certification, or other relevant credentials to prepare for employment;

(C)  demonstrate professional standards and personal qualities needed to be employable such as leadership, teamwork, appreciation for diversity, conflict management, work ethic, and adaptability with increased fluency;

(D)  demonstrate technology applications skills such as effective use of social media, email, Internet, publishing tools, presentation tools, spreadsheets, or databases to enhance work products with increased fluency; and

(E)  employ effective planning and time-management skills with increased fluency by prioritizing tasks, following schedules, and tending to goal-relevant activities in a way that uses time wisely and optimizes efficiency and results.

(2)  The student implements advanced professional communications strategies. The student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate verbal and non-verbal communication consistently in a clear, concise, and effective manner;

(B)  analyze, interpret, and effectively communicate information, data, and observations;

(C)  create and deliver formal and informal presentations in an effective manner; and

(D)  observe and interpret verbal and nonverbal cues and behaviors to enhance communication.

(3)  The student applies concepts of critical thinking and problem solving. The student is expected to:

(A)  employ critical-thinking skills with increased fluency both independently and in groups to solve problems and make decisions; and

(B)  analyze elements of a problem to develop creative and innovative solutions.

(4)  The student understands the professional, ethical, and legal responsibilities in government and public administration. The student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate a positive, productive work ethic by performing assigned tasks as directed;

(B)  show integrity by choosing the ethical course of action when making decisions; and

(C)  comply with all applicable rules, laws, and regulations in a consistent manner.

(5)  The student conducts a project using analytical problem-solving techniques. The student is expected to:

(A)  conduct, document, and evaluate learning activities in a supervised government or public administration experience;

(B)  research a problem, complete a feasibility study, or complete a product evaluation related to a government and public administration issue;

(C)  collect primary data such as interviews, surveys, and observations;

(D)  interpret and present quantitative data;

(E)  evaluate strengths and weaknesses in technical skill proficiency; and

(F)  collect representative work samples.

Source: The provisions of this §130.211 adopted to be effective August 28, 2017, 41 TexReg 614.