Chapter 130. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Career and Technical Education

Subchapter N. Marketing


Statutory Authority: The provisions of this Subchapter N issued under the Texas Education Code, §§7.102(c)(4), 28.002, 28.0022, and 28.025, unless otherwise noted.


§130.341. Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Marketing.

The provisions of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2010-2011 school year.

Source: The provisions of this §130.341 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5940.


§130.342. Advertising and Sales Promotion (One-Half to One Credit).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 9-12. Recommended prerequisite: Principles of Business, Marketing, and Finance.

(b)  Introduction. Advertising and Sales Promotion is designed as a comprehensive introduction to the principles and practices of advertising. Students will gain knowledge of techniques used in current advertising, including print, broadcast, and digital media. The course explores the social, ethical, and legal issues of advertising, historical influences, strategies, and media decision processes as well as integrated marketing communications. The course provides an overview of how communication tools can be used to reach target audiences and increase consumer knowledge.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student knows business concepts and explains how business satisfies economic needs. The student is expected to:

(A)  categorize business activities such as production, marketing, management, or finance;

(B)  explain the interdependence each business activity has with marketing;

(C)  differentiate the implications of business conduct using advertising examples;

(D)  illustrate how international marketing affects the advertising industry; and

(E)  explain the impact of multiculturalism and multigenerationalism on advertising marketing activities.

(2)  The student knows the importance of marketing as well as the functions of marketing. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the marketing concept;

(B)  recognize marketing functions and how they relate to advertising;

(C)  explain how each component of the marketing mix contributes to successful marketing;

(D)  identify the importance of target markets;

(E)  describe advantages and disadvantages of market segmentation and mass marketing; and

(F)  research trends and emerging technologies affecting advertising marketing.

(3)  The student knows the impact and value of diversity. The student is expected to:

(A)  express elements of culture and the need for understanding cultural diversity; and

(B)  identify how diversity affects sports and entertainment marketing.

(4)  The student knows how to use self-development techniques and interpersonal skills to accomplish marketing objectives. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain and practice effective interpersonal and team-building skills with coworkers, managers, and customers;

(B)  participate in leadership and career development activities such as student organizations and local chambers of commerce; and

(C)  identify the role of professional organizations, trade associations, and labor unions in the advertising industry.

(5)  The student knows that distribution channel members facilitate the movement of plans. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain channels of distribution for advertising marketing plans; and

(B)  describe activities of each channel member.

(6)  The student knows that financial planning is necessary for the market's success and solvency. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify sources of financial assistance;

(B)  explain the purpose of financial records such as budget, balance sheet, and income statement; and

(C)  discover the relationship of perishability to profit and loss.

(7)  The student knows the nature and scope of advertising marketing. The student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate knowledge of the history of advertising as an industry and how it relates to today's marketplace;

(B)  distinguish among advertising marketing terms;

(C)  list major environmental influences on advertising marketing demand;

(D)  research advertising information; and

(E)  explain legislation that impacts advertising.

(8)  The student knows that a career in advertising marketing requires knowledge of demographics. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain how the use of demographics has influenced the industry;

(B)  differentiate between buying habits and buying preferences; and

(C)  research the use of technology in advertising, design, production, and distribution.

(9)  The student analyzes that a career in advertising marketing requires knowledge of the industry. The student is expected to:

(A)  research careers in the advertising marketing industry; and

(B)  list and describe businesses related to advertising.

(10)  The student guides staff to improve their success rate and to minimize staff turnover. The student is expected to:

(A)  introduce the following five steps of selling:

(i)  approach the customer;

(ii)  determine needs;

(iii)  present the product;

(iv)  overcome objections; and

(v)  close the sale.

(B)  provide information about incoming merchandise to sales staff;

(C)  monitor on-floor selling activities; and

(D)  control sales activities to meet sales goals and objectives.

(11)  The student knows the importance of teamwork, leadership, integrity, honesty, work habits, and organizational skills. The student is expected to:

(A)  illustrate how teams function;

(B)  use teamwork to solve problems;

(C)  distinguish between the roles of team leaders and team members;

(D)  identify characteristics of good leaders;

(E)  categorize employers' expectations and appropriate work habits;

(F)  define discrimination, harassment, and equality;

(G)  use time-management techniques to develop and maintain schedules and meet deadlines;

(H)  express how teams measure their results; and

(I)  develop two methods to recognize and reward team performance.

(12)  The student evaluates and uses information resources to accomplish specific occupational tasks. The student is expected to:

(A)  use informational texts, Internet websites, and technical materials to review and apply information sources for occupational tasks; and

(B)  evaluate the reliability and credibility of information from informational texts, Internet websites, and technical materials and resources.

(13)  The student develops and delivers formal and informal presentations using appropriate media to engage and inform audiences. The student is expected to:

(A)  prepare oral presentations to provide information for specific purposes and audiences;

(B)  identify and prepare support materials that will enhance an oral presentation; and

(C)  deliver an oral presentation that sustains listener attention and interest.

(14)  The student applies active listening skills to obtain and clarify information. The student is expected to:

(A)  interpret a given verbal message of information; and

(B)  respond with restatement and clarification techniques.

(15)  The student knows the marketing-information system. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain characteristics and purposes of a marketing-information system;

(B)  identify benefits and limitations of marketing research;

(C)  explain the use of inventory control information; and

(D)  analyze data used to make accurate forecasts.

(16)  The student knows pricing policies, objectives, and strategies. The student is expected to:

(A)  compare and contrast pricing policies;

(B)  develop a sample credit policy that could be a useful advertising marketing strategy; and

(C)  analyze the price of an advertising marketing product.

(17)  The student knows the elements and processes of product planning. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe stages of new-product planning;

(B)  define product mix; and

(C)  identify stages of the product life cycle for new or existing advertising marketing plans.

(18)  The student knows that successful marketers must develop, implement, and evaluate a promotional plan. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify components of the promotional mix such as advertising, visual merchandising, and personal selling;

(B)  demonstrate visual merchandising techniques for advertising marketing goods, services, or ideas; and

(C)  analyze a promotional plan for effectiveness.

(19)  The student knows that advertising occurs as steps in a continuous cycle. The student is expected to:

(A)  justify between buying for resale and buying for organization use;

(B)  explain the importance of identifying needs as the first step of the advertising process; and

(C)  prepare a buying plan, complete purchase orders, and process invoices.

(20)  The student knows that various types of risks impact business activities. The student is expected to:

(A)  categorize business risks; and

(B)  explain methods a business uses to control risks such as surveillance and safety training.

(21)  The student knows the role of selling in a private enterprise economy. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain how selling contributes to economic activity;

(B)  describe the process of selecting and advertising merchandise; and

(C)  demonstrate steps in the selling process using advertising plans.

Source: The provisions of this §130.342 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5940.


§130.343. Fashion Marketing (One-Half to One Credit).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 9-12. Recommended prerequisite: Principles of Business, Marketing, and Finance.

(b)  Introduction. Fashion Marketing is designed to provide students with knowledge of the various business functions in the fashion industry. Students in Fashion Marketing will gain a working knowledge of promotion, textiles, merchandising, mathematics, selling, visual merchandising, and career opportunities.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student knows business concepts and how business satisfies economic needs. The student is expected to:

(A)  categorize business activities such as production, marketing, management, or finance;

(B)  explain the interdependence each business activity has with marketing;

(C)  explain the implications of business conduct using fashion industry examples; and

(D)  describe how international marketing has affected the fashion industry.

(2)  The student knows the importance and functions of marketing. The student is expected to:

(A)  rationalize the marketing concept;

(B)  describe each marketing function and how it relates to the fashion industry;

(C)  explain how each component of the marketing mix contributes to successful marketing;

(D)  employ concepts and strategies used to determine and target marketing strategies to a select audience in order to facilitate merchandising activities;

(E)  describe advantages and disadvantages of market segmentation and mass marketing; and

(F)  research trends and emerging technologies affecting fashion marketing.

(3)  The student knows the impact and value of diversity. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain elements of culture and the need for understanding cultural diversity; and

(B)  identify how diversity affects fashion.

(4)  The student demonstrates the use of oral and written communication skills in creating, expressing, and interpreting information and ideas, including technical terminology and information. The student is expected to:

(A)  select and employ appropriate reading and communication strategies and learn and use technical concepts and vocabulary in practice;

(B)  demonstrate use of the concepts, strategies, and systems for obtaining and conveying ideas and information to enhance communication in the workplace;

(C)  locate, organize, and reference written information from various sources to communicate with others;

(D)  evaluate and use information resources to accomplish specific occupational tasks;

(E)  use correct grammar, punctuation, and terminology to write and edit documents;

(F)  develop and deliver formal and informal presentations using appropriate media to engage and inform audiences;

(G)  interpret verbal and nonverbal behaviors to enhance communication with coworkers and others;

(H)  apply active listening skills to obtain and clarify information;

(I)  develop and interpret tables, charts, and figures to support written and oral communication;

(J)  listen and speak with diverse individuals to enhance communication skills; and

(K)  exhibit public relations skills to increase internal and external customer satisfaction.

(5)  The student knows how to use self-development techniques and interpersonal skills to accomplish marketing objectives. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain and practice effective interpersonal and team-building skills with others;

(B)  participate in leadership and career development activities; and

(C)  explain the role of professional organizations, trade associations, and labor unions in the fashion industry.

(6)  The student knows that distribution channel members facilitate the movement of products. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain channels of distribution for fashion products;

(B)  describe activities of each channel member in the fashion industry;

(C)  acquire knowledge of distribution systems to understand their role in retailing; and

(D)  assess distribution strategies to improve effectiveness and minimize costs.

(7)  The student knows that financial planning is necessary for success in the fashion industry. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify sources of financial assistance; and

(B)  explain the purpose of financial records such as budgets, balance sheets, and income statements.

(8)  The student knows the marketing-information system. The student is expected to:

(A)  clarify characteristics and purposes of a marketing-information system;

(B)  identify benefits and limitations of marketing research;

(C)  explain the use of inventory control information such as to prepare financial reports and make buying decisions; and

(D)  analyze data used to make accurate retail forecasts.

(9)  The student knows concepts and strategies used in determining and adjusting prices to maximize return and meet customer's perceptions of value. The student is expected to:

(A)  employ pricing strategies to determine prices;

(B)  develop a sample credit policy that could be a useful fashion marketing strategy; and

(C)  analyze the price of a fashion product.

(10)  The student knows merchandising concepts and processes used in obtaining, developing, maintaining, and improving a product or service to respond to marketing opportunities. The student is expected to:

(A)  use assortment-mix strategies to create maximum mix of products at minimum cost;

(B)  develop merchandise plans and budgets to guide selection of retail products;

(C)  perform buying activities to obtain products for resale;

(D)  analyze vendor performance to choose vendors and merchandise; and

(E)  position products and services to acquire desired business image.

(11)  The student knows that a successful marketer must communicate information on retail products, services, images, and ideas to achieve a desired outcome. The student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate methods of advertising to communicate promotional messages to targeted audiences;

(B)  use special events to increase sales;

(C)  display visual merchandising techniques to increase interest in product offerings;

(D)  implement display techniques to attract customers and increase sales potential; and

(E)  manage promotional activities to maximize return on promotional efforts.

(12)  The student knows that purchasing occurs as steps in a continuous cycle. The student is expected to:

(A)  distinguish between buying for resale and buying for organization use;

(B)  explain the importance of identifying needs as the first step of the purchasing process; and

(C)  demonstrate knowledge of the fashion buying process such as preparing a buying plan, completing purchase orders, and processing invoices.

(13)  The student knows that various types of risks impact business activities. The student is expected to:

(A)  categorize business risks; and

(B)  explain methods a business uses to control risks such as surveillance and safety training.

(14)  The student demonstrates an understanding of concepts and actions to determine client needs and wants and responds through planned, personalized communication to influence purchase decisions and enhance future retail opportunities. The student is expected to:

(A)  acquire product knowledge to communicate product benefits and to ensure appropriateness of product for the customer;

(B)  employ sales processes and techniques to enhance customer relationships and to increase the likelihood of making sales;

(C)  describe support activities to facilitate the selling process;

(D)  collect payment from customers to complete customer transactions; and

(E)  guide sales staff to improve their success rate and to minimize staff turnover.

(15)  The student knows the nature and scope of fashion. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the importance of fashion;

(B)  demonstrate knowledge of fashion history and how it relates to today's fashions;

(C)  distinguish among fashion terms such as fashion, style, and design;

(D)  list major environmental influences on fashion demand;

(E)  research fashion information; and

(F)  explain legislation that impacts the fashion industry.

(16)  The student knows that a career in fashion marketing requires knowledge of textiles and design. The student is expected to:

(A)  clarify how the development of textiles has influenced the fashion industry;

(B)  differentiate between natural and synthetic fibers;

(C)  explain elements and principles of design in fashion apparel;

(D)  list the steps from apparel design to the finished product; and

(E)  research the use of technology in fashion design, production, and distribution.

(17)  The student knows that a career in fashion marketing requires knowledge of the industry. The student is expected to:

(A)  research careers in the fashion industry;

(B)  list and describe businesses related to the fashion industry; and

(C)  delineate components of softlines such as sportswear, footwear, and men's and children's fashions.

(18)  The student knows that a professional must complete required training, education, and certification to prepare for employment in a particular career field. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify training, education, and certification requirements for occupational choice;

(B)  participate in career-related training and/or degree programs; and

(C)  prepare for licensure or certification in a chosen occupational area.

(19)  The student demonstrates mathematics knowledge and skills required to pursue the full-range of postsecondary education and career opportunities. The student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate use of relational expressions such as equal to, not equal to, greater than, and less than;

(B)  apply data and measurements to solve a problem;

(C)  analyze mathematical problem statements for missing or irrelevant data;

(D)  construct charts, tables, and graphs from functions and data; and

(E)  analyze data when interpreting operational documents.

(20)  The student has an understanding of business responsibility to know and abide by laws, regulations, and ethical behavior that affect business operations and transactions. The student is expected to:

(A)  apply ethics to demonstrate trustworthiness;

(B)  justify the nature of business ethics;

(C)  demonstrate responsible behavior, honesty, integrity, and ethical work habits;

(D)  describe legal issues affecting businesses;

(E)  depict the nature of human resources regulations;

(F)  explain the nature of workplace regulations such as Occupational Safety and Health Administration and statutes such as the Americans with Disabilities Act;

(G)  discuss employment relationships;

(H)  explain the nature of trade regulations; and

(I)  describe the impact of antitrust legislation.

(21)  The student applies ethical reasoning to a variety of workplace situations to make ethical decisions. The student is expected to:

(A)  evaluate alternative responses to workplace situations based on legal responsibilities and employer policies;

(B)  analyze alternative responses to workplace situations based on personal or professional ethical responsibilities;

(C)  identify personal and long-term workplace consequences of unethical or illegal behaviors;

(D)  explain personal and long-term workplace consequences of unethical or illegal behaviors; and

(E)  determine and explain the most appropriate response to workplace situations based on legal and ethical considerations.

Source: The provisions of this §130.343 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5940.


§130.344. Entrepreneurship (One-Half to One Credit).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 9-12. Recommended prerequisite: Principles of Business, Marketing, and Finance.

(b)  Introduction. Students will gain the knowledge and skills needed to become an entrepreneur. Students will learn the principles necessary to begin and operate a business. The primary focus of the course is to help students understand the process of analyzing a business opportunity, preparing a business plan, determining feasibility of an idea using research, and developing a plan to organize and promote the business and its products and services. In addition, students understand the capital required, the return on investment desired, and the potential for profit.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student demonstrates an understanding of entrepreneurship and the entrepreneurial way of life. The student is expected to:

(A)  clarify the terms entrepreneurship and entrepreneur;

(B)  define small business;

(C)  illustrate why someone may want to be an entrepreneur;

(D)  explain how integrity and ethical behavior apply to a small business; and

(E)  depict franchising and research franchise opportunities online.

(2)  The student visits local franchises and obtains franchise information such as pamphlets and brochures. The student is expected to:

(A)  obtain advertisements of franchises in local newspapers and other periodicals;

(B)  analyze the advantages and disadvantages of franchising;

(C)  research the Federal Trade Commission requirements of a Uniform Franchise Offering Circular;

(D)  investigate state requirements for disclosure statements prior to purchasing a franchise; and

(E)  explore the issues involved with taking over an existing family business or expanding an existing family business to create additional entrepreneurial opportunities.

(3)  The student identifies the importance of a well-written business plan. The student is expected to:

(A)  categorize a business plan and the need for a well-orchestrated business plan;

(B)  research business plan outlines, resources, and templates using web search engines;

(C)  explain a marketing plan, including price competition, non-price competition, market analysis, competition, marketing research, market segmentation, demographics, and sales forecasting;

(D)  identify a legal plan, including the appropriate form for legal organization, including sole proprietorship, partnership, corporation, and S corporation;

(E)  describe a leadership team;

(F)  develop a financial plan;

(G)  explain the idea of a harvest plan, including selling the business, going public, releasing cash flow, using private equity, and liquidating the business; and

(H)  create and present a well-orchestrated business plan and critically explain the contents.

(4)  The student explains and demonstrates how to meet the needs of the customer. The student is expected to:

(A)  portray how to build customer relationships;

(B)  explain product management;

(C)  describe supply chain management;

(D)  demonstrate how to calculate prices, markups, and discounts;

(E)  depict how to determine consumer credit decisions;

(F)  illustrate how to promote the product or service to the consumer;

(G)  create a location plan, including inside and outside sales and service, buying or building a location, renting or leasing a location, home-based business, and online or virtual business location; and

(H)  research the financial plan, including financial requirements and sources of financing.

(5)  The student explains and demonstrates how to meet the needs of a growing organization. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the role of professional management in the growing organization;

(B)  expound on the role of effective human resources management in the growing business, including recruitment, selection, training, development, compensation, labor relations, employee rights, sexual harassment, and discrimination;

(C)  describe the role of operations and organization in the growing business; and

(D)  defend the need to manage risk in the growing business, including insurance and legal advice and consultation.

(6)  The student identifies financial and accounting terms and forms. The student is expected to:

(A)  clarify and define accounting functions and terms, including:

(i)  assets and types of assets, including cash, accounts receivable, fixed, liquid, illiquid, and inventory;

(ii)  liabilities and types of liabilities;

(iii)  accounts payable;

(iv)  long- and short-term debt;

(v)  owners' equity or net worth;

(vi)  balance sheet and balance sheet equation (A = L + OE);

(vii)  profit and loss statement;

(viii)  revenues and types of revenues;

(ix)  expenses and types of expenses;

(x)  alternative accounting options;

(xi)  internal accounting controls;

(xii)  budgeting; and

(xiii)  cash flow;

(B)  use common accounting forms to demonstrate an understanding of their functions and results;

(C)  identify how to evaluate and measure financial performance such as return on investment, return on assets, and return on equity and debt ratios; and

(D)  participate in leadership and career development activities.

(7)  The student is expected to demonstrate and explain financial and accounting terms and forms. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain and define basic accounting functions and terms, including assets and types of assets, cash, accounts receivable, fixed, liquid, illiquid, and inventory goods on hand;

(B)  identify liabilities and types of liabilities such as accounts payable, long-term debt, and short-term debt;

(C)  calculate owners' equity or net worth;

(D)  create a balance sheet understanding the balance sheet equation (A = L + OE);

(E)  analyze profit and loss statement;

(F)  evaluate revenues and types of revenues;

(G)  determine expenses and types of expenses;

(H)  analyze alternative accounting and internal accounting controls;

(I)  discuss the importance of budgeting and cash flow;

(J)  use common accounting forms to demonstrate an understanding of their functions and results;

(K)  explain how to evaluate and measure financial performance and analyze cost and profit relationships to guide business decision making, including return on investment, return on assets, return on equity, and debt ratios;

(L)  analyze impact of specialization and division of labor on productivity;

(M)  explain the impact of the law of diminishing of returns; and

(N)  describe the concept of economies of scale.

(8)  The student uses leadership and teamwork skills in collaborating with others to accomplish organizational goals and objectives. The student is expected to participate in leadership and career development.

(9)  The student knows that offering consumer credit encourages the sale of goods, services, and ideas. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify types of consumer credit;

(B)  recommend types of consumer credit a business might offer; and

(C)  develop a credit policy.

(10)  The student knows that international economic factors affect business planning. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the nature of global trade;

(B)  describe the determinants of exchange rates and their effects on the domestic economy;

(C)  explain the impact of cultural and social environments on global trade;

(D)  explain labor issues associated with global trade;

(E)  identify strategies for entering international markets; and

(F)  compare and contrast how situations can influence the entrepreneur's selection of strategies.

(11)  The student knows that pricing has policies, objectives, and strategies. The student is expected to:

(A)  develop and analyze pricing objectives;

(B)  compare and contrast pricing policies for an entrepreneurial venture; and

(C)  recommend appropriate pricing strategies.

(12)  The student knows the effects of credit on price and profit. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain risks and benefits to entrepreneurs when accepting and extending credit; and

(B)  describe how credit affects profit and the negotiated price.

(13)  The student knows the importance of managing the pricing structure. The student is expected to:

(A)  communicate the differences among pricing structures for goods, services, and ideas; and

(B)  develop a pricing structure for an entrepreneurial venture.

(14)  The student knows elements and processes of product planning. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe stages of new-product planning;

(B)  define the term product mix; and

(C)  identify stages of the product life cycle for new or existing products.

(15)  The student knows the process for development, implementation, and evaluation of a promotional plan. The student is expected to:

(A)  illustrate the concept of promotional mix;

(B)  describe the interrelationship of visual merchandising, public relations and publicity, personal selling, and sales promotion with advertising;

(C)  use appropriate technology to create promotion plans; and

(D)  apply evaluation strategies to determine promotional campaign effectiveness.

(16)  The student knows that purchasing usually occurs in a continuous cycle. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain how entrepreneurs identify needs;

(B)  demonstrate the process of selecting suppliers and sources; and

(C)  analyze and discuss selection of goods and services based on a new business' operational needs.

(17)  The student knows that entrepreneurial risk is the possibility of loss or failure. The student is expected to:

(A)  categorize business risks such as human, natural, and economic;

(B)  classify business risks as pure or speculative, controllable or uncontrollable, and insurable or uninsurable;

(C)  explain security precautions as well as health, safety, and worker welfare regulations; and

(D)  analyze examples of business risks to recommend and defend risk-management strategies.

(18)  The student knows the importance of environmental concerns. The student is expected to:

(A)  discuss the responsibility of business on the local environment;

(B)  analyze the effect of packaging on the environment; and

(C)  examine the effects of Environmental Protection Agency regulations on business.

(19)  The student understands business ethics and legal responsibilities. The student is expected to:

(A)  employ ethical actions in obtaining and providing information to acquire the confidence of others by:

(i)  explaining ethical considerations in providing information;

(ii)  protecting confidential information; and

(iii)  determining information appropriate to obtain from a client or another employee;

(B)  manage internal and external business relationships to foster positive interactions by:

(i)  explaining the nature of human resources regulations;

(ii)  explaining the nature of workplace regulations; and

(iii)  discussing employment relationships; and

(C)  analyze the impact of ethical decisions.

(20)  The student acquires foundational knowledge of business laws and regulations to understand their nature and scope. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the legal issues affecting businesses; and

(B)  investigate the impact of the legal issues.

(21)  The student explains the civil foundations of the legal environment of business to demonstrate knowledge of contracts. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the basic torts relating to business enterprises; and

(B)  describe the nature of legally binding contracts.

(22)  The student explores the regulatory environment of business to understand the diversity of regulations. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe the nature of legal procedure;

(B)  discuss the nature of debtor-creditor relationships;

(C)  explain the nature of agency relationships;

(D)  discuss the nature of environmental law; and

(E)  identify the role of administrative law.

(23)  The student knows that distribution involves activities associated with the physical movement or transfer of ownership of products from producer to consumer. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify activities associated with transportation, storage, product handling, and inventory control;

(B)  explain how distribution can add value to goods, services, and ideas; and

(C)  determine costs associated with distribution.

(24)  The student knows that marketing research is a specific inquiry to solve a problem. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify benefits and limitations of marketing research;

(B)  identify components of the marketing research process;

(C)  explain how to use the marketing research process in order to identify potential markets, analyze demand, forecast sales, and make other decisions; and

(D)  use appropriate technology to describe the use of electronic data interchange in marketing information and research activities.

(25)  The student knows the process of collecting marketing information to facilitate decision making. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify sources of primary and secondary data;

(B)  obtain information from customer database;

(C)  explain web log data mining for marketing information;

(D)  collect information about the competition; and

(E)  conduct an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.

Source: The provisions of this §130.344 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5940.


§130.345. Retailing and E-tailing (One-Half to One Credit).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 9-12. Recommended prerequisite: Principles of Business, Marketing, and Finance.

(b)  Introduction. Students will have the opportunity to develop skills that involve electronic media techniques necessary for a business to compete in a global economy. Students will coordinate online and off-line marketing. Students will demonstrate critical-thinking skills using decision-making models, case studies, various technologies, and business scenarios.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student knows how to use information technology tools to manage and perform marketing-research responsibilities. The student is expected to:

(A)  assess the impact of technology on marketing research; and

(B)  determine types of technology needed by a company.

(2)  The student identifies business concepts and understands how retail businesses satisfy economic needs. The student is expected to:

(A)  categorize retailing activities such as buying and pricing, transporting and storing, advertising and selling, servicing, financing, and risk taking; and

(B)  explain the interdependence each retailing activity has with marketing and business.

(3)  The student knows the relationship of business and society. The student is expected to:

(A)  understand the ramifications of business conduct;

(B)  identify ways that businesses contribute to the community;

(C)  analyze the ethical issues and questions of everyday life;

(D)  apply critical-thinking skills to ethical issues, problems, and questions;

(E)  compare and contrast the roles of cultural diversity in society and understand and respect different ethical opinions;

(F)  cite evidence for research as an important element in problem solving; and

(G)  develop a logical argument establishing the importance of public discussion in finding answers to difficult ethical issues.

(4)  The student identifies the eight key ethical topics and analyzes each topic using a decision-making model. The student is expected to develop an understanding of office ethics, corporate ethics, outside influences on ethics, technology and ethics, communicating and ethics, employee and office ethics, and perceptions and behaviors.

(5)  The student knows how to design quantitative marketing research activities to ensure accuracy, appropriateness, and adequacy of data collection efforts. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the nature of actionable research;

(B)  compare business objectives with the expected use of the marketing research outcomes;

(C)  select appropriate research techniques;

(D)  identify the marketing research problem;

(E)  determine research approaches such as observation, survey, and experimentation appropriate to the research problem;

(F)  select data collection methods such as observations, mail, telephone, Internet, discussion groups, interviews, and scanners;

(G)  evaluate the relationship between the research purpose and the marketing research objectives;

(H)  estimate the value of research information;

(I)  develop sampling plans such as who, how many, and how chosen;

(J)  prepare research briefs and proposals;

(K)  control sources of error and bias such as response errors, interview errors, non-response errors, and sample design;

(L)  develop rating scales such as Likert, semantic differential, and behavior intention scales;

(M)  prepare diaries such as product, media-use, and contact; and

(N)  create simple questionnaires such as types of questions, question wording, routing, sequencing, length, and layout.

(6)  The student knows how to collect marketing information to facilitate decision making. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain how the marketing mix contributes to successful retailing;

(B)  explain the importance of target markets;

(C)  obtain information from customer databases;

(D)  obtain marketing information from online sources such as search engines, databases, blogs, and listservs;

(E)  explain web log data mining for marketing information;

(F)  track environmental changes that impact marketing such as technological changes, consumer trends, economic changes, and regulatory changes;

(G)  monitor sales data by volume, product, territory, channel, and time period;

(H)  identify transactional data through electronic means such as bar coding, optical scanners, automatic replenishment systems, electronic data interchange, and reader-sorters; and

(I)  describe advantages and disadvantages of market segmentation and mass marketing.

(7)  The student knows mathematics concepts in retailing and performs calculations manually and with the use of technology. The student is expected to:

(A)  complete sales transactions, returns, and adjustments;

(B)  apply mathematics concepts in retailing; and

(C)  evaluate data in tables, graphs, and charts.

(8)  The student communicates interpersonal skills, reports findings to others, and integrates listening, reading, speaking, writing, and nonverbal communication skills effectively. The student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate comprehension of technical and specialized written communication;

(B)  communicate effectively in a retail setting;

(C)  observe audience reaction and adjust presentation such as pace, tone, vocabulary, and body language to suite the audience;

(D)  use effective verbal and nonverbal response strategies to adjust the message in response to audience's facial expressions and body language;

(E)  set confidence levels;

(F)  test for significant differences, relationships, and associations;

(G)  use statistical inferences to make estimates or to test hypotheses;

(H)  identify types of modeling techniques;

(I)  apply mathematical modeling techniques; and

(J)  use statistical software systems.

(9)  The student knows the importance of teamwork, leadership, and organizational skills. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe how teams function;

(B)  participate in teamwork to solve problems;

(C)  distinguish between the roles of team leaders and team members;

(D)  identify characteristics of good leaders;

(E)  identify employers' expectations and appropriate work habits;

(F)  define discrimination, harassment, and equality;

(G)  apply time-management techniques to develop and maintain schedules and meet deadlines;

(H)  describe how teams measure results;

(I)  develop two methods to recognize and reward team performance;

(J)  participate in leadership and career development activities; and

(K)  identify and practice effective interpersonal and team-building skills.

(10)  The student develops basic knowledge of E-tailing principles. The student is expected to:

(A)  articulate different types of E-tailing; and

(B)  document the advantages and disadvantages of doing business on the web.

(11)  The student identifies the use of the Internet as a marketing tool. The student is expected to:

(A)  interpret the basic marketing functions and how they apply to E-tailing;

(B)  describe criteria for identifying a potential website product or service;

(C)  discover and identify the Internet tools and methods used to market goods and services;

(D)  depict target marketing and niche marketing in relation to E-tailing;

(E)  understand the importance of search engines optimization;

(F)  identify and illustrate customer service as it relates to E-tailing;

(G)  describe collection and payment options for websites; and

(H)  analyze various marketing functions in existing E-tailing sites.

(12)  The student identifies the ethical, legal, and security aspects of E-tailing. The student is expected to:

(A)  define, identify, and examine security concerns and threats;

(B)  identify security procedures and providers;

(C)  evaluate appropriate copyright and trademark compliance; and

(D)  identify relevant laws and explain how to obtain a copyright or trademark.

(13)  The student analyzes and creates an effective E-tailing website. The student is expected to:

(A)  develop website goals and objectives;

(B)  analyze website structure and design components such as text, graphics, digital images, animation, links, forms, frames, applets, and multimedia components;

(C)  identify methods of determining the Internet identity of a business;

(D)  explain how to obtain an Internet name;

(E)  construct and use appropriate tools in the creation of complex web pages containing forms, data collection, frames, and tables; and

(F)  evaluate and confirm appropriate tools in the creation of enhanced web pages.

(14)  The student knows that marketing research is a specific inquiry to solve a problem. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe types of marketing research used in retailing; and

(B)  list benefits and limitations of marketing research when applied to a retail situation.

(15)  The student demonstrates knowledge of retail pricing policies, objectives, and strategies. The student is expected to:

(A)  compare and contrast pricing policies and strategies among retail establishments; and

(B)  explain how business conduct often plays a major role in pricing decisions such as prices after a natural disaster.

(16)  The student knows controllable and uncontrollable variables that affect pricing. The student is expected to:

(A)  list controllable variables that impact price; and

(B)  describe uncontrollable variables that impact price.

(17)  The student knows that successful retailers develop, implement, and evaluate promotional plans. The student is expected to:

(A)  evaluate promotional objectives used in retail businesses;

(B)  explain legal and ethical issues involved in promotion; and

(C)  discuss how display, publicity, personal selling, and customer service work together to achieve retail promotional objectives.

(18)  The student knows that a retail establishment should project a positive image. The student is expected to:

(A)  classify components of image and critique the physical environment of a retail business; and

(B)  explain the impact of visual merchandising on retail sales.

(19)  The student knows that purchasing occurs in a continuous cycle. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain responsibilities of a retail buyer;

(B)  use current technology to examine a retail merchandise plan;

(C)  identify goods and services retailers use for daily operations; and

(D)  describe ways to reduce operational expenses.

(20)  The student knows that risks impact retail businesses. The student is expected to:

(A)  categorize types of business risks; and

(B)  explain methods retailers use to control risks such as surveillance, insurance, and safety training.

(21)  The student knows what influences retail customers before they make a purchase. The student is expected to:

(A)  discuss the Consumer Bill of Rights; and

(B)  identify a customer's buying motives.

(22)  The student knows the selling process. The student is expected to:

(A)  illustrate the importance of product and service knowledge when presenting sales demonstrations; and

(B)  prepare and deliver a sales presentation.

(23)  The student knows the important role each retail employee plays in providing exceptional customer service. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe employee actions and attitudes that result in customer satisfaction; and

(B)  identify management actions and attitudes that result in customer satisfaction.

Source: The provisions of this §130.345 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5940.


§130.346. Sports and Entertainment Marketing (One-Half to One Credit).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 9-12. Recommended prerequisite: Principles of Business, Marketing, and Finance.

(b)  Introduction. This course will provide students with a thorough understanding of the marketing concepts and theories that apply to sports and sporting events and entertainment. The areas this course will cover include basic marketing, target marketing and segmentation, sponsorship, event marketing, promotions, sponsorship proposals, and implementation of sports and entertainment marketing plans. This course will also provide students an opportunity to develop promotional plans, sponsorship proposals, endorsement contracts, sports and entertainment marketing plans, and evaluation and management techniques.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student knows business concepts and explains how business satisfies economic needs. The student is expected to:

(A)  categorize business activities such as production, marketing, management, or finance;

(B)  analyze the interdependence each business activity has with marketing;

(C)  explain the implications of business conduct using sports and entertainment examples;

(D)  describe how international marketing has affected the sports and entertainment industry; and

(E)  explain the impact of multiculturalism and multigenerationalism on sports and entertainment marketing activities.

(2)  The student knows the importance of marketing, as well as the functions of marketing. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the marketing concept as it relates to sports and entertainment;

(B)  describe each marketing function and how it relates to sports and entertainment;

(C)  explain how each component of the marketing mix contributes to successful marketing;

(D)  express the importance of target markets;

(E)  describe advantages and disadvantages of market segmentation and mass marketing; and

(F)  research trends and emerging technologies affecting sports and entertainment marketing.

(3)  The student knows the impact and value of diversity. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain elements of culture and the need for understanding cultural diversity; and

(B)  identify how diversity affects sports and entertainment markets.

(4)  The student knows how to use self-development techniques and interpersonal skills to accomplish marketing objectives. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain and practice effective interpersonal and team-building skills;

(B)  participate in leadership and career development activities such as student organizations and local chambers of commerce; and

(C)  justify the role of professional organizations, trade associations, and labor unions in the sports and entertainment industry.

(5)  The student knows that distribution channel members facilitate the movement of products. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain channels of distribution for sports and entertainment marketing products; and

(B)  describe activities of each channel member.

(6)  The student knows that financial planning is necessary for the marketer's success and solvency. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify sources of financial assistance;

(B)  critique the purpose of financial records such as budgets, balance sheets, and income statements; and

(C)  explain the relationship of perishability to profit and loss.

(7)  The student knows the marketing-information system. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain characteristics and purposes of a marketing-information system;

(B)  identify benefits and limitations of marketing research;

(C)  explain the use of inventory control information to prepare financial reports and make buying decisions; and

(D)  analyze data used to make accurate forecasts.

(8)  The student knows pricing policies, objectives, and strategies. The student is expected to:

(A)  compare and contrast pricing policies;

(B)  develop a sample credit policy that could be a useful sports and entertainment marketing strategy; and

(C)  analyze the price of a sports and entertainment marketing product.

(9)  The student knows the elements and processes of product planning. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe stages of new-product planning;

(B)  define product mix; and

(C)  identify stages of the product life cycle for new or existing sports or entertainment marketing products.

(10)  The student knows that successful marketers must develop, implement, and evaluate a promotional plan. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify components of the promotional mix such as advertising, visual merchandising, and personal selling;

(B)  demonstrate visual merchandising techniques for sports and entertainment marketing goods, services, or ideas; and

(C)  analyze a promotional plan for effectiveness.

(11)  The student knows that purchasing occurs as steps in a continuous cycle. The student is expected to:

(A)  distinguish between buying for resale and buying for organization use;

(B)  explain the importance of identifying needs as the first step of the purchasing process; and

(C)  demonstrate knowledge of the buying process such as preparing a buying plan, completing purchase orders, and processing invoices.

(12)  The student knows that various types of risks impact business activities. The student is expected to:

(A)  categorize business risks; and

(B)  explain methods a business uses to control risks such as surveillance and safety training.

(13)  The student identifies the role of selling in a private enterprise economy. The student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate how selling contributes to economic activity;

(B)  describe the process of selecting and merchandising sports and entertainment products; and

(C)  demonstrate steps in the selling process using sports and entertainment products.

(14)  The student identifies the nature and scope of sports and entertainment marketing. The student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate knowledge of the history of sports and entertainment as an industry and how it relates to today's marketplace;

(B)  distinguish among sports and entertainment marketing terms;

(C)  list major environmental influences on sports and entertainment demand;

(D)  research sports and entertainment marketing information; and

(E)  explain legislation that impacts sports and entertainment marketing.

(15)  The student knows that a career in sports and entertainment marketing requires knowledge of demographics. The student is expected to:

(A)  explore how the use of demographics has influenced the industry;

(B)  differentiate between buying habits and buying preferences; and

(C)  research the use of technology in sports and entertainment marketing design, production, and distribution.

(16)  The student knows that a career in sports and entertainment marketing requires knowledge of the industry. The student is expected to:

(A)  research careers in the sports and entertainment marketing industry; and

(B)  list and describe businesses related to sports and entertainment.

(17)  The student knows the importance of teamwork, leadership, and organizational skills. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe team function;

(B)  use teamwork to solve problems;

(C)  distinguish between the roles of team leaders and team members;

(D)  examine characteristics of good leaders;

(E)  identify employers' expectations and appropriate work habits;

(F)  define discrimination, harassment, and equality;

(G)  use time-management techniques to develop and maintain schedules and meet deadlines;

(H)  evaluate how teams measure their results; and

(I)  develop two methods to recognize and reward team performance.

(18)  The student evaluates and uses information resources to accomplish specific occupational tasks. The student is expected to:

(A)  use informational texts, Internet websites, and technical materials to review and apply information sources for occupational tasks; and

(B)  evaluate the reliability of information from informational texts, Internet websites, and technical materials and resources.

(19)  The student develops and delivers formal and informal presentations using appropriate media to engage and inform audiences. The student is expected to:

(A)  prepare oral presentations to provide information for specific purposes and audiences;

(B)  prepare support materials that will enhance an oral presentation; and

(C)  deliver an oral presentation that sustains audience attention and interest.

(20)  The student applies active listening skills to obtain and clarify information. The student is expected to:

(A)  interpret a given verbal message or information; and

(B)  respond with restatement and clarification techniques.

(21)  The student identifies reasons a sports property would use marketing. The student will be expected to:

(A)  describe activities to market a sports property;

(B)  define and simulate sports properties and marketing;

(C)  understand why teams use marketing; and

(D)  distinguish the different roles in sports.

(22)  The student will compare components of the event triangle and summarize exchanges for each. The student is expected to:

(A)  probe the components of the event triangle;

(B)  describe the exchanges developed in the event triangle; and

(C)  explain the effects of media broadcasting on the event triangle.

(23)  The student has an understanding of sponsorship proposals and contracts. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify components and content for a sponsorship proposal;

(B)  define and explain sponsorship issues;

(C)  categorize costs associated with a sponsorship;

(D)  identify types of sponsorship sales and relationship development;

(E)  examine benefits of sponsorship opportunities; and

(F)  explain laws that may effect a sponsorship agreement.

(24)  The student has an understanding of endorsement contracts. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify components of endorsement contracts;

(B)  discuss issues related to celebrity behavior on endorsements; and

(C)  research the rationale for a business to engage in endorsement contracts.

Source: The provisions of this §130.346 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5940.


§130.347. Marketing Dynamics (Two to Three Credits).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 11-12. Recommended prerequisite: Principles of Business, Marketing, and Finance.

(b)  Introduction. Marketing is a series of dynamic activities that focus on the customer to generate a profitable exchange. Students gain knowledge and skills that help them to be proficient in one or more of the marketing functional areas associated with distribution, financing, marketing information management, pricing, product planning, promotion, purchasing, risk management, and selling skills. Students integrate skills from academic subjects, information technology, interpersonal communication, and management training to make responsible decisions. This course may include paid or unpaid career preparation experience.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student knows business concepts and understands how business satisfies economic needs. The student is expected to:

(A)  categorize business activities as production, marketing, management, or finance;

(B)  explain the interdependence each business activity has with marketing;

(C)  express the impact of an international economy on business activities;

(D)  describe advantages and disadvantages of various forms of business ownership; and

(E)  describe the concept of economic resources.

(2)  The student knows the nature of business and shows its contribution to society. The student is expected to:

(A)  comprehend the ramifications of business conduct;

(B)  distinguish ways that businesses contribute to their community;

(C)  explain contributions that marketing makes to business and society;

(D)  portray the role of business in society;

(E)  describe types of business activities;

(F)  explain the organizational design of businesses;

(G)  discuss the global environment in which businesses operate;

(H)  depict factors that affect the business environment; and

(I)  express how organizations adapt to today's markets.

(3)  The student demonstrates the importance of marketing as well as the functions of marketing. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the marketing concept; and

(B)  describe each marketing function and how it illustrates the marketing concept.

(4)  The student analyzes the marketing mix which involves a combination of the decisions about product, price, place, promotion, and people. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain how each component of the marketing mix contributes to successful marketing; and

(B)  illustrate the importance of marketing strategies in the marketing mix.

(5)  The student knows the concepts and strategies used to determine target markets and market identification. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the importance of target markets;

(B)  compare and contrast advantages and disadvantages of market segmentation and mass marketing;

(C)  distinguish among geographic, demographic, psychographic, and behavioral segmentation;

(D)  explain the nature of marketing planning;

(E)  perform market analysis;

(F)  conduct a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis for use in the marketing planning process; and

(G)  create a marketing plan.

(6)  The student applies mathematical concepts in marketing. The student is expected to:

(A)  execute calculations involving money, time, space, materials, and data;

(B)  interpret charts and graphs to make informed marketing decisions;

(C)  use formulas and equations to determine price, profit, costs, and break-even point;

(D)  recognize relationships among numbers;

(E)  perform mathematical operations;

(F)  predict reasonable estimations;

(G)  create mathematical models from real-life situations;

(H)  determine rate of change mathematically;

(I)  depict methods of collecting relevant data;

(J)  express the organization of useful data; and

(K)  illustrate the use of relational expressions such as equal to, not equal to, greater than, and less than.

(7)  The student integrates listening, reading, speaking, writing, and nonverbal communication skills effectively. The student is expected to:

(A)  communicate effectively in a business setting;

(B)  develop effective business correspondence such as memoranda, business letters, and reports using correct grammar, spelling, punctuation, and format;

(C)  use technology in receiving and sending business communication;

(D)  apply written directions to achieve tasks;

(E)  analyze company resources to ascertain policies and procedures;

(F)  employ communication styles appropriate to target audience;

(G)  handle telephone calls in a businesslike manner;

(H)  make oral presentations;

(I)  prepare oral presentations to provide information for specific purposes and audiences;

(J)  identify support materials that will enhance an oral presentation;

(K)  construct support materials that will enhance an oral presentation;

(L)  align presentation strategies to the intended audience; and

(M)  implement multimedia strategies for presentations.

(8)  The student knows how to use self-development techniques and interpersonal skills to accomplish marketing objectives. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify and practice effective interpersonal and team-building skills involving situations with coworkers, managers, and customers;

(B)  develop short- and long-term personal goals;

(C)  identify and use time-management principles; and

(D)  participate in leadership and career development activities.

(9)  The student applies information technology as an effective marketing tool. The student is expected to:

(A)  use information technology tools in marketing;

(B)  identify ways that technology impacts business;

(C)  describe the scope of the Internet in the marketing function;

(D)  perform web-search skills;

(E)  demonstrate word-processing skills;

(F)  exhibit presentation applications;

(G)  use database applications; and

(H)  execute spreadsheet applications.

(10)  The student recognizes that careers are ever changing and require continual self-assessment, research, and preparation to develop and implement responsible decisions. The student is expected to:

(A)  analyze self-assessment information, including interests, aptitudes, and personal traits;

(B)  research and assess employment trends in marketing careers;

(C)  locate and identify career opportunities that appeal to personal career goals;

(D)  match personal interest and aptitudes to selected careers;

(E)  model the steps for locating and securing employment;

(F)  use multiple resources to locate job opportunities;

(G)  develop a resumé;

(H)  prepare a letter of application;

(I)  complete an employment application;

(J)  participate in mock employment interviews;

(K)  list the standards and qualifications that must be met in order to enter a given career; and

(L)  employ critical-thinking and decision-making skills to exhibit qualifications to a potential employer.

(11)  The student knows the importance of emerging trends and technologies in marketing. The student is expected to:

(A)  discuss trends affecting marketing; and

(B)  research emerging technologies in marketing.

(12)  The student knows the impact and value of diversity. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the effect of languages other than English on marketing;

(B)  explain how diversity affects marketing; and

(C)  probe the impact of multiculturalism and multigenerationalism on marketing activities.

(13)  The student knows that marketing begins with a working knowledge of economic concepts. The student is expected to:

(A)  expound on characteristics of economic goods and services;

(B)  identify economic needs and wants;

(C)  explain the concept of utility and cite examples of types of utility;

(D)  describe the function of prices in markets; and

(E)  clarify how the interaction of supply and demand affects price.

(14)  The student knows that a nation's economic system is determined by what is produced, how it is produced, and how it is distributed. The student is expected to:

(A)  compare and contrast how economies answer basic economic questions;

(B)  explain why most economies are mixed; and

(C)  determine the relationship between government and business.

(15)  The student knows that private enterprise is based on independent decisions by businesses and consumers concerning the right to own property, own a business, compete, make a profit, and exercise consumer choice with limited government involvement. The student is expected to:

(A)  determine characteristics of a private enterprise system;

(B)  expound on advantages and disadvantages of private enterprise;

(C)  express the role profit plays in a market economy;

(D)  list examples of competitive business situations; and

(E)  identify examples of competitive business situations such as price or nonprice competition.

(16)  The student knows that gross domestic product, standard of living, consumer price index, and unemployment figures help measure whether an economy/business is accomplishing its goals. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify economic measurements used to analyze an economy;

(B)  research how economic measures are used in a market economy;

(C)  describe the concept of price stability as an economic measure;

(D)  interpret the measure of consumer spending as an economic indicator;

(E)  examine the impact of a nation's unemployment rates;

(F)  describe the economic impact of inflation on business;

(G)  illustrate unemployment and inflation tradeoffs;

(H)  portray the economic impact of interest rate fluctuations;

(I)  determine the impact of business cycles on business activities; and

(J)  summarize the concept of gross domestic product.

(17)  The student knows that changes in the economy include prosperity, recession, depression, and recovery that may be collectively referred to as the business cycle. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the concept of business cycles;

(B)  describe the impact that phases of a business cycle have on the economy; and

(C)  illustrate economic indicators that can impact marketing activities.

(18)  The student knows that international economic factors affect marketing planning. The student is expected to:

(A)  distinguish between imports and exports;

(B)  clarify the interdependence of nations;

(C)  analyze advantages and disadvantages of international trade;

(D)  determine global trade's impact on business decision making;

(E)  explain the nature of global trade;

(F)  describe the determinants of exchange rates and their effects on the domestic economy;

(G)  discuss the impact of cultural and social environments on global trade; and

(H)  interpret labor issues associated with global trade.

(19)  The student knows that distribution systems facilitate the movement of products. The student is expected to:

(A)  understand channels of distribution; and

(B)  evaluate a distribution plan.

(20)  The student knows that distribution involves activities associated with the physical movement or transfer of ownership of products from producer to consumer. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify physical distribution activities; and

(B)  determine costs associated with distribution.

(21)  The student knows that distribution involves stock handling and inventory control. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe the receiving process;

(B)  relate types of inventory systems;

(C)  evaluate inventory shrinkage; and

(D)  rationalize the impact of technology on inventory systems.

(22)  The student understands the concepts, processes, and skills associated with identifying new ideas, opportunities, and methods of creating or starting a new marketing project or business venture. The student is expected to:

(A)  defend the need for entrepreneurial discovery;

(B)  examine opportunities for venture creation;

(C)  conclude feasibility of venture ideas;

(D)  describe entrepreneurial planning considerations;

(E)  assess start-up requirements;

(F)  probe risks associated with venture;

(G)  develop strategies to protect intellectual property;

(H)  illustrate components of a business plan to define venture idea;

(I)  investigate processes used to acquire adequate financial resources for venture creation and start-up;

(J)  determine a venture's human resource needs;

(K)  evaluate risk-taking opportunities; and

(L)  describe the opportunities for entrepreneurship in a given industry.

(23)  The student knows that marketers use investment and financial services to achieve goals and objectives. The student is expected to:

(A)  illustrate types of financial services;

(B)  explain the purpose of a credit contract; and

(C)  predict the impact of credit legislation.

(24)  The student knows the concept of pricing and strategies used in determining and adjusting price. The student is expected to:

(A)  state goals of pricing;

(B)  identify factors affecting pricing;

(C)  explain how pricing affects product, place, and promotion decisions;

(D)  compare and contrast pricing policies;

(E)  calculate a product's price;

(F)  describe the role of business ethics in pricing;

(G)  explain the use of technology in the pricing function; and

(H)  analyze legal considerations for pricing.

(25)  The student understands the promotional concepts and strategies needed to communicate information about products, services, images, and ideas to achieve a desired outcome. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the communication processes as used in promotional activities;

(B)  evaluate types of promotion;

(C)  consider the concept of promotional mix;

(D)  define the role of promotion as a marketing function;

(E)  list the elements of the promotional mix;

(F)  describe the use of business ethics in promotion;

(G)  describe the use of technology in the promotion function;

(H)  explore the regulation of promotion;

(I)  illustrate types of advertising media;

(J)  convey word-of-mouth channels used to communicate with targeted audiences;

(K)  explain the nature of direct marketing channels;

(L)  model communication channels used in sales promotion; and

(M)  describe communication channels used in public relations activities.

(26)  The student knows that advertising is the paid form of nonpersonal communication about an identified sponsor's products. The student is expected to:

(A)  illustrate types of advertising media;

(B)  differentiate between product and institutional advertising; and

(C)  identify and evaluate elements of an advertisement.

(27)  The student knows that business risk is the possibility of loss or failure. The student is expected to:

(A)  categorize business risks; and

(B)  interpret how various types of risks impact business activities.

(28)  The student knows that marketers responsible for risk management follow a process to decide the best strategy to deal with each risk. The student is expected to:

(A)  evaluate security precautions; and

(B)  demonstrate knowledge of safety precautions and skills related to health and safety in the workplace.

(29)  The student knows what influences customers before they make a purchase. The student is expected to:

(A)  differentiate among a feature, an advantage, and a benefit;

(B)  compare and contrast between consumer and organizational buying behavior;

(C)  determine customer needs and wants;

(D)  classify buying motives;

(E)  analyze how customers and organizations apply the decision-making process;

(F)  identify major influences on buying behavior; and

(G)  acquire information about customer needs.

(30)  The student knows how marketers use the selling process. The student is expected to:

(A)  locate product information;

(B)  approach a customer to open a sale;

(C)  illustrate why the approach should have a theme that is related to the presentation and the customer's buying motives;

(D)  incorporate questioning and probing techniques;

(E)  prepare a sales presentation;

(F)  demonstrate how to overcome objections; and

(G)  demonstrate how to close a sale.

(31)  The student understands the techniques and strategies used to foster positive, ongoing relationships with customers to enhance company image. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the nature of positive customer relations;

(B)  describe a customer service mindset;

(C)  explain the management role in customer relations;

(D)  identify a company brand promise;

(E)  explore ways of reinforcing company image through employee performance;

(F)  analyze the nature of customer relationship management;

(G)  describe the role of ethics in customer relationship management; and

(H)  describe the use of technology in customer relationship management.

(32)  The student knows the responsibility of businesses to know and abide by workplace laws, trade regulations, and ethical behavior that affect business operations. The student is expected to:

(A)  apply ethics to demonstrate trustworthiness;

(B)  explain the nature of business ethics;

(C)  demonstrate responsible behavior, honesty, integrity, and ethical work habits;

(D)  describe legal issues affecting businesses;

(E)  defend the nature of human resources regulations;

(F)  explain the nature of workplace regulations such as Occupational Safety and Health Administration and statutes such as the Americans with Disabilities Act;

(G)  discuss employment relationships;

(H)  illustrate the nature of trade regulations; and

(I)  describe the impact of antitrust legislation.

(33)  The student applies ethical reasoning to a variety of workplace situations in order to make ethical decisions. The student is expected to:

(A)  analyze alternative responses to workplace situations based on legal responsibilities and employer policies;

(B)  evaluate alternative responses to workplace situations based on personal or professional ethical responsibilities;

(C)  identify personal and long-term workplace consequences of unethical or illegal behaviors;

(D)  depict personal and long-term workplace consequences of unethical or illegal behaviors;

(E)  investigate the most appropriate response to workplace situations based on legal and ethical considerations; and

(F)  explain the most appropriate response to workplace situations based on legal and ethical considerations.

(34)  The student completes required training, education, and certification to prepare for employment in a particular career field. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify training, education, and certification requirements for occupational choice;

(B)  participate in career-related training or degree programs; and

(C)  prepare for licensure or certification in a chosen occupational area.

Source: The provisions of this §130.347 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5940.


§130.348. Practicum in Marketing Dynamics (Two to Three Credits).

(a)  General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grade 12. Prerequisite: Marketing Dynamics.

(b)  Introduction. Through course required employment, students gain knowledge and skills that help them become proficient in one or more of the marketing functional areas. Students will illustrate appropriate management and research skills to create the marketing mix. This course covers technology, communication, and customer-service skills. The practicum is designed to give students supervised practical application of previously studied knowledge and skills. Practicum experiences can occur in a variety of locations appropriate to the nature and level of experience. The practicum course is a paid or unpaid experience for students participating in a coherent sequence of career and technical education courses in marketing education.

(c)  Knowledge and skills.

(1)  The student knows business concepts and how business satisfies economic needs. The student is expected to:

(A)  analyze the impact of an international economy on business activities; and

(B)  determine the impact of multiculturalism and multigenerationalism on business activities.

(2)  The student knows marketing mix. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the relationship among goals, tactics, and strategies pertaining to the marketing mix; and

(B)  illustrate factors that may cause marketing strategies to change.

(3)  The student knows the concepts of market and market identification. The student is expected to:

(A)  research market segmentation trends; and

(B)  analyze types of segmentation in markets.

(4)  The student knows that the United States free enterprise system offers marketers entrepreneurial opportunities. The student is expected to:

(A)  portray the importance of the United States free enterprise system in encouraging opportunities for entrepreneurial ventures; and

(B)  analyze a proposed business plan.

(5)  The student knows that management is the process of achieving goals through the use of human resources, technology, and material resources. The student is expected to:

(A)  differentiate among levels of management;

(B)  compare and contrast management styles;

(C)  identify effective recruitment, selection, training and development, and performance evaluation techniques;

(D)  demonstrate an understanding of the process used to train and monitor employees to ensure compliance with laws, regulations, and self-regulatory measures; and

(E)  model techniques to use in difficult customer relations situations.

(6)  The student identifies the need for professional and career development. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify types of journals and periodicals of use to marketers; and

(B)  explain the role of professional organizations, associations, and labor unions.

(7)  The student applies mathematical concepts in management. The student is expected to:

(A)  make accurate estimates and projections; and

(B)  interpret data found in financial reports.

(8)  The student integrates listening, reading, speaking, writing, and nonverbal communication skills effectively. The student is expected to:

(A)  communicate effectively in a business management setting;

(B)  demonstrate rules of order in a business meeting;

(C)  develop effective business correspondence; and

(D)  use technology in receiving and sending business communication.

(9)  The student knows how to use self-development techniques and interpersonal skills to accomplish marketing management objectives. The student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate effective interpersonal and team-building skills involving situations with coworkers, managers, and customers;

(B)  plan leadership and career development activities; and

(C)  develop employability skills for advancement.

(10)  The student knows the importance of emerging trends and technologies in marketing. The student is expected to:

(A)  discuss trends affecting marketing;

(B)  research emerging technologies in marketing; and

(C)  select and use the tools of information technology in marketing.

(11)  The student knows the impact and value of diversity. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the effect of languages other than English on marketing;

(B)  portray how cultural diversity affects marketing; and

(C)  discover legal responsibilities of diversity.

(12)  The student knows that marketing begins with a working knowledge of economic concepts. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe fundamental economic concepts used in marketing;

(B)  use information about supply and demand to predict their influence on pricing; and

(C)  describe ways in which marketing affects utility.

(13)  The student knows that private enterprise is based on independent decisions by businesses and consumers. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain ways to increase productivity and profit; and

(B)  discuss advantages and disadvantages of specialization.

(14)  The student knows that gross domestic product, standard of living, consumer price index, and unemployment figures help measure whether an economy is accomplishing its goals. The student is expected to:

(A)  research and report on the current economic climate with regard to gross domestic product, unemployment, standard of living, and other economic indicators; and

(B)  depict why the gross domestic product is an accurate indicator of the economic health of a nation.

(15)  The student knows that changes in the economy include prosperity, recession, depression, and recovery that may be collectively referred to as the business cycle. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe the impact that a business cycle has on an economy;

(B)  explain how businesses react to economic changes; and

(C)  clarify the impact of government on business activities to make informed economic decisions.

(16)  The student identifies international economic factors that affect marketing planning. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify strategies for entering international markets; and

(B)  illustrate cultural, economic, and political factors considered when engaging in international trade.

(17)  The student identifies marketing research as a specific inquiry to solve a problem. The student is expected to:

(A)  express the importance of marketing research;

(B)  describe areas of marketing research such as advertising, product, market, and sales;

(C)  explain the purpose of test marketing;

(D)  identify trends affecting marketing research; and

(E)  communicate benefits and limitations of marketing research.

(18)  The student knows the components of the marketing research process in order to analyze demand, forecast sales, and make other decisions. The student is expected to:

(A)  state the marketing research process;

(B)  identify methods of collecting data;

(C)  describe ways technology is used in research;

(D)  design and implement a study;

(E)  analyze and interpret data collected;

(F)  develop a research report; and

(G)  make recommendations based on the research report.

(19)  The student knows the elements and processes of product planning. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the nature and scope of product planning;

(B)  relate product-mix strategies to meet customer expectation;

(C)  identify steps in new-product planning; and

(D)  define the product life cycle.

(20)  The student knows the importance of branding and extended product features. The student is expected to:

(A)  define branding elements;

(B)  explain applicable grades and standards;

(C)  distinguish between warranties and guarantees; and

(D)  design a product package, brand, and label.

(21)  The student analyzes the laws and regulations that affect new product development. The student is expected to:

(A)  differentiate among laws, regulations, and self-regulatory measures for new-product development;

(B)  break down consumer protection provisions of government agencies; and

(C)  clarify how business is affected by government regulation of consumer protection.

(22)  The student knows that advertising is the paid form of nonpersonal communication of an identified sponsor's products. The student is expected to:

(A)  calculate the cost-effectiveness of media; and

(B)  create an advertising campaign.

(23)  The student knows that the physical environment of a business should project a positive image. The student is expected to:

(A)  evaluate image; and

(B)  analyze factors involved in facilities design, maintenance, and improvement.

(24)  The student knows that public relations and publicity can be used to promote a business or organization. The student is expected to:

(A)  prepare publicity materials;

(B)  demonstrate verbal skills in marketing communications;

(C)  distinguish activities that would encourage positive public relations; and

(D)  analyze potential impact of publicity and offer possible strategies for dealing with its impact.

(25)  The student knows that sales promotion activities or materials offer customers a direct incentive to buy. The student is expected to:

(A)  catalog examples of sales promotion materials; and

(B)  analyze how sales promotion materials encourage sales.

(26)  The student knows that the purchasing process occurs in a continuous cycle. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the process of identifying needs;

(B)  describe the process of selecting suppliers and sources;

(C)  explain the negotiation process;

(D)  explain how goods and services are ordered; and

(E)  distinguish strategies used in evaluating purchases.

(27)  The student knows that businesses need goods and services for daily operation. The student is expected to:

(A)  analyze the selection of goods and services based on a business' operational needs; and

(B)  compare and contrast terms offered by suppliers.

(28)  The student knows that a buying plan identifies products to be offered for sale for a particular period of time. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe and calculate merchandising-related discounts;

(B)  interpret vendor terms and policies; and

(C)  calculate the final cost of a product.

(29)  The student knows methods to determine client needs and wants and responds through planned, personalized communication to influence purchase decisions and enhance future business opportunities. The student is expected to:

(A)  acquire a foundational knowledge of selling to understand its nature and scope;

(B)  explain how product knowledge is essential to communicate product benefits to ensure appropriateness of product for the customer;

(C)  diagram sales processes and techniques to enhance customer relationships and to increase the likelihood of making sales; and

(D)  prepare and deliver a sales presentation.

(30)  The student knows the important role each employee plays in providing exceptional customer service. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify employee management actions and attitudes that result in customer satisfaction;

(B)  describe how customer service and follow-up are major factors for success in marketing; and

(C)  demonstrate effective communication with customers to foster positive relationships that enhance company image.

(31)  The student demonstrates the management of selling activities. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain sales and financial quotas;

(B)  identify types of information contained in sales records; and

(C)  exhibit proper procedures for maintaining sales records.

(32)  The student prepares for employment in a particular career field. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify training, education, and certification requirements for occupational choice;

(B)  participate in career-related training or degree programs; and

(C)  prepare for licensure or certification in a chosen occupational area.

(33)  The student demonstrates mathematics knowledge and skills required to pursue the full-range of postsecondary education and career opportunities. The student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate use of relational expressions such as equal to, not equal to, greater than, and less than;

(B)  apply data and measurements to solve a problem;

(C)  analyze mathematical problem statements for missing or irrelevant data;

(D)  construct charts, tables, and graphs from functions and data; and

(E)  analyze data when interpreting operational documents.

(34)  The student applies ethical reasoning to a variety of workplace situations in order to make ethical decisions. The student is expected to:

(A)  weigh alternative responses to workplace situations based on legal responsibilities and employer policies;

(B)  weigh alternative responses to workplace situations based on personal or professional ethical responsibilities;

(C)  identify and explain personal and long-term consequences of unethical or illegal behaviors; and

(D)  identify the most appropriate response to workplace situations based on legal and ethical considerations.

(35)  The student knows the importance of teamwork, leadership, and organizational skills. The student is expected to:

(A)  specify how teams function;

(B)  use teamwork to solve problems;

(C)  differentiate between the roles of team leaders and team members;

(D)  analyze characteristics of good leaders;

(E)  identify employers' expectations and appropriate work habits;

(F)  define discrimination, harassment, and equality;

(G)  demonstrate time-management techniques to develop and maintain schedules and meet deadlines;

(H)  illustrate how teams measure their results; and

(I)  demonstrate methods to recognize and reward team performance.

Source: The provisions of this §130.348 adopted to be effective August 23, 2010, 34 TexReg 5940.


Last updated: August 23, 2010

For additional information, email rules@tea.state.tx.us.