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Formula Chart

Periodic Table of the Elements

Read each question and choose the best answer. Then mark the circle next to the letter for the answer you have chosen.

1 Dogs (Canis familiaris) are most closely related genetically to which of the following organisms?
A African hunting dog (Lycaon pictus)
B Gray wolf (Canis lupus)
C Grizzly bear (Ursus arctos)
D Domestic cat (Felis catus)
2 The primary way liquids and gases transmit heat is by the process of —
F reflection
G conduction
H radiation
J convection

Fossil Layers: Youngest to Oldest: Fish skeleton, Shell, Fern frond, Leaf from hardwood tree
3 During a severe drought a dry lake was explored for fossils. The diagram represents the fossils uncovered and the layers they were in. According to this information, this area was once a —
A forest that was replaced by a freshwater lake
B freshwater lake that was replaced by a desert
C saltwater sea that was replaced by a forest
D freshwater lake that was replaced by a forest

4 A laboratory investigation included examining prepared slides of pond water. Single-celled organisms with a nucleus and either cilia or flagella were visible. These organisms probably belong to the kingdom —
F Animalia
G Fungi
H Plantae
J Protista
model of an element
5 The picture shows a model of the element —
A flourine
B helium
C beryllium
D oxygen

6 Which of these is a hypothesis that can be tested through experimentation?
F Bacterial growth increases exponentially as temperature increases.
G A fish’s ability to taste food is affected by the clarity of aquarium water.
H Tadpoles’ fear of carnivorous insect larvae increases as the tadpoles age.
J The number of times a dog wags its tail indicates how content the dog is.
7 Which of the following shows the length of a rubber strip measured precisely to 2.22 centimeters?

8 How much force is needed to accelerate a 1,300 kg car at a rate of 1.5 m/s2?
F 867 N
G 1,950 N
H 8,493 N
J 16,562 N

Use the information below and your knowledge of science to answer questions 9–11.
Photosynthesis and Respiration
     The first equation represents photosynthesis. Plants use energy from sunlight to produce sugar and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water. The second equation represents aerobic respiration. Plants and animals release stored energy in a reaction between sugar molecules and oxygen. This reaction produces carbon dioxide and water.
9 Oxygen (O2) is an example of —
A an alloy
B a molecule
C a salt
D a mixture
10 To produce 4 molecules of sugar, a plant needs —
F 6 molecules of hydrogen
G 12 molecules of ATP
H 18 molecules of water
J 24 molecules of carbon dioxide

Cross Section of a Leaf
11 Which structure regulates gas exchange during the processes of photosynthesis and respiration?

Most Abundant Elements
at Earth’s Surface
Percent by
12 Which conclusion is best supported by these data?
F Earth’s surface is composed mostly of silicon and calcium.
G Oxygen is closer to Earth’s surface than aluminum.
H There is more aluminum than calcium at Earth’s surface.
J Silicon is much heavier than iron at Earth’s surface.
Toy Car Speed
13 The table shows times required for the same toy car to travel 10 m across an identical section of a floor after it is pushed. The difference in times was probably caused by differences in —
A force exerted
B surface friction
C air resistance
D car mass

Osmosis Apparatus
14 Which would most likely cause the liquid in Tube A to rise?
F Starch concentrations being equal on each side of the membrane
G Water passing from a region of lower starch concentration to one of higher starch concentration
H Water and starch volumes being the same
J Solute in the tubes changing from a higher temperature to a lower temperature

15 The reason for wafting or fanning a small amount of chemical vapors toward the nose as a means to detect odors in a test tube is to —
A avoid experimental error from excessive loss of mass of reactants or products
B avoid splashing chemicals into the face of any person
C protect the respiratory tract against potentially harmful vapors
D determine the relative strength of the odor before smelling directly
16 Pain medications can be made as powders or tablets. The powders tend to work faster than tablets with the same ingredients because powder —
F dissolves faster in solution than a single tablet
G has more total mass than a single tablet
H travels through the bloodstream more easily than a tablet
J is easier to swallow than tablets

diagram of the upper arm
17 Which structure in the upper arm is responsible for raising the lower arm?
A 1
B 2
C 3
D 4
18 All of the following symptoms are likely associated with bacterial infection except —
F skin rashes or lesions
G elevated body temperature
H swollen glands or tissues
J increased red blood cell count

a seed
19 This seed is best dispersed by —
A water
B birds
C wind
D insects
20 A car traveled 150 km in 2.5 hours. What was its average speed in km per hour?
Record your answer in the space below.
(Your answer must be between 0 and 99.)  

21 Which of the following will allow measurement of a liquid’s volume with the greatest precision?
A 50 mL cylinder graduated in 1 mL increments
B 100 mL cylinder graduated in 0.5 mL increments
C 100 mL cylinder graduated in 1 mL increments
D 200 mL cylinder graduated in 5 mL increments

the chromosomes of a person with a genetic disorder caused by nondisjunction, in which the chromosomes fail to separate properly
22 The diagram represents the chromosomes of a person with a genetic disorder caused by nondisjunction, in which the chromosomes fail to separate properly. Which chromosome set displays nondisjunction?
F 2
G 8
H 21
J 23

23 Which organism lives in the human intestine and aids in the digestive process?
A The bacterium Escherichia coli
B The fungus Trichophyton rubrum
C The protozoan Entamoeba coli
D The algae Fucus vesiculosus
24 Which of the following is most likely to cause
increases in a predator population?
F Fewer prey
G A reduction in competition
H More parasites
J A period of drought

25 The medulla, part of the brain stem, reacts quickly to increased levels of CO2 in the blood and stimulates a response from the —
A excretory system
B immune system
C respiratory system
D integumentary system

Codon Chart
26 The chain above represents three codons. Which of the following changes would be expected in the amino acid chain if the mutation shown above occurred?
F The amino acid sequence would be shorter than expected.
G The identity of one amino acid would change.
H The amino acid sequence would remain unchanged.
J The identities of more than one amino acid would change.

27 Energy conversion within an animal cell would be severely limited by removal of the cell’s —
A mitochondria
B chloroplasts
C plastids
D lysosomes

28 Ten different types of culture media were inoculated with the same strain of bacteria and incubated at the same temperature. Nine of the cultures grew. Which of these conclusions can be drawn from this information?
F The media used in the experiment are all capable of sustaining bacterial growth.
G The temperature varied greatly during the experiment.
H Only the culture that failed to grow bacteria was inoculated properly.
J One of the media lacked the nutrients needed for the bacteria to grow.

Ten frogs were placed in a large container with three sections. Each section had equal amounts of light, shelter, food, and water. Each section was painted a different color: red, green, or blue. Daily observations were made of the frogs’ locations for six weeks. These data were compiled to produce the following frog location frequencies.

Red area = 31%

Green area = 35%

Blue area = 34%
a large container with three sections: red, green, blue
29 Which conclusion about the frogs is supported by these data?
A Four frogs out of ten preferred the green area.
B The frogs randomly moved into the colored areas.
C Most frogs tended to avoid the red area.
D Most frogs preferred the color blue.
a food web
Which organisms in this food web can be described as both primary and secondary consumers?
F Hawks
G Weasels
H Raccoons
J Mice

31 What is the density at 20°C of 12.0 milliliters of a liquid that has a mass of 4.05 grams?
A 0.338 g/mL
B 2.96 g/mL
C 16.1 g/mL
D 48.6 g/mL

32 Which switch, if opened, will cause the lightbulb to stop glowing?

In Central America there is a tree called bullhorn acacia (Acacia cornigera) that provides both food and shelter to a certain species of ant (Pseudomyrmex ferruginea). The ants live within the tree without causing it harm. In fact, the ants protect the tree by vigorously attacking and stinging other animals that try to eat it.
33 This relationship is an example of —
A predation
B parasitism
C mutualism
D commensalism
34 The owner of a pet store assures a customer that if she buys only one female hamster, she will not need to worry about the hamster having offspring, because there will be no male with which the female can breed. What possibility is the pet-store owner overlooking?
F The hamster could be infertile.
G The sex of the hamster could change.
H The hamster could be pregnant.
J The hamster could be a twin.

35 Which of the following pieces of equipment would be most appropriate for measuring the volume of a marble?
a beaker
a graduated cylinder
a scale
a ruler
36 In the rock cycle, which of these is a chemical change involved with the formation of igneous rocks?
F Compression of sediments
G Heat loss from lava
H Subduction of plates
J Formation of minerals

37 Multicellular eukaryotes that are usually mobile and obtain food from other organisms probably belong to the kingdom —
A Plantae
B Fungi
C Animalia
D Protista
38 At 0°C sound travels through air at a speed of 330 m/s. If a sound wave is produced with a wavelength of 0.10 m, what is the wave’s frequency?
F 0.0033 Hz
G 33 Hz
H 330 Hz
J 3300 Hz

Common Food Web
39 Wolves and hawks are at the same trophic level because they —
A both live on land
B are both large mammals
C both eat primary consumers
D have similar hunting patterns

a diagram representing the total travel of a teacher on a Saturday - Home to Gym (14 km/12 min) Gym to School (12 km/8 min) School to Store (15 km/9 min) Store to Home (11 km/15 min)
40 The diagram represents the total travel of a teacher on a Saturday. Which part of the trip is made at the greatest average speed?

41 What characteristic of water remains the same no matter what is dissolved in it?
A The ratio of hydrogen to oxygen
B The ability to refract light
C The hydroxide ion concentration
D The freezing temperature
42 Which of these characteristics might help a plant species survive in an area with limited sunlight?
F Bright flowers
G Large leaves
H Short stems
J Thick cuticles

5000 kcal available in tissues of plant; Consumption 1000 kcal; 100 kcal incorporated into tissues of herbivore; Consumption 30 kcal;  3 kcal incorporated into tissues of carnivore
43 Approximately how much of the energy available in the tissues of the producer is eventually incorporated into the tissues of a secondary consumer?
A Less than 1%
B Between 20% and 30%
C Approximately 50%
D More than 50%

44 In an investigation 10,000 dung beetles were examined for the presence of parasites. The data showed that about 5% of the beetles had parasites. The results are —
F invalid because only dung beetles were examined
G unsupported because the parasite population was small
H erroneous because more beetles should have had parasites
J valid because the sample size was sufficient for accuracy
PbO2 (arrow pointing to the right)  PbO plus O2
45 What are the coefficients that will balance this chemical equation?
A 2, 1, 1
B 3, 4, 2
C 2, 2, 1
D 4, 3, 2

46 What is the current in a copper wire that has a resistance of 2 ohms and is connected to a 9-volt electrical source?
F 0.22 amp
G 4.5 amps
H 11.0 amps
J 18.0 amps
47 Certain chemicals in the diet of moth larvae seem to influence the early development of the moths’ wings. Careful observation of developing pupae could result in —
A data to verify the hypothesis
B changes to the conclusion
C a conclusion about the moths’ eggs
D development of a new moth species

48 Which system is responsible for producing enzymes that aid in breaking down substances to be absorbed for the body’s growth and repair?
F Digestive system
G Reproductive system
H Respiratory system
J Skeletal system
a graph
49 According to the graph, about how much hemoglobin would be saturated at an O2 pressure of 7.3 kPa?
A 32%
B 67%
C 89%
D 92%

Solubility Rules
1. All sodium, potassium, and ammonium salts are soluble.

2. All silver, lead, and mercury salts are insoluble.

3. All carbonates, sulfides, and hydroxides are insoluble.

4. All sulfates are soluble except calcium sulfate and barium sulfate.
50 Which of the following salts has the greatest solubility in water at 25°C?
H HgCl2

Plants - Aphids - Spiders - Sparrows
51 In this food chain, the spiders are —
A producers
B primary consumers
C competitors
D secondary consumers

52 Objects of the same mass but of different sizes and shapes were dropped from a given height. Their rates of free fall were measured and recorded. Which of the following is most likely the question this experiment was designed to answer?
F How does height affect the force of gravity?
G How does gravity affect objects of different densities?
H How do mass and weight affect falling objects?
J How do size and shape affect an object’s rate of free fall?
Bird Traits
Green feathers (dominant)
Yellow feathers (recessive)
Long beak (dominant)
Short beak (recessive)
GGLI (male) x Ggll (female)
53 What trait will most likely be observed in all offspring of the above set of parents?
A Green feathers
B Yellow feathers
C Long beak
D Short beak

54 As temperature drops to the dew point, clouds form in the atmosphere, and dew forms on ground surfaces. A scientist proposes that adding more water molecules to the atmosphere will change the dew point. This
proposal is —
F an invalid observation
G a valid hypothesis
H an invalid problem
J a valid conclusion
55 Laboratory equipment is cleaned and properly stored after use primarily so that —
A chemical products can be measured and recorded as data
B time is saved in setting up the next experiment
C toxic materials can be kept in the laboratory
D the possibility of contamination in the laboratory is minimized

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