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Read each question and choose the best answer. Then mark the circle next to the letter for the answer you have chosen.

1 The safest way to dilute concentrated sulfuric acid is to add —
A a series of small volumes of water to the acid while stirring
B the acid to water slowly while stirring constantly
C the acid to a small volume of water and then add more water
D dilute sulfuric acid to a small volume of the concentrated acid
insect on leaf
2 Because of this animal's adaptations, it would be most successful at —
F competing with birds
G making its own food
H hiding from predators
J running very rapidly

3 Which of the following groups contains members with similar chemical reactivity?
A Li, Be, C
B Be, Mg, Sr
C Sc, Y, Zr
D C, N, O

ball in motion
4 The picture shows the position of a ball every 0.25 second on a photogram. Using a ruler, determine the velocity of the ball.
F 3.5 cm/s
G 10.5 cm/s
H 14.0 cm/s
J 28.0 cm/s

5 The smell of an ammonia solution used to clean a floor can quickly be detected throughout a house. Scientists explain this phenomenon by theorizing that gas molecules from the ammonia are in continuous random high-speed motion, drifting rapidly and permeating the air. Which statement best demonstrates the strength of this theory?
A Scientists have observed tiny smoke particles moved by unseen particles in a rapid, irregular fashion.
B Scientists have unanimously agreed on this theory since Thomas Graham's experiments in the 1820s.
C The possibility of another theory being formed to explain the phenomenon as well is very remote.
D Reason, as opposed to experimentation, is superior to any explanation found through chemical testing.
6 Most viruses infect a specific kind of cell. Which of the following are infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)?
F Helper T cells
G Liver cells
H GABA-receptor cells
J Red blood cells

a nutritional label
7 Many doctors recommend 800 µg of folate, 400 µg of vitamin B12, and 50 mg of vitamin B6 per day to improve cardiovascular health. Based on this information and the nutrition label, the cardiovascular health benefit of a 1-ounce serving of this cereal is —
A doubtful because it provides insufficient folate and vitamin B6 and lacks vitamin B12
B superb because it contains only 22 g of carbohydrates and 75 mg of sodium
C excellent because it provides all needed vitamins and is low in fat and cholesterol
D poor because it raises blood cholesterol levels with its high fat and cholesterol content

8 Some bacteria benefit mammals by helping with —
F growth
G defense
H digestion
J respiration

an experiment set-up
9 This experiment probably was set up to determine —
A how much mechanical energy the battery produces
B the pH of water during electrolysis
C the pressure created by an electric current
D how much energy is converted to heat

10 A 0.2 g crystal of gypsum dissolves very slowly in 100 mL of water while the water is stirred. Which of these would cause the gypsum to dissolve faster?
F Decreasing the water temperature
G Stopping the stirring
H Lowering the air pressure
J Crushing the crystal

Use the illustration and your knowledge of science to answer questions 11 and 12.
a frog at a lake's bank
11 The frog leaps from its resting position at the lake's bank onto a lily pad. If the frog has a mass of 0.5 kg and the acceleration of the leap is 3 m/s², what is the force the frog exerts on the lake's bank when leaping?
A 0.2 N
B 0.8 N
C 1.5 N
D 6.0 N
12 The bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, is most closely related to the —
F spotted chorus frog, Pseudacris clarki
G Asian flying frog, Polypedates leucomystax
H northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens
J African bullfrog, Pyxicephalus adspersus

13 Four lab groups measured the volume of acid required to neutralize a standard solution of sodium hydroxide base. Which of the groups measured the volume with the highest precision?
a lab group
  C a lab group 
a lab group 
  D a lab group 

14 Which process best shows the conversion of solar energy to chemical energy?
F Prevailing winds causing windmills to spin
G Green plants making their own food
H Uranium producing heat to make steam
J Tides generating electricity
15 An advertisement claims that patients can be cured of the common cold in 48 hours by vitamin C tablets with secret mineral supplements. In a scientific experiment to test these claims, which data can be considered irrelevant?
A The amount of vitamin C in each tablet
B The severity of the patients' cold symptoms
C The chemical formula for vitamin C
D The amount of time before symptoms improve

a portion of the human excretory system
16 A portion of the human excretory system is represented in the diagram. The order in which urine flows through the system is —

17 All of these can affect the rate at which a solid dissolves in water except —
A decreasing air pressure
B stirring the water
C increasing the temperature of the water
D using larger crystals of the solid
18 Energy used by producers in a grassland food web is provided by —
F sunlight
G photosynthesis
H oxygen
J carbon dioxide

  K + H2O -> KOH + H2
19 What is the coefficient for H2O when the above equation is balanced?
A 1
B 2
C 3
D 4
20 A sample of an element has a volume of 78.0 mL and a density of 1.85 g/mL What is the mass in grams of the sample? Record and bubble in your answer to the nearest tenth on the answer document.
Record your answer in the space below. Be sure to use the correct place value.

  the water cycle
21 The diagram shows physical changes that occur in the water cycle. Which of these shows condensation?

Texas Soybean Production
Study Region 1 2 3
Soil Type Loam/clay Loam/clay Loam/clay
1998 1999 2000 1998 1999 2000 1998 1999 2000
Annual Rainfall
123 134 122 120 132 117 132 136 115
Average O3 Level
0.04 0.08 0.09 0.08 0.08 0.07 0.10 0.08 0.06
Average Crop Yield
34 28 26 28 27 29 25 28 31
22 The table shows environmental factors and soybean production for three regions. Which of the following probably accounts for the decrease in soybean yield in Region 1?
F High levels of ozone damaged the soybean plants, decreasing the average yield.
G Low rainfall amounts failed to meet the plants' moisture needs and inhibited growth.
H Poor mineral levels found in the soil in that region limited the soybean harvest.
J Higher-than-normal rainfall increased pest activity, decreasing the average yield.

23 According to the periodic table, which element most readily accepts electrons?
A Fluorine
B Nitrogen
C Arsenic
D Aluminum
24 If the template of a strand of DNA is 5' AGATGCATC 3', the complementary strand will be —

25 A block of maple wood with a volume of 405 cubic centimeters and a density of 0.67 g/cm3 is sawed in half. The density of the two smaller blocks is now —
A one-fourth the original density
B one-half the original density
C two times the original density
D the same as the original density
26 If a cat has 38 chromosomes in each of its body cells, how many chromosomes will be in each daughter cell after mitosis?
F 11
G 19
H 38
J 76

27 A ball moving at 30 m/s has a momentum of 15 kg·m/s. The mass of the ball is —
A 45 kg
B 15 kg
C 2.0 kg
D 0.5 kg
Time Required for Water
Container A B
Volume of Water
25 25
-15 25
Time Required
72 24
28 The table shows times required for water to evaporate from identical containers. Which of these is the best question to ask before developing a reasonable hypothesis to explain the data?
F Why does a lower temperature slow the rate of evaporation?
G What is the boiling point of the water after both samples are heated?
H Why does water exist as a solid at –15°C and as a liquid at 25°C?
J How does the rate of evaporation change when a different container is used?

29 Nutrients from digested food move from the digestive system directly into the —
A circulatory system
B integumentary system
C excretory system
D endocrine system
An herbal company advertises that its product will help people lose weight if they take a tablespoon of the product with a glass of water at bedtime each night. Weight loss is guaranteed if a person does not eat for at least 3 hours before bedtime, gets moderate exercise, and drinks 8 glasses of water each day. Why is the company’s claim difficult to verify?
F The company has yet to disclose the identity of its special herb.
G Numerous uncontrolled variables are involved in evaluating results.
H Fasting lessens the absorption rate of the herb.
J The advertisement lacks data from before and after the weight loss.

Ozone Levels for a Metropolitan Area
Date Location High Temperature
Prevailing Wind Ozone Level
1/15/99 Downtown  13

NE 5 mph

NW Station  11

NE 10 mph

3/15/99 Downtown  22


NW Station  21


5/15/99 Downtown  30

SE 10 mph

NW Station  31

SE 5 mph

7/15/99 Downtown  38

S 5 mph

NW Station  38

S 5 mph

*Unsafe levels of ozone above 0.10 PPM
31 An environmental-science company measured the ozone pollutant levels at two different locations in a metropolitan area. Which statement is best supported by these data?
A Lower fuel efficiency and northerly winds in the winter increase ozone pollution the most.
B Northwest winds in the spring transport ozone pollution into the metropolitan area.
C High summer temperatures and southerly winds contribute to high levels of ozone.
D Heavy use of automobiles changes ozone levels the most.

32 One tuning fork is struck and placed next to an identical fork. The two forks do not touch. The second tuning fork starts to vibrate because of —
F interference
G the Doppler effect
H resonance
J standing waves
33 Two clear solutions are placed in separate beakers. The first solution has a pH of 4, and the pH of the second solution is unknown. If the two solutions are mixed and the resulting pH is 5, the second solution must have —
A fewer suspended solids
B a lower temperature
C more dissolved salt (NaCl) particles
D a higher concentration of OH ions

34 When a sea urchin egg is removed from the ocean and placed in freshwater, the egg swells and bursts. Which of these causes water to
enter the egg?
F Coagulation
G Sodium pump
H Active transport
J Osmosis
35 Clown fish are small reef fish that seek protection from predators by sheltering themselves among the stinging tentacles of sea anemones. Clown fish are very territorial and can potentially scare off predators of sea anemones. This relationship is an example of —
A neutralism
B mutualism
C parasitism
D commensalism

    A scientist has hypothesized that the existence of life on Mars is likely because Mars’s atmosphere is 95% carbon dioxide.
36 Which question is valid in testing this hypothesis?
F Do most other scientists agree with the hypothesis?
G Could abiotic processes account for the carbon dioxide?
H What is the percent of argon compared to carbon dioxide in the Martian atmosphere?
J Have the scientist’s other predictions about Mars been validated?
37 Which of these groups of organisms would most likely have accumulated the largest concentration of a long-lasting chemical pollutant in their bodies?
A Phytoplankton
B Zooplankton
C Lake trout
D Gulls

38 In DNA, which of the following determines the traits of an organism?
F Amount of adenine
G Number of sugars
H Sequence of nitrogen bases
J Strength of hydrogen bonds

  64 g Ca + 192 g ZnCO3 -> 152 g CaCO3 + ? g Zn
39 According to the law of conservation of mass, how much zinc was present in the zinc carbonate?
A 40 g
B 88 g
C 104 g
D 256 g

40 If the properties of water were to change so that the solid form was denser than the liquid form, organisms living in a cold pond environment would be less likely to survive because water would no longer —
F dissolve enough oxygen from the air
G produce solutions containing vital nutrients
H remain neutral, instead becoming highly acidic
J produce a floating insulating layer of ice

  a 95 kg rock on a slope with a vertical height of 100 m
41 What is the potential energy of the rock?

A 59,900 joules
B 64,600 joules
C 93,100 joules
D 121,600 joules

  a 50 kg crate being pushed 15 m
42 How much work is performed when a 50 kg crate is pushed 15 m with a force of 20 N?
F 300 J
G 750 J
H 1,000 J
J 15,000 J

43 Heat convection occurs in gases and liquids. Heat convection does not occur in solids because solids are unable to —
A absorb heat by vibrating
B transfer heat by fluid motion
C emit radiation by reflecting light
D exchange heat by direct contact
Sound Intensity
Rustling Leaves 20
Library 40
Busy traffic 70
Factory 80
Heavy truck 90
Subway 100
Construction 110
Jet engine 150
Rocket engine 180
90 dB - Endangers hearing
120 dB - Pain threshold
44 According to the table, which workers have the greatest chance of experiencing significant hearing loss over time?
F Police traffic officers
G Shoe-factory workers
H Road-construction crews
J Library desk clerks

45 If a force of 100 newtons was exerted on an object and no work was done, the object must have —
A accelerated rapidly
B remained motionless
C decreased its velocity
D gained momentum
46 Two science students discovered that the mass of a sample of acetone in an open beaker decreased within a few minutes. One student hypothesized that the acetone reacted with oxygen to form a gaseous compound that escaped. The other student believed that the acetone evaporated into the air. What should the students do to test these hypotheses?
F Combine the hypotheses so they give valid predictions of the acetone’s behavior
G Conduct a study of original papers describing the experiments leading to acetone’s discovery
H Perform an experiment that attempts to identify the gas above the open beaker
J Ask a classmate’s opinion about the chemical and physical properties of acetone

Composition of a Copper Ore
47 Which graph best shows the comparison of the elements to the total composition of the copper ore?
a graph
  C a graph 
a graph 
  D a graph 

  an electric motor lifing a 6 N block a distance of 3 m
48 The diagram shows an electric motor lifting a 6 N block a distance of 3 m. The total amount of electrical energy used by the motor is 30 J. How much energy does the motor convert to heat?
F 9 J
G 12 J
H 18 J
J 21 J

49 Which of these classifications is most specific?
A Family
B Genus
C Phylum
D Order
50 A solar heater uses energy from the sun to heat water. The heater’s panel is painted black to —
F improve emission of infrared radiation
G reduce the heat loss by convection currents
H improve absorption of infrared radiation
J reduce the heater’s conducting properties

  a graph of solubility vs temperature
51 At which temperature do KBr and KNO3 have the same solubility?
A 27°C 
B 48°C
C 65°C
D 80°C

52 Compared to annual rings of trees that have experienced years of sufficient rainfall, the annual rings of trees that have experienced a dry period will —
F be softer
G grow at a faster rate
H be thinner
J photosynthesize at a faster rate

Amino Acid Composition of Cytochrome c in Some Organisms
Amino Acid
Organism Q
Organism R
Organism S
Organism T
Aspartic acid
Glutamic acid
53 The table shows a comparison of some amino acids found in cytochrome c. The two organisms in the table that are most closely related are —
A Q and T
B R and S
C Q and R
D Q and S

54 Which of these activities can help conserve natural resources?
F Recycling cardboard boxes
G Washing small loads of laundry
H Driving large cars
J Building wooden fences
55 A science class is conducting an experiment that produces noxious fumes. Because of inadequate ventilation, some students begin to feel nauseated and dizzy. The first response should be to —
A neutralize the acid that is reacting to produce the noxious fumes
B carry the reactants outside, away from other students
C leave the room and go to an area with fresh air
D spray the reaction with a fire extinguisher

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