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DIRECTIONS
Read each question and choose the best answer. Then mark the circle next to the letter for the answer you have chosen.


Use the map and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.
 
A Map of US Cities in 1860 
 
1 According to the map, in 1860 all U.S. cities with populations greater than 250,000 were located —
 
A south of the Mason-Dixon Line
B west of the territories
C near the Great Lakes
D in the Northeast

Use the excerpt and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.
 
. . . there comes a time when people get tired of being trampled over by the iron feet of oppression. . . . I want it to be known that we're going to work with grim and bold determination to gain justice on the buses in this city. And we are not wrong. . . .

Martin Luther King, Jr., 1965

 
 
2 Martin Luther King, Jr., gained prominence in the Civil Rights movement by leading the struggle against —
 
F limited city bus routes for African American riders
G higher fees charged to African American bus riders
H restrictions on the hiring of minority bus drivers
J segregated seating on buses
3 The invention of the lightbulb contributed to industrial growth in the Untied States by making it possible for —
 
A production to continue at night
B workers to light their homes
C electric companies to raise their prices
D cities to reduce crime by lighting city streets
 

4 Charles Lindbergh's 1927 solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean was important to Americans because it —
    
F allowed the United States to demonstrate new military technology to European allies
G helped Great Britain to develop new aviation technology
H embarrassed the fascist dictators of Germany and Italy
J symbolized American ingenuity, courage and ability
 

Use the photograph and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.
 
Scene from the Dust Bowl of the 1930s
 
5 The photograph above presents a scene from the Dust Bowl of the 1930s. The conditions it pictures resulted from —
    
A government programs during the Great Depression
B drought and poor agricultural practices
C the burning of coal to power factories
D the increased use of automobiles
 

6 One social effect of the large migration of African Americans to US industrial centers between 1940 and 1950 was —
F increased racial tensions
G the peaceful integration of southern schools
H a 20th-century renaissance in the arts
J improved public transportation systems
Use the poster and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.
 
"We Can Do It" poster
 
7 This World War II poster shows that —
 
A The government tried to recruit women to fight in the war
B the government sought women to fill jobs left vacant by men
C women refused to volunteer to help in the war effort
D female military officers commanded both male and female troops

Use the chart and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.
 
Spread of the Bubonic Plague, 1347—1349
Year
Regions Affected
1347

Black Sea coast
Aegean Sea coast
Southern French coast
Western Italian coast

1348

(in addition to above)
North African coast
Eastern Mediterranean Sea coast
Aegean Peninsula
Eastern and Northern Spain
Southern and Western France
Central and Northern Italy
Southern British coast 

1349

(in addition to above)
Western Spain
Central and Eastern France
Central Britain
Ireland
Coasts of Norway and Denmark 

 
8 What pattern can be deduced from the information in the chart?
  
F The plague spread primarily from north to south.
G The plague spread primarily from west to east.
H The plague spread primarily from coastal areas to inland ones.
J The plague spread primarily from Christian countries to Muslim countries.

9 W.E.B. Du Bois was one of the founders of the NAACP, an organization dedicated to —
 
A preserving racial segregation in the United States
B achieving racial equality for African Americans
C promoting landownership as the key to economic equality
D using force to gain equal rights
Use the graphs and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.
 
US Defense Budget Pie Charts.  
					Pie Chart 1 (1940) shows 18%;
					Pie Chart 2 (1950) shows 32%;
					Pie Chart 3 (1960) shows 52%;
 
10 One reason for the large increase in defense spending between 1950 and 1960 was —
 
F an unprecedented inflationary economy
G funding for military involvement in South America
H the Cold War and the arms race with the Soviet Union
J a large investment in supersonic military transports

11 Some American colonists believed they were justified in declaring independence from Great Britain because the British government —
  
A required free trade with France, Germany, and Spain
B allowed the colonies to elect their own governors
C encouraged diplomatic relations with Native Americans
D taxed the colonies without direct representation in Parliament
Use the excerpt and your social studies skills to answer the following question.
 

    [We must protect] not free thought for those who agree with us, but freedom for the thought that we hate.

Supreme Court Justice
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., 1929
 

 
12 In this excerpt, Justice Holmes suggests that allowing free speech in a democratic society includes —
  
F developing new ideas
G endorsing popular viewpoints
H tolerating unpopular views
J silencing vocal dissenters

13 Which of the following lists is in the correct sequence?
 
A Great Depression
Cold War
Gilded Age
World War I
     
B World War I
Cold War
Great Depression
Gilded Age
     
C Gilded Age
World War I
Great Depression
Cold War
     
D Cold War
Great Depression
Gilded Age
World War 1
Use the excerpt and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.
 

    The problems we face are not limited to one coast or one region. From the contaminated waters of Boston Harbor to the pollution of San Francisco Bay; from the closed shellfish beds of the Chesapeake to the growing "dead zone" in the Gulf of Mexico; from the Puget Sound Superfund sites to the PCB-ridden striped bass of New York; coastal pollution is pervasive and growing more deadly with each passing year.

— Congressional Record, June 1989 

 
14 Population growth in coastal regions has contributed to the problems described above by --
  
F creating a need for more highways
G causing an increase in flooding and soil erosion
H creating a demand for more clean water
J producing increasing amounts of sewage and other waste products

15 The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, or national origin. The act also established --
  
A legal consequences for discrimination
B exceptions for job-related discrimination
C an official definition of housing discrimination
D criminal penalties for those practicing affirmative action
 

Use the graph and your knowledge of social studies to answer questions 16 and 17.
 
Bar Graph of German Immigration to the United States, 1910-1920
 
16 The largest decline in German immigration prior to 1915 was in —
 
F 1910
G 1911
H 1912
J 1913
17 Which event best explains the change in German immigration to the United States after 1914, as shown in the graph?
 
A The outbreak of World War I limited immigration from Germany.
B The economy in Europe improved, eliminating the need for emigration.
C The German government encouraged emigration.
D The United States passed new restrictions on immigration.

18 The idea of representative government flourished in colonial America because the colonists wanted —
 
F the people to be the source of power
G to be responsible for their own defense
H government power to be held by only a few leaders
J a president to control the government
19 Which of the following is the correct cause-and-effect pairing of events that occurred during the 1920s?
  
A Victory in World War I and the outbreak of urban riots
B Labor strife and the downfall of unions
C Prohibition and the rise of organized crime
D Fear of foreigners and the closing of US borders

20 In which of the following situations would a historian need to use secondary sources?
  
F When studying the private lives of World War I leaders
G When researching different interpretations of World War I
H When explaining the battlefield decisions of World War I generals
J When trying to understand the personal experiences of World War I soldiers
21 In the 1960s César Chavez organized the United Farm Workers to --
 
A assist farmworkers in securing loans to buy homes
B demand disaster relief for farmers in the Midwest
C guarantee government subsidies for US fruit growers
D improve working conditions for migrant farm laborers

Use the excerpt and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.
 

    Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press . . . .

— First Amendment to the
US Constitution
 

 
22 This excerpt reflects the principle of —
     
F individual rights
G executive power
H popular sovereignty
J checks and balances
23 What was one result of the rapid growth of U.S. cities in the early 20th century?
 
A Fewer educational opportunities were available.
B Prices for consumer goods became unstable.
C Farm production declined significantly.
D The population in slums increased.

24 One of the primary goals of the Marshall Plan was to prevent the —
 
F spread of democratic forms of government
G collapse of the Soviet Union's economy
H collapse of communist governments in Eastern Europe
J spread of communism in Western Europe
25 The efforts of Susan B. Anthony and other leaders of the women's suffrage movement led to women —
 
A gaining the right to vote
B earning the same wages as men
C gaining the right to attend state universities
D becoming property owners in some states

26 Industrialization during the late 1800s contributed to the development of organized labor because it —
  
F created low-wage, low-skill jobs that made employees easy to replace
G allowed individuals to accumulate huge fortunes
H reduced the demand for hourly wage earners
J contributed to the growth of college business programs
27 The intellectual ideas of Renaissance thinkers spread throughout Europe largely as a result of the —
 
A voyages of exploration
B invention of the printing press
C opening of the first universities
D teachings of the Roman Catholic Church

Use the excerpt and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.
 

    We will not submit to the prosperity that is obtained by lowering the wages of working men and charging an excessive price to consumers, nor to that other kind of prosperity obtained by swindling investors or getting unfair advantages over business rivals.

— President Theodore Roosevelt,
August 6, 1912
 

 
28 President Theodore Roosevelt made this statement during which historical period?
 
F The Progressive Era
G The Gilded Age
H Reconstruction
J The Great Depression
 

Use the excerpt and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.
 

    Don't be afraid to . . . read every book, as long as any document does not offend our own ideas of decency. That should be the only censorship.

    How will we defeat communism unless we know what it is, what it teaches, and why does it have such an appeal for men, why are some many people swearing allegiance to it?

— President Dwight D. Eisenhower,
Speech at Dartmouth College, 1953

 
29 In the excerpt above, President Eisenhower was responding to Senator Joseph McCarthy's public attempts to —
 
A promote religious tolerance
B limit free speech
C increase U.S. literacy rates
D restrict conservative political influence

30
The 17th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution provided for U.S. senators to be elected directly by the people. This amendment is significant because it —
 
F allowed for the election of more experienced senators
G gave citizens more control of the government
H discouraged people from voting in state and local elections
J lessened the importance of political parties
31 The movement in the late 1960s and early 1970s to lower the voting age to 18 was prompted by the —
 
A National Defense Education Act
B election of John F. Kennedy as president
C debate over the Vietnam War
D successes of the Persian Gulf War

Use the diagram and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.
 
Oval 1: Overproduction of industrial goods;  Oval 2: Higher tariffs on imported goods; Oval 3: ?; Oval 4: Buying stocks on margin.  All four ovals linked to "Great Depression" oval.
 
32 Which of the following best completes the diagram as a cause of the Great Depression?
 
F Decreased income-tax rate
G Decline of agricultural prices
H Increased savings by consumers
J Expansion of foreign markets

33 The significance of the Allied invasion of Normandy on June 6, 1944, was that it —
 
A caused the Soviet Union to join the war against Germany
B liberated Paris from German control
C opened a second major front in the war in Europe
D forced Germany to surrender immediately to Allied forces
Use the excerpt and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.
 

    I doubt that a country can live in freedom where its people can be made to suffer physically or financially for criticizing their government, its actions, or its officials. . . .

Hugo Black, New Your Times v. Sullivan,
1964

 
34 According to the excerpt, which of the following is necessary to preserve liberty within the United States?
 
F The right to vote
G Freedom of association
H Freedom of expression
J The right to privacy

Use the diagram and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.
 
4 rectangles each pointing to question mark in center.  Rectangle 1: Nativsim; Rectangle 2: Political machines; Rectangle 3: Sweatshops; Rectangle 4: Tenement dwellings
 
35 Which of these terms best completes the diagram?
 
A Reconstruction
B Immigration
C Populism
D Women's suffrage
36 Which event is an example of geography playing an important role in the defeat of an invading army?
 
F The North Korean invasion of South Korea in 1950
G The Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931
H The German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941
J The U.S. invasion of Cuba in 1898

37 Which of the following is an example of the constitutional principle of governmental checks and balances?
 
A Direct election of senators
B Presidential veto power
C Congressional term limits
D Appeal of court decisions
Use the excerpt and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.
 

    Some recent work by E. Fermi and L. Szilard, which has been communicated to me in manuscript, leads me to expect that the element uranium may be turned into a new and important source of energy in the immediate future.

Albert Einstein, letter to President
Franklin D. Roosevelt, August 2, 1939
 

 
38 The development referred to in Einstein's letter led directly to —
   
F a government program to develop the atomic bomb
G the first funding of scientific research by the federal government
H the delivery of inexpensive electricity to U.S. consumers
J the creation of a new cabinet department

39 Many members of the First Continental Congress opposed declaring independence because they —
  
A saw no reason to declare what was already obvious to the colonists
B believed reconciliation with Great Britain was still possible
C were waiting for the outcome of battles between British and French troops
D needed time to recruit and train soldiers
40 Entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO) might change China's economic relationship with the rest of the world because China will have to —
 
F allow more foreign competition in its markets
G allow Europeans to manage the economy
H produce completely different goods
J become a democratic country with a market economy

Use the excerpt and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.
 

    It is a fearful thing to lead this great, peaceful people into war. . . . But the right is more precious than peace, and we shall fight for . . . a universal dominion of right by such a concert of free peoples as shall bring peace and safety to all nations and make the world itself at last free.

President Woodrow Wilson, 1917 

 
41 According to the excerpt, President Woodrow Wilson supported involvement in World War I because he wanted to --
  
A protect U.S. colonial interests around the world
B prevent communism from spreading outside the Soviet Union
C make the world safe for democracy
D provide Germany with humanitarian aid
42 The 15th Amendment to the US Constitution gave citizens the right to vote regardless of race, color, or former status as a slave. Later methods of depriving citizens of their 15th Amendment rights included —
 
F poll taxes and literacy tests
G requiring landownership
H church membership requirements
J requiring a high school education

43 President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal was a program designed to —
  
A prevent the onset of the Great Depression
B control big business
C combat the effects of the Great Depression
D restore the gold standard
44 The year 1776 is an important date in US History because it marked the —
 
F beginning of the American Revolutionary War
G signing of the Declaration of Independence
H writing of the U.S. Constitution
J founding of the first American colony

45 The automobile industry helped stimulate the US economy in the 1920s because it —
  
A increased demand for products such as steel, rubber, and gasoline
B started the Industrial Revolution in the United States
C ended U.S. dependence on foreign-made cars
D increased employment opportunities for female engineers
Use the excerpt and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.
 

   All free men, wherever they may live, are citizens of Berlin, and, therefore, as a free man, I take pride in the words "Ich bin ein Berliner [I am a Berliner]."

President John F. Kennedy,
June 26, 1963
 

 
46 According to the excerpt, what did Berlin symbolize to the West?
 
F An ideal location for peace conferences
G A strategic international outpost for the U.S. military
H A place of freedom surrounded by a totalitarian state
J A prime location from which to sell U.S. products to Europe

47 In addition to flood control, the Aswan Dam provides Egypt with —
  
A a dominant political role in the Arab world
B direct access to the Mediterranean Sea
C hydroelectric power
D a barrier to the expanding desert
Use the excerpt and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.
 
    People always say that I didn’t give up my seat because I was tired, but that isn’t true. I was not tired physically. . . . I was not old. . . .the only tired I was, was tired of giving in.

Rosa Parks, My Story, 1991
 
48 According to the excerpt, Parks was tired of giving in to —
 
F violent crime
G segregation
H consumer fraud
J communism

Use the graph and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.
 
A bar graph entitled "U.S. Population"
 
49 The graph indicates that between 1990 and 2050 the percentage of —
  
A African Americans in the population will decrease
B whites in the population will increase
C Asians in the population will decrease
D Hispanics in the population will increase

50 The Bill of Rights guarantees all citizens of the United States certain rights, including protection —
 
F against oppression by foreign governments
G from economic hardships
H from being deprived of property, liberty, or life without due process of law
J against the military draft by the federal government
 

Use the map and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.
 
Map entitled "Colonial Powers in Africa, 1914"
 
51 Based on this map, the reader can conclude that the chief colonial rivals in Africa were Great Britain and —
  
A Spain
B Portugal
C France
D Italy

52 During the late 19th century, factory owners often hired child workers because children —
 
F required little supervision
G could be paid low wages
H were able to work after school
J had received job training at school
 

Use the photograph and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.
 
Photograph of soldiers and students entering Little Rock Central High
 
53 This photograph portrays an important historical event in the —
  
A 1992 Los Angeles riots
B Vietnam War
C Civil Rights movement
D 1960 presidential election

54 Which of the following best describes events in the United States during the Great Depression?
 
F Japanese Americans were detained in internment camps.
G The economy collapsed, and millions of people became unemployed.
H Fears about communism led to the imprisonment of many people.
J The government passed laws that eliminate poverty and discrimination.
Use the excerpt and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.
 

    Every piece of work in the shops moves; it may move on hooks on overhead chains . . . it may travel on a moving platform or it may go by gravity, but the point is that there is no lifting or trucking of anything other than materials.

Henry Ford, 1924 

 
55 What revolutionary manufacturing method is Henry Ford describing in this excerpt?
  
A Assembly line
B Micromanagement
C Quality assurance
D Cottage industry

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