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Read the question and choose the best answer. Then mark the circle next to the letter for the answer you have chosen.

1A student prepared this graph of tornadoes reported over a 50-year period in a midwestern state. Which statement is supported by these data?
ATornadoes are less frequent in the morning.
BDarkness increases the strength of tornadoes.
CTornadoes occurring at night are brief.
DThe probability of a tornado is the same throughout the day.

2According to the information above, which of these is responsible for the decrease in the black-footed ferret population?
FCompetition with prairie dogs for resources
GReduced numbers of prairie dogs
HActivity of research institutes
JDevelopment of managed wildlife areas

3A driver traveled 270 km in 3 hours. The driver’s destination was still 150 km away. What was the driver’s average speed at this point?
A40 km/h
B90 km/h
C140 km/h
D420 km/h

4Which statement above makes the most valid argument in favor of receiving the flu vaccine?
FStatement 1
GStatement 2
HStatement 3
JStatement 4

5The diagram shows different parts of a human sperm cell. Which part of the cell is most likely specialized for mobility?

6Which equipment is most useful when measuring the two environmental changes mentioned above?
FBarometer and voltmeter
GLight meter and barometer
HVoltmeter and thermometer
JThermometer and light meter

7A person pushes a large box across a level floor by applying a horizontal force of 200 N. If the person pushes the box a distance of 5 meters in 10 seconds, how much work does the person do on the box?
A2000 joules
B1000 joules
C400 joules
D100 joules

8A man treated his home with a pesticide that kills roaches. The first application of the pesticide killed 92% of the roaches. Two months later he applied the pesticide to his home again, but the second application killed only 65% of the roaches. What would best explain the decrease in the effectiveness of the pesticide?
FThe pesticide is effective only against mature roaches.
GOnce roaches learned how to fight the pesticide, they taught others.
HThe surviving roaches were naturally resistant to the pesticide, and that resistance was inherited by their offspring.
JThe pesticide caused some of the roaches’ digestive systems to mutate and metabolize the pesticide.

9What coefficient values will balance the reaction shown above?
A2, 2, 1
B1, 1, 1
C2, 1, 2
D1, 2, 2

10Which label on the model represents a wavelength?

11Greenhouse emissions from cars may contribute to global warming. Cars with better gas mileage emit smaller amounts of greenhouse gases. Which car would emit the least amount of greenhouse gases if most of the driving were done on the highway?

12Rust (Fe2O3) forms on an iron (Fe) pipe after prolonged exposure to humid air. What type of change does this illustrate?

13Which of these is a function of the cell membrane in all cells?
AProducing cellular nutrients
BPreserving cellular wastes
CNeutralizing chemicals
DMaintaining homeostasis

14In winter the air just above the top bunk of a bunk bed is warmer than the air just above the bottom bunk because warm air rises. Which of the following describes the method of heating that causes this difference in temperature?
FRadiation from the room
GHeat transfer through the walls
HConvection currents in the room
JHeat conduction through the bed

15Hemoglobin carries oxygen to body cells. Which body system contains hemoglobin?
ACirculatory system
BRespiratory system
CEndocrine system
DNervous system

16Some mesquite trees have deeper roots than any other plant in the desert. How are deep roots an adaptation for survival in the desert?
FDeep roots can protect the tree from predators.
GRoots encounter cooler conditions far below the desert surface.
HRoots can extend great distances to reach water.
JDeep roots interact with beneficial bacteria below the surface.

17Which of the following is found in both cells and viruses?
BGenetic material
CDigestive cavity

18Sheets of ice containing mostly pure water can be formed by decreasing the temperature of saltwater. Which of these best describes this change?
FChemical change
GPhysical change
HNuclear change
JAtomic change

19Which of these is the best example of heat transfer by radiation?
AA satellite is warmed by sunlight.
BButter melts on warm bread.
CA ceiling fan cools a warm room.
DPuddles of water cool a warm tile floor.

20The diagram shows three generations of cells produced by a single cell through mitosis. In the process, a single mutation occurred at the point indicated. The mutation caused changes within a dominant allele. How many of the 15 cells contain the mutation? Record your answer in the space below.

(Your answer must be between 0 and 999.)

21People infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk of dying from secondary infections. Which of these best explains how HIV increases the danger of secondary infections?
AHIV produces antigens that damage red blood cells.
BHIV adds genetic material from harmful microbes.
CHIV destroys helper T cells.
DHIV consumes beneficial microbes in the body.

22Students in a chemistry lab measure the time it takes four different 100 mL solutions to pass through a hole in the bottom of a cup. Which of the following properties of the solutions is most likely being measured?

23The graph shows data for botulism, a form of food poisoning. The conclusion in the box is based on these data. Which of the following is the best reason this conclusion may be unreliable?
AThe greatest number of reported botulism cases was 50.
BThe number of reported botulism cases remained relatively constant from 1988 to 1995.
CMore botulism cases were reported in the 1980s than in the 1990s.
DThe number of reported botulism cases decreased after 1994.

24Many species of bacteria can be found in the human mouth. Which of these explains the great variety of bacteria in the mouth?
FLarge volumes of air cause bacteria to change form.
GSalivary glands cause mutations in bacterial populations.
HThe presence of nutrients makes the mouth a favorable habitat.
JCalcium in the teeth provides a suitable pH environment.

25Which word best describes the fungus in the situation above?

Use the information below and your knowledge of science to answer questions 26–29.


26In which general direction do rivers flow in this watershed?

27Which of the following is an adaptation most likely observed in plants growing along Aransas Bay?
ASensitivity to green light
BTolerance of saltwater
CExtension of root length
DResistance to predation

28The information above could be used most effectively in arguing against which of these proposals?
FAdding chemicals to a local water supply
GPermitting a water well to be drilled in a state park
HLimiting the use of waterways for recreation
JPaving a meadow to create a parking area

29A sample of water from a stream has a greater density than a sample of distilled water. Which is the best explanation for the difference in density?
AStreams have kinetic energy.
BDistilled water has a neutral pH.
CStreams can contain dissolved salts.
DDistilled water can contain dissolved gases.

30The picture shows a piece of rotting wood. Which of these does the picture demonstrate?
FPhotosynthesis occurring
GWood regenerating
HDecomposers growing
JGenes transforming

31Which is a characteristic of members of the plant kingdom that distinguishes them from members of the animal kingdom?
AStorage of energy in chemical bonds
BExchange of H2O with the environment
CUse of mRNA during protein production
DUse of chlorophyll for solar-energy transformation

32Which of these are composed of two or more different substances that are chemically combined in a definite ratio?

33Which of the following is most useful in determining the kinetic energy of a 50 g battery-powered car traveling a distance of 10 m?

34If a plant that is homozygous tall and wrinkled is crossed with a short, wrinkled plant, which percentage of genotypes would most likely be found in the first-generation offspring?
F50% TTss, 50% ttSS
G100% TtSs
H100% Ttss
J50% TtSS, 50% ttSS

35In this circuit, how much current flows through the lightbulb?
A0.75 amp
B1.50 amps
C2.0 amps
D3.0 amps

36Viruses can be transmitted in a variety of ways. The virus that causes SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) can be transmitted when an infected person coughs or sneezes. This virus is transmitted in a manner most similar to the transmission of —
HWest Nile virus

37A recipe calls for 210 grams of sugar to be dissolved in 0.25 liter of water. After the mixture is stirred, some sugar crystals remain in the water. What can be added to the mixture to help dissolve the remaining sugar crystals?
AThermal energy
B2.0 g of baking soda
CIce cubes
D2.0 g of sodium chloride

38Which graph can represent an object at rest?


39This illustration is an example of a normal DNA sequence. Which of the following represents a single base change in the sequence?




40In the procedure shown above, a calcium chloride solution is mixed with a sodium sulfate solution to create the products shown. Which of the following is illustrated by this activity?
FThe law of conservation of mass
GThe theory of thermal equilibrium
HThe law of conservation of momentum
JThe theory of covalent bonding

41The information in the box identifies some of the organs of the kitten. Which of the following is identical for every cell in each of the four organs?
AAmount of ATP
BFunction of cell
CSize of cells
DGenes in DNA

42What volume should be reported for the solution in this graduated cylinder?
F64.0 mL
G56.2 mL
H56.0 mL
J50.6 mL

43The chart shows the density of seawater samples collected from the Gulf of Mexico by four different groups. Which group’s data are most precise?
AGroup 1
BGroup 2
CGroup 3
DGroup 4

44Cacti grow slowly compared to most other plants. The fact that cacti keep their stomata closed for much of the day can help explain this growth characteristic. Which of these best explains the advantage of keeping stomata closed during the day?
FIt limits water loss through transpiration.
GIt conserves oxygen produced in photosynthesis.
HIt recycles carbon dioxide within plant systems.
JIt protects plant tissues from predators.

45The data table shows how the thickness of tree trunks in a certain forest is related to tree age. Use these data to plot points on the graph above. Draw a straight line to show a linear relationship for the data. According to these data, what is the most likely average radius of 4-year-old trees in this forest?
A3.0 cm
B3.3 cm
C3.6 cm
D3.9 cm

46In what part of this process should safety precautions be planned?

47Pelicans prevent serious wing damage by entering the water in the manner shown above. Which two organ systems in the pelican work together the most to accomplish this maneuver?
ACirculatory and nervous systems
BNervous and muscular systems
CMuscular and digestive systems
DDigestive and circulatory systems

48The guppy is a species of small freshwater fish. Scientists observed that the average size of guppies in a pond decreased over a few years after a guppy predator was introduced into the pond. Which of the following best explains the change in guppy size?
GConvergent evolution
JNatural selection

49These data show how the mass of an undisturbed beaker of alcohol varied during a class period. Which of the following is the best conclusion that can be made about the investigation?
AThe beaker absorbed moisture from the air.
BA chemical change occurred in the beaker.
CThe beaker experienced a change of state.
DSome material evaporated from the beaker.

50The graph shows mercury levels found in sediments, prey animals, and adult shorebirds in a bay along the Gulf Coast. Which inference can best be drawn from these data?
FMercury levels are elevated by the presence of shorebirds.
GMercury concentrations are highest in shorebirds.
HMercury is produced by sediments.
JMercury assures the survival of prey animals.

51The bulb will light when a current supplied by at least one 1.5 V battery is available. Which circuit will fail to light the bulb?


52Knowledge of which of these is most important in classifying this new organism into a kingdom?
FThe color of light absorbed by the organism
GThe type of radiation emitted
HThe use of photosynthesis
JThe color of the organism

53Which of these is supported by the information above?
APets should be kept away from public parks.
BSmokers should get frequent medical checkups.
CPet immunizations should be kept up to date.
DSmoking in enclosed places should be discouraged.

54Protein and dietary fiber are beneficial to health. According to the information in the table, which flour is the most nutritious?
FWhole wheat
GWhite wheat

55Male sea lions can be twice the size of female sea lions. Which best explains the difference in size between male and female sea lions?
AOrcas and sharks prey on sea lions.
BMale and female sea lions hunt on land and at sea.
CSea lions hold their breath while diving.
DMales compete with one another for females.

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