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Read the question and choose the best answer. Then mark the circle next to the letter for the answer you have chosen.

1The picture shows the results of pouring a blue liquid into a clear liquid and allowing the mixture to settle for 25 minutes. Compared to the clear liquid, the blue liquid is more —

2The bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis produce protein crystals that are toxic to the digestive system of insects. How can these bacteria be used to control insects in crops?
FApply the bacteria to growing plants.
GExpose the bacteria to low levels of light.
HRemove plants from areas containing the bacteria.
JTreat the bacteria with a solution of the protein crystals.

3Which of these is a food web based on the relationships described above?


4This picture shows a small section of a solar power plant. Which of these decreases the energy production at such power plants?
FCloudy skies
GOzone in the air
HHot weather
JLow humidity

5Which of these could be used to determine whether a substance is a base?
BLitmus paper
DBunsen burner

6When a DVD is read, laser light touches the DVD surface and is then measured at location A. What allows light to return to location A after striking the DVD surface?

7Which of these best explains how mutation can be beneficial to an organism?
APhenotypic change may create an advantage over other organisms.
BRecombined genetic material improves genotype stability.
CMitosis becomes a favored means of reproduction.
DDeoxyribose sugars develop into additional nucleotides.

8The box contains some facts about kidneys and dialysis. Which of the following best explains why dialysis works?
FDialysis reduces the size of proteins.
GProteins are dissolved by urine.
HDialysis filters proteins from solution.
JProteins transport membrane fragments.

9The bonding characteristics of oxygen are most similar to the bonding characteristics of —

10How is the excretory system most likely to respond when an animal is thirsty?
FBy relaxing the smooth muscles
GBy retaining body fluids
HBy absorbing heat from lymph glands
JBy releasing hormones

11Compounds with the same chemical composition may have different densities because they —
Ahave differences in reactivity
Bare able to bond with oxygen
Cvary in solubility
Dexist in different phases

12An advertisement claims that a certain truck has the most powerful engine in its class. If the engine has more power, which of the following can the truck’s engine do, compared to every other engine in its class?
FProduce fewer emissions
GOperate more efficiently
HPerform work faster
JAccelerate longer

13The diagram shows several phases of the nitrogen cycle. Which of the following describes the most likely effect of removing some plants from the area by using chemical herbicides?
AThe rate of erosion of rocks on the ground would be slowed.
BThe flow of necessary nutrients would be disrupted.
CThe ability of plants to complete photosynthesis would be increased.
DThe infiltration of water into the ground would be halted.

14Which of the following cannot metabolize nutrients?




15About 10% of the energy at one trophic level is passed to the next level. What usually happens to the energy that is not passed to the next trophic level or used to carry out life processes?
AIt is given off as heat.
BIt is stored as vitamins.
CIt is used in reproduction.
DIt is used in protein synthesis.

16Which additional product balances this reaction?

17An empty cup was tightly covered with plastic wrap, and a few grains of salt were sprinkled on top of the plastic. When a tuning fork was struck and placed slightly above the plastic wrap, the salt began to move. Which characteristic of waves does the movement of the salt best demonstrate?
AEcho formation
DSpecular reflection

18What is the net force exerted on a 90.0 kg race-car driver while the race car is accelerating from 0 to 44.7 m/s in 4.50 s?
F9.8 N
G20 N
H201 N
J894 N

19The label shown above contains information about some harmful effects of acetone. A group of students plans to use acetone to rinse out a glass container. A second group of students is working at the same lab table. Which of the following lab procedures should the second group of students avoid?
AHeating water with an open flame
BPouring hydrochloric acid into a beaker
CFiltering precipitates from a liquid solution
DCollecting oxygen from plants in a test tube

20The graph shows how the momentum of a given mass changes during a period of motion. According to the information, what is the momentum in kg m/s at 2.75 seconds? Record your answer in the space below.

(Your answer must be between 0 and 999.)

21Power plants that discharge warm water into rivers have a negative effect on aquatic life. This is because the higher water temperature —
Aincreases the pressure of the river water
Bincreases the pH value of the river water
Cdecreases sediment solubility in the river water
Ddecreases the dissolved oxygen in the river water

22Which configuration of pulleys and belts shown below will result in the fastest rotation of Spindle 2?


23The table shows properties of four liquids that are insoluble in water. If the four liquids are poured into an Erlenmeyer flask containing water, which liquid will form a layer below the water?

24The graph shows how the voltage needed to maintain a constant current of 1.5 amps through a wire conductor varies with the length of the wire. If the trend continues, what is the most likely voltage needed to maintain a 1.5-amp current through 80 meters of the wire?
F10 volts
G18 volts
H250 volts
J400 volts

25Which characteristic of water best explains its ability to dissolve a great variety of materials?
AIts transparency in light
BIts electrical conductivity
CIts physical state of matter
DIts molecular arrangement

26Boiling water can be used to sanitize dishes. The data above show how sanitizing time varies in different locations. Which inference is supported by these data?
FThe boiling point of water is constant at higher altitudes.
GThe boiling point of water is affected by elevation.
HWater takes longer to boil at Fort Davis than at sea level.
JBoiling water changes temperature at a faster rate at Corpus Christi than at higher elevations.

27A medical researcher hypothesizes that a newly developed medication can reduce high blood pressure. Which of these would most likely be the dependent variable in a study involving this medication?
AThe number of participants in the study
BThe ages of people treated for high blood pressure with other medications
CThe blood pressure of the participants in the study
DThe number of people treated for high blood pressure with other medications

28What can be concluded from the relationships described above?
FGas molecules travel longer distances at greater speeds when the volume of the gas is decreased.
GA gas is more likely to lose kinetic energy when its volume is reduced.
HGas molecules collide less frequently when the volume of the gas is increased.
JA gas is more likely to increase in momentum when its volume is increased.

29Which of these represents a properly balanced system?




30The table shows the time it took trees of the same type and size to drop all of their leaves after being grown in different atmospheres. For the experiment to be valid, which of these must be a constant for all the trees?
FThe height of all the trees during the entire experiment
GThe amount of water available to all trees during the experiment
HThe mass of fallen leaves collected from each tree
JThe rate of photosynthesis in all trees during the experiment

31Sickle-cell anemia is a disorder resulting from a mutation that leads to the production of an abnormal protein. Which component of the DNA molecule provides instructions for the production of the protein?
AThe phosphate groups
BThe sugar molecules
CThe sequence of nitrogen bases
DThe bonds that hold the sugars to the bases

32Starting from rest at the center of a skating rink, two skaters push off from each other over a time period of 1.2 s. What is the force of the push by the smaller skater?
F16 N
G32 N
H88 N
J100 N

Use the information below and your knowledge of science to answer questions 33–35.


33Which of these probably served as the most useful data after Pasteur injected a group of chickens with bacteria from the older culture?
AThe health and behavior of the injected chickens
BThe total number of cholera cases observed
CThe changes in the shape and color of the bacterial colonies
DThe recovery rate of chickens previously infected with cholera

34Which of these is the best example of a mutualistic relationship in an aquatic environment?
FSome fish can survive repeated infections by harmful bacteria.
GSome fish have bacteria living in their digestive tract that help the fish digest food.
HSome bacteria are present in aquatic food chains in which fish are secondary consumers.
JSome bacteria are aquatic decomposers that recycle nutrients useful to fish.

35Cholera-causing bacteria have a single flagellum that allows these bacteria to —
Cexcrete water
Dproduce sugar

36Nine groups of students dissolved as much potassium chloride as possible in water. Each group used 100 mL of water heated to a different temperature. Which graph shows the relationship between solubility and temperature for potassium chloride?


37Which of these produces most of the compounds responsible for causing acid rain?
ANuclear fission
BFossil fuels
CSolar cells

38Which of these elements is most likely to donate one electron?

39Horses kept in stables sometimes chew on wood. This can lead to damage to the mouth and digestive system. The graph shows the results of a study of a medication that prevents horses from chewing on wood. From the graph, what inference can be made about the effectiveness of the product?
AMost horses like the medication.
BThe medication is most effective between Days 4 and 5.
CMost horses will show improvement within 7 days.
DThe effects of the medication are long lasting.

40In all plant and animal cells, the nucleus contains long molecules of DNA. Which of the following best describes the function of DNA?
FDNA provides the shape and structure of the nucleus.
GDNA packages materials for transport through the nucleus.
HDNA carries materials into and out of the nucleus.
JDNA contains the blueprint for producing the whole organism.

41The following hypothesis refers to iron in the topsoil found on an island formed from limestone.

 Which study would most likely be used to investigate this hypothesis?
ATracking dust clouds with satellite photos
BDetermining the effects of iron on limestone
CCalculating erosion rates in African limestone mines
DAnalyzing the content of comet dust clouds

42Alpha particles are one type of radioactivity. These particles have a nucleus of two protons and two neutrons but have no orbital electrons. Based on this information, it can be inferred that alpha particles are positive ions of the element —

43The picture above shows a compound microscope. What part of the microscope should be used to adjust the amount of light illuminating a prepared slide?
BRotating nosepiece
DCoarse-focus knob

44Which of the following explains this phenomenon?

45Erwin Chargaff studied the DNA of organisms within a single species. Chargaff discovered that the amount of adenine is about equal to the amount of thymine. Which of these explains why the ratio of adenine to thymine is nearly 1:1?
AAdenine and thymine pair with each other.
BAdenine binds with phosphates, while thymine binds with nitrates.
CAdenine and thymine are identical in chemical composition.
DAdenine bases contain a form of thymine.

46According to the periodic table and the information above, which element has this electron configuration?

47Which of these does a virus need in order to multiply?
AChloroplasts from a host cell
BA host cell to provide oxygen for the virus
CNew ADP from a host cell
DA host cell to replicate the virus’s DNA

48Which of the following conclusions is supported by the information above?
FTrade winds help maintain some food chains.
GTrade winds produce useful minerals in some oceans.
HTrade winds can reverse parts of the water cycle.
JTrade winds may be able to reduce greenhouse gases.

49Which of these best explains why a freshwater aquarium would be a dangerous habitat for saltwater fish?
AThe tissues of the saltwater fish would absorb too much acid.
BThe organs of the saltwater fish would produce too much protein.
CThe organ systems of the saltwater fish would consume too much energy.
DThe cells of the saltwater fish would gain too much water.

50Which lever requires the least effort to lift the load?




51A study was conducted to test the effectiveness of hearing aids. People with different types of hearing loss were included in the study. Which question would help in determining whether the conclusion above is valid?
AWhat was the average age of the people in the study?
BWhat was the most common occupation of people in the study?
CHow many people were included in the study?
DHow many people in the study had vision problems?

52When the air is released from a balloon, the air moves in one direction, and the balloon moves in another direction. Which statement does this situation best illustrate?
 F What goes up must come down. 
 G For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. 
 H The shape and size of an object affect air resistance. 
 J The acceleration due to Earth’s gravity is 9.8 m/s 2.

53A certain atom has a nucleus containing six protons and eight neutrons and has six electrons orbiting the nucleus. This atom is a form of the element —

54The myxoma virus was used to control an overpopulation of European rabbits in Australia. When first introduced in the mid-1900s, the virus greatly reduced the European rabbit population. Today the virus is not an effective control of the European rabbit population. Fewer European rabbits are affected by the virus today because they have —
Flearned to avoid the virus
Gmoved away from infected areas
Hundergone a change in diet
Jdeveloped resistance to the virus

55Three liquids were poured into a beaker and formed three layers. Which conclusion is best supported by the information above?
AThe mass of Liquid 2 is greater than the mass of Liquid 3.
BThe volume of Liquid 1 is less than the volume of Liquid 3.
CThe density of Liquid 3 is greater than the density of Liquid 2.
DThe buoyancy of Liquid 2 is greater than the buoyancy of Liquid 1.

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