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DIRECTIONS
Read the question and choose the best answer. Then mark the circle next to the letter for the answer you have chosen.














1An experiment requires the use of a lab apron, goggles, and insulated mitts or beaker tongs. The purpose of these safety items is primarily to protect against —
Arelease of hazardous gases
Bhot materials and spills of harmful liquids
Ccontamination of chemicals and glassware
Dstaining of lab clothing
 

2In which of the following circuits will all of the remaining lightbulbs continue to operate if the fifth lightbulb fails?
F H



G J
 



3The table shows samples of contaminated soil from four different sites. In the sample from Site 3, which contaminant is present in the greatest concentration?
ACadmium
BCopper
CLead
DZinc
 



4The change in Statement 1 to form Statement 2 is most similar to what type of mutation?
FInsertion
GDeletion
HSubstitution
JFrameshift
 



5The graph shows the interior temperature of a box with a heat lamp shining on its outside walls. The best estimate of the interior temperature after 5 hours is —
A50°C
B55°C
C60°C
D65°C
 

6How does using killed or weakened bacteria in an immunization help the body prevent infections?
FAntibodies are formed that fight those types of bacteria.
GThe body develops a fever that kills beneficial bacteria.
HBacterial reproductive cycles are disrupted.
JBacteria-fighting viruses are activated.
 

7The Pioneer 10 spacecraft was launched in March 1972 to explore the solar system. Pioneer 10 has continued on its journey and is now traveling beyond the solar system. Which statement best explains why Pioneer 10 continues to travel farther out into space?
AFor every action force, there is an equal and opposite reaction force.
BObjects in space accelerate at a greater rate than objects on Earth.
CThe force of the solar wind propels objects through space at a constant speed.
DObjects in motion will remain in motion unless acted on by unbalanced forces.
 



8Three identical magnets are heated to 50°C for different lengths of time. The strength of the magnets is determined by the mass of iron they attract and then lift to a height of 1 meter. The data obtained are shown in the table above. Which question is best answered by this investigation?
FDoes the elemental composition of a magnet determine its magnetic strength?
GWill the mass of iron that is lifted be affected by the length of the magnet?
HDoes the amount of time a magnet is heated affect its strength?
JWill an electric current heat a magnet?
 

9One example of a genetic variation within a bird species is individual organisms having —
Abeaks of different lengths
Bbroken wings
Cdouble-stranded DNA
Dpairs of chromosomes
 



10A student added a small amount of sodium carbonate solution (Na2CO3) to a test tube containing calcium chloride (CaCl2) solution. A white solid immediately appeared. What conclusion can be made from this experiment?
FHeat is generated by the chemical reaction.
GAt least one product of the reaction is insoluble.
HSodium carbonate is less soluble than calcium chloride.
JThe chemical reaction requires energy to occur.
 

11Some students are testing water samples from different ponds. Exactly 20 milliliters of water is needed for each test. Students should measure the samples using a —
A25 mL graduated cylinder
B25 mL beaker
C50 mL measuring cup
D50 mL flask
 



12In animal cells like the one shown above, which organelle is used for storing water?
FNucleus
GMitochondrion
HRibosome
JVacuole
 

13Liana plants are woody vines that grow on some trees in rain forests. These climbing plants are most likely adapted for —
Acompeting with other plants for oxygen
Bpreventing predators from eating beneficial insects
Cgrowing through layers of foliage to reach available sunlight
Dabsorbing some of the nutrients found in the soil
 



14A diet cola and a regular cola in identical cans are each placed in separate beakers containing water. Which of the following conclusions is the best for the experiment shown above?
FThe diet cola is less dense than the regular cola.
GThe diet cola has fewer calories than the regular cola.
HThere is more buoyant force on the can of diet cola than on the regular cola.
JThere is more liquid in the can of diet cola than in the regular cola.
 

15Why will knowledge of the human genome enable scientists to better understand proteins involved in human diseases?
ADNA contains the information used to make proteins.
BNucleic acid molecules have shapes similar to those of proteins.
CThe bases that make up DNA are also present in RNA.
DChromosomes can combine to form proteins.
 

16When copper and oxygen chemically unite, they form —
Fan ion
Ga gas
Ha compound
Ja mixture
 



17The advertisement for the Magic Window Shade is inaccurate because —
Asome light must enter a window in order for people to see out
Bfew substances can block light from window glass
Creflected light causes some unwanted light inside
Dunwanted light must be refracted in order to be blocked
 



18Which of the following shows an example of an open circulatory system?
F H



G J
 



19According to this phylogenetic tree, which organism is most closely related to Organism V?
AQ
BU
CW
DX
 

20Which of the following would most increase the rate at which magnesium nitrate dissolves in a liquid solvent?
FIncreasing the pressure on the liquid
GKeeping the liquid still and undisturbed
HLowering the temperature of the liquid
JBreaking the crystals into smaller pieces
 



21The photograph above shows a virus attacking a human T cell (immune cell). Which disease could result if many T cells are destroyed in this manner?
AAIDS
BTuberculosis
CChicken pox
DMultiple sclerosis
 

22If a 2.0 kg mass is moving at a constant velocity of 15 m/s, what is its momentum in kg · m/s?

Record your answer in the space provided below. Be sure to use the correct place value.


(Your answer must be between 0 and 999.)
 

23Two students added a piece of zinc to a solution of hydrochloric acid in an open beaker. The mass of the products was found to be less than the total mass of the reactants. Which of the following statements best explains the loss of mass?
AZinc metal is more dense than the acid.
BThe chemical activity of the acid destroyed metal atoms.
CA gas was released during the reaction.
DSome of the zinc atoms failed to react.
 



24A student records the pH values of three samples and is asked to predict the pH of a fourth sample. The student is told that Sample Z is less acidic than Sample X but more acidic than Sample Y. Which of the following is a valid conclusion about the pH of Sample Z?
FIt is less than 3.3.
GIt is between 3.3 and 5.2.
HIt is between 5.2 and 7.1.
JIt is greater than 7.1.
 



25The diagram above shows a simplified food pyramid. The number of organisms is generally smaller at the top than at the bottom because organisms at the top usually —
Ahave more offspring
Bhave more predators
Cadapt more quickly
Drequire more energy
 

26Some members of the pumpkin family produce roots capable of storing large amounts of water. Some of these roots have a mass of about 30 kg. In which type of environment are these plants most likely found?
FAquatic
GDry
HCold
JHumid
 



27What color will a ripe strawberry appear to be under these lights if no other light is present?
ABlue
BGreen
CWhite
DRed
 

28Botanists cross a heterozygous (Pp) plant having purple flowers with a homozygous (pp) plant having white flowers. About what percentage of the offspring will have purple flowers?
F0%
G25%
H50%
J75%
 

Use the information below and your knowledge of science to answer questions 29–31.




D
 

29How do cave crickets affect the food web to which they belong?
ACave crickets increase the amount of abiotic resources.
BCave crickets provide nutrients to other cave-dwelling organisms.
CCave crickets reduce the number of predators in a cave.
DCave crickets compete with producers.
 

30A researcher wants to determine the average number of cave crickets that exit a certain cave in the first two hours after sunset. The best procedure for collecting precise data in this investigation is to count crickets exiting —
Fthe cave on several nights and calculate the average value
Gthe cave for 15 minutes on one night and multiply by 8
Hthe caves in the surrounding area on several nights and calculate the average value
Jthe cave during one night and use this value
 

31The cells of cave crickets release energy through the process of —
Aphotosynthesis
Brespiration
CDNA replication
Dprotein synthesis
 



32Iron reacts with oxygen in the air to form iron oxide. The unbalanced equation for this reaction is shown above. What are the coefficients when this equation is balanced?
F2, 2, 1
G2, 3, 1
H4, 3, 2
J4, 2, 2
 

33A mutation in a DNA molecule is passed to offspring only when the mutation occurs in a —
Aneuron
Bcell wall
Cnuclear membrane
Dgamete
 



34This claim is false because it —
Fviolates the principle of constant composition
Gcontradicts the law of conservation of matter
Hignores the strength of the theory of strings
Jviolates the rules of gravitational attraction
 

35Which of these systems is directly responsible for maintaining the volume and the composition of most body fluids?
AMuscular system
BSkeletal system
CExcretory system
DImmune system
 

36Which of these steps in the digestive process is a physical change?
FWater being absorbed in the large intestine
GEnzymes breaking down proteins into amino acids
HSaliva changing starches into sugars
JInsulin metabolizing simple sugars
 



37Which of the following is best supported by the information above?
ATree resin makes good insect repellent.
BAmber is a beautiful and valuable gemstone.
CTrees can live for long periods of time.
DSome insects lived on trees a long time ago.
 

38A hypothesis that two organisms from different species are related to each other is best supported by —
Fthe presence of homologous structures
Ga similarity in diet
Hthe presence of nitrogenous bases
Ja similarity in method of reproduction
 

39Heat energy is transferred from the hot end of a metal wire to the cool end through —
Aradiation
Breflection
Cconduction
Dconvection
 



40Some students conducted a survey about various energy sources used in Regions Q and R. The data table above shows the results of the survey. Which of the following best supports the data?
FRegion Q conserves more energy than Region R.
GBoth regions spend the same on nonrenewable resources.
HRegion Q uses a higher percentage of nonrenewable energy sources than Region R.
JBoth regions use a higher percentage of renewable energy sources than nonrenewable sources.
 

41When a car suddenly stops at a red light, a book lying on the car seat slides forward. Why does the book continue to move forward?
AThe book loses its backward momentum.
BThe car moves in reverse more rapidly than the book.
CThe friction of braking transfers energy to the book.
DThe book’s inertia causes it to continue moving.
 

42Which characteristic of water molecules makes water a good solvent?
FMass
GPolarity
HPotential energy
JChemical energy
 



43Some bacteria in ground beef can cause illness when consumed. Based on the information in the label above, these bacteria can survive and rapidly multiply only —
Aon cutting-board surfaces
Bfor short periods of time
Cinside a freezer
Dwithin a specific temperature range
 



44At one time large herds of bison roamed across the Great Plains. Brown-headed cowbirds often followed the bison, capturing and eating insects that scattered as the bison walked through the grasses. This relationship between the bison and the cowbird was —
Fpredatory
Gcompetitive
Hcommensal
Jparasitic
 



45Which of these lists the steps of this investigation in the correct order?
A

B

C

D
 

46Fungi are different from plants in that fungi —
Fsecrete enzymes
Gdecompose organic waste
Hcontain DNA
Jhave cell walls
 

47Which of the following is the proper method to dispose of a solid produced during a chemical reaction?
AWrap the solid in paper, seal it in a bag, and throw it in the trash
BDissolve the solid in a solvent and pour the solution down the drain
CPlace the solid in the designated container for solid waste
DCarry out a reaction that will convert the solid into a gas under a fume hood
 



48Gasoline containing a total of 44,000 kilojoules (kJ) of energy was burned in a car engine. The table above shows some information related to the energy output of the car from burning the gasoline. How much energy was used to move the car?
F6,160 kJ
G14,960 kJ
H20,240 kJ
J37,840 kJ
 

49When the insecticide known as DDT was first introduced, it was highly effective. Which of these is the most likely reason that DDT became less effective as an insecticide?
ARain caused DDT to be washed away in water runoff.
BInsects resistant to DDT survived and reproduced successfully.
CBiological magnification decreased the number of insect predators.
DChanges in the types of crops grown caused changes in the types of pests.
 

50The velocity of a 40 kg object increases from 20 m/s to 30 m/s in 2 seconds. What is the acceleration of the object during these 2 seconds?
F4 m/s2
G5 m/s2
H10 m/s2
J50 m/s2
 



51Earthquake waves are detected by an instrument called a seismograph, and the data are recorded visually on a seismogram. To determine the location of an earthquake, scientists must determine the amount of time between the first arrival of the P wave and the first arrival of the S wave at the location of the seismograph. According to the data in the seismogram shown above, how much time elapsed between the arrival of the P wave and the arrival of the S wave?
A11 seconds
B25 seconds
C37 seconds
D90 seconds
 

52Which of the following terms best describes the eating habits of most humans?
FInsectivorous
GHerbivorous
HCarnivorous
JOmnivorous
 



53The label on a health-care product is shown above. The label indicates that the product —
Ahas been scientifically tested
Bcontains fatty acids
Creduces inflammation immediately
Dheals arthritis faster than other products do
 



54Some students grew plants of the same species in soils with different pH values. Their data are shown in the table above. The students hypothesized that these plants grow best in soil with a pH of 6.4 to 6.8. According to the data, which of the following best supports the hypothesis?
FPlants in Groups 5 and 6 grew the most.
GPlants in Groups 1 and 2 grew the most.
HPlants in Groups 3, 4, and 5 grew the most.
JPlants in Groups 2, 3, and 4 grew the most.
 

55The Bengal tiger is a species with fur that is usually orange with dark stripes. Sometimes orange Bengal tiger parents produce an offspring known as a white tiger, which has white fur. The trait for white fur is most likely caused by —
Aparasites in the female parent
Bmalnutrition in the embryo
Crecessive alleles in both parents
Dunusual conditions in the environment
 

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