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Read the question and choose the best answer. Then mark the circle next to the letter for the answer you have chosen.

1Which system in a fish allows maximum oxygen intake through contact between the fish and its environment?
ARespiratory system
BEndocrine system
CReproductive system
DExcretory system

2Which of the following describes a disadvantage of using solar cells as an energy source?
FSolar cells generate large quantities of waste.
GSolar cells can be used to charge batteries.
HSolar cells release gaseous by-products.
JSolar cells are dependent on available sunlight.

3Which of the following describes a trend in the data shown in the graph above?
AThe solubility of all the salts increases as temperature increases.
BAs temperature increases from 30°C to 60°C, the solubility of KNO3 increases more than that of KCl.
CAn increase in atmospheric pressure causes an increase in the solubility of KCl.
DIncreasing the temperature of a KNO3 solution from 30°C to 60°C decreases the solubility of KNO3 by half.

4The diagram shows light being refracted. Which tool should be used to measure the angle at which the light is bending?

5Some plants have a hard waxy coating on their leaves that helps prevent water loss. In which environment do these plants most likely grow?
DRain forest

6A mutation has occurred in an mRNA fragment that was originally CUU. Which of the following mutated mRNA fragments would result in an amino acid sequence different from that produced by the CUU fragment?

7In which plant group does this plant belong?

8An athlete sitting in a wheelchair at rest throws a basketball forward. Since the athlete and the wheelchair have greater mass than the basketball has, the athlete and the wheelchair will —
Fmove backward at a lower speed than the basketball moves forward
Gtravel the same distance as the basketball but in the opposite direction
Hmove backward at a higher speed than the basketball moves forward
Jhave the same forward momentum as the basketball

9A group of researchers discovered the fossilized remains of a flying mammal that appears to have lived 130 million to 165 million years ago. Since the earliest flying birds are believed to have appeared about 150 million years ago, researchers concluded that birds and mammals began to fly at about the same time. This conclusion would be most weakened by evidence of which of the following?
AA 100-million-year-old fossil of a flying bird
BA 120-million-year-old fossil of a flying bird
CA 160-million-year-old fossil of a flying mammal
DA 200-million-year-old fossil of a flying mammal

10A sample liquid is cooled from 150°C to 30°C, causing the liquid to change into a solid. Which of the following has occurred?
FChemical composition has changed.
GA physical change has occurred.
HA new compound has formed.
JEvaporation of a solvent has occurred.

11A student uses a hot plate, a thermometer, and a stopwatch to investigate the rate at which a metal object conducts heat. To ensure the most reliable results, which of the following should the student do?
APerform a second investigation using different tools
BUse several thermometers to measure temperature
CDevelop a hypothesis before starting the investigation
DRepeat the entire investigation several times

12The table above shows symptoms experienced by four patients. Which of these patients most likely has a problem with the excretory system?
FPatient 1
GPatient 2
HPatient 3
JPatient 4

13A solution having an equal number of H+ ions and OH ions will have a pH of —

14Which information would best help scientists verify the relationships among the organisms shown above?
FThe organisms’ nutritional requirements
GThe organisms’ DNA sequences
HThe organisms’ migratory patterns
JThe organisms’ population sizes

15A circle graph would best help a student communicate a conclusion about an investigation involving —
Athe proportions by mass of three metals in an alloy
Bthe amounts of heat released by three chemical reactions
Cthe amounts of force required to accelerate three different masses
Dthe electrical conductivity of three salt solutions

16A female spring peeper frog produces 200 eggs through parthenogenesis. If all the eggs hatch, they will produce —
F50 females and 150 males
G100 females and 100 males
H150 females and 50 males
J200 females and 0 males

Use the information below and your knowledge of science to answer questions 17–20.


17Which of the following information would allow the most direct calculation of the average speed of the rocket on its upward flight?
AThrust force and wind speed
BMaximum height and the time it takes the rocket to reach it
CRocket mass and the time it takes the rocket to reach the highest point
DThrust force and the time it takes the rocket to fall to the ground

18As a rocket rises, its kinetic energy changes. At the time the rocket reaches its highest point, most of the kinetic energy of the rocket has been —
Fpermanently destroyed
Gtransformed into potential energy
Hconverted to friction
Jstored in bonds between its atoms

19When the fuse ignites the contents of a firework, oxygen is consumed as a result of which type of change?

20A scientist hypothesizes that the use of a propellant other than the traditional mixture of C, S, and KNO3 will cause a rocket to rise higher into the air. The researcher builds a rocket that uses an alternate propellant. A proper control for the experiment would be an identical rocket that uses —
Fthe traditional propellant
Gthe alternate propellant
Hno propellants
Ja mixture of both propellants

21Which of the following properties causes attraction between molecules of liquid water?

22The ball in the diagram is moving at a speed of 12 m/s. What is the momentum of the ball in kg m/s? Record your answer to the nearest tenths place in the space below.

(Your answer must be between 0 and 999.)

23For safety reasons, which of these labels is the most important to have on a reagent bottle?




24Which of the following is a characteristic of most bacterial infections but not of a viral infection?
FIt can cause multiple symptoms.
GIt can affect different people differently.
HIt can be spread by inhalation.
JIt can be treated with an antibiotic.

25A person uses a force of 600 N to lift a box from the ground to the top of the ramp shown. Another worker uses a force of 300 N to push the same box up the complete length of the ramp. What is the approximate percent efficiency of the ramp?

26Molten rock rises in Earth’s mantle and then sinks back toward the core in a circular pattern, as shown in the diagram. This method of heat transfer is known as —

27The table shows some properties of four different substances. The picture shows a solid sphere of one of the four substances in a water-ethanol solution (D = 0.9199 g/mL). The sphere is most likely composed of which substance?
ASubstance Q
BSubstance R
CSubstance S
DSubstance T

28A motor produces less mechanical energy than the energy it uses because the motor —
Fgains some energy through motion
Gstores some energy as electrons
Hconverts some energy into heat and sound
Juses some energy to increase in mass

29Cell membranes perform all the following functions except —
Amaking nutrients for cells
Bholding cytoplasm within cells
Cregulating substances exiting cells
Drecognizing other cells

30What is the balanced coefficient ratio for the reaction shown above?

31The diagram shows a longitudinal section of part of a plant root tip. Which of the following statements best describes a trend that can be observed in this root tip?
AThe cells are generally longer at the top than at the bottom.
BThe number of nuclei per cell increases toward the bottom of the root.
CThe cells are shorter the closer they are to the outer surface of the root.
DThe number of cells per area of the root is generally constant.

32Which of the following best describes a difference between a mutualistic relationship and a parasitic relationship?
FParasitism harms both organisms, while mutualism harms only one organism.
GParasitism benefits only one organism, while mutualism benefits both organisms.
HParasitism involves only two organisms, while mutualism involves many organisms.
JParasitism continues for many generations, while mutualism is limited to one generation.

33Diagram 1 represents a wave. Diagram 2 represents the composite wave formed when a second wave interferes with the original wave. Which of the following best represents the second wave?


34Water molecules generally have which effect on a soluble ionic compound mixed into water?
FThey remove electrons from the compound.
GThey break the bonds between the ions.
HThey change the ionic bonds to covalent bonds.
JThey add protons to the ionic nuclei.

35A student compares the viscosities of two solutions at room temperature. The student uses a metal block and equal volumes of the two solutions in identical containers. Which procedure would provide the best comparison of the viscosities of the solutions?
ADetermining whether the block raises or lowers the density of either solution
BDetermining whether the block raises or lowers the temperature of either solution
CMeasuring the volume of liquid the block displaces in each solution
DMeasuring the time it takes the block to sink in each solution

36The illustration shows the transcription process. What is the main purpose of the structure labeled W?
FCarrying instructions for protein synthesis
GTransforming into a protein
HReplacing damaged DNA
JPassing traits to offspring

37A food web is shown above. If the rabbit population increases, which of the following is most likely to happen soon afterward?
AThe deer population will increase.
BThe plant population will decrease.
CDifferent birds will move into the area.
DThe insect population will be eliminated.

38Half of the tube of compound is applied to a pair of tennis shoes and allowed to dry completely. How much mass will the shoes gain?
F20 g
G40 g
H50 g
J100 g

39Some students investigate the rusting rate of four metals in saltwater. To best find the rusting rates, the students should measure the masses of the metals before the investigation and at —
Athe same time and day during each week of the investigation
Bdifferent times and days during each week of the investigation
Cany time during the first week of the investigation
Done randomly selected time during the investigation

40Many viruses released into the air survive for only short periods of time. Which of the following is the most likely reason for this?
FViruses attract antibodies in the atmosphere.
GViruses require a low atmospheric pressure.
HViruses are hosts for bacteria that eventually destroy them.
JViruses are dependent on host cells of living organisms.

41The diagram above represents a reflex arc in a human. This pathway responds when someone touches something that causes pain, such as a hot stove. Which of the following shows the correct order of the body systems involved in this response?
AIntegumentary, respiratory, digestive
BCirculatory, respiratory, nervous
CIntegumentary, nervous, muscular
DCirculatory, digestive, nervous

42An advertisement for a new medication claims that patients can lower body cholesterol by 25%–45%. If the claim is accurate, patients who will benefit most from this medication are those who —
Fhave high cholesterol levels
Gconsume small amounts of cholesterol
Hwant to eliminate cholesterol
Jare aware of cholesterol’s effects

43The long-term survival of any species of organism is possible only if the organisms can —
Amigrate when temperatures change
Breproduce successfully
Cfind protection from predators
Dlocate a constant food source

44In addition to a hot plate and beakers, which of these items are needed to test the hypothesis above?
FTest tube, barometer, thermometer
GBalance, thermometer, hand lens
HStopwatch, microscope, test tube
JThermometer, stopwatch, balance

45An electric toy cart has a mass of 6.0 kilograms and a constant acceleration of 0.50 m/s2. How much work does the net force do on the toy cart as the cart travels 8.0 meters?
A24 Nm
B30 Nm
C40 Nm
D48 Nm

46White-tailed deer meet their energy needs through which of these activities?
FDrinking water
GAbsorbing sunlight
HEating plants
JExhaling carbon dioxide

47The elements in which of these sets have chemical properties that are the most similar?
AK, Ca, Sc
BO, S, Se
CNa, Ca, Y
DP, S, Cl

48A child jumps on a trampoline, as shown above. Which of the following causes the child to rise in the air?
HA reaction force
JA gravitational force

49Robert Koch is known for developing Koch’s postulates, a series of steps used to identify the agents responsible for some diseases. The validity of the postulates is best supported by which fact shown above?
AFact 1
BFact 2
CFact 3
DFact 4

50Members of the kingdom Animalia are best described as —
Funicellular, prokaryotic, heterotrophic
Gunicellular, eukaryotic, autotrophic
Hmulticellular, eukaryotic, heterotrophic
Jmulticellular, eukaryotic, autotrophic

51An advertisement for a brand of tea claims the tea “improves the immune system.” This claim implies that the tea —
Ahelps the body produce antibodies
Baccelerates the process of digestion
Cprevents bacteria from entering cells
Dkeeps the body from being exposed to viruses

52A 2.25 kg fish swims in a pond at a constant rate of 56 meters in 96 seconds. What is the fish’s approximate speed?
F0.020 m/s
G0.40 m/s
H0.58 m/s
J1.7 m/s

53A student investigates the effects of five brands of fertilizer on plant growth and concludes that Brand X works best. Which of the following would best communicate this conclusion?
AA list of the ingredients in each brand of fertilizer used
BA graph showing the growth rate of plants grown with the different fertilizers
CA description of the role of different nutrients in plant growth
DA diagram showing the conditions in which each plant grew

54In a single-displacement reaction, the chemical change shown above occurs. Which equation supports the law of conservation of mass?
Fw = y
Gx = z
Hw + x = y + z
Jw + x = 2(y + z)

55Scientists recently found a fossil representing a newly discovered animal species that they named Tiktaalik roseae. The fossil indicates that Tiktaalik roseae had a fish-like jaw and scale-covered fins. The front fins had bones similar to those of a shoulder, an upper arm, an elbow, a forearm, and a wrist. This information suggests that populations of Tiktaalik roseae most likely lived in which two environments?
AIn saltwater and in freshwater
BIn water and on land
COn land and in treetops
DIn glaciers and in caves

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